METHODOLOGY I Abril – Agosto 2011 ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL SEGUNDO ESCUELA: BIMESTRE: NOMBRE: M.S. NINA NESTERENKO
Neurolinguistic Programming 1970`sJohn Grindler ( linguist ) Richard Bandler( psychologist) It’s a humanistic training philosophy and set of suggestions and training techniques therapist could use in building rapport with clients, gathering information about their internal and external views of the world, and helping them achieve goals and bring about personal change, and designed to convince people that they have the power to control their own and other people’s lives for the better, and prescriptions on how to do that.
NLP – isan interpersonal communicationmodel “neuro“ refers to the brain and how it functions. “ Neuro” part of NLP is concerned with how we experience the world through our 5 senses and represent it in our minds through neurological process. “Linguistic” – refers to a theory communication. It tries to explain both verbal and non-verbal information processing. “Linguistic “ part of NLP is concerned with the way the language we use shapes and reflects our thinking and experience of the world.
“Programming”refers to patterns or “programs’ of thoughts and behaviour. This part of NLP is concerned with training ourselves to think, to speak, and act in new and positive ways in order to release our potential and reach the achievements we dream about.
Principles of NLP “know what you want” maximize similarities and minimize differences between people “ Use your senses” – look at, listen to, and feel what is happening Outcomes Rapport Sensory acuity Flexibility have a range of skills to do something else if what you are doing is not working.
SKILLS vs PHILOSOPHY Modellingis central to NLP. Theeffectiveness of successfulpeopleliesnot in theirskillsbut in theirattitudes, approaches and philosophiestheyhave in commonwhichmakethemcapable of efectivework, and thesecouldbelerned and transmitted. Otherscouldlearnfromthese modelstobeeffectivethe sameway In NLP “change “ in a person isveryimportant
NLP and Teaching NLP can be applied to the teaching of all aspects of language. The suggested lesson sequence is “to help students become aware of a feeling level of the conceptual meaning of a grammatical structure”.
THE LEXICAL APPROACH belief that “building blocks “ of language learning and communication are not grammar, functions, notions, but LEXIS – words and word combinations ( word collocations). Collocations – are regular Occurrence together of words. Phrasal verbs and idioms are varieties of collocations. Lexis plays a central role in language learning. Main point
Krashen – through reading Lewis (2000) – through teacher’s talk(teacher is a “knower”,learner –a “discoverer“) Teacher's talk is a major source of learner input in demonstrating how lexical phrases are used for different functional purposes. Computer – based applications – through investigations and comparison.
Learning Material texts, tapes, teacher's manual collections of vocabulary teaching activities printout versions of computer corpora collections in text format computer programs (CD ROM format, downloaded from sites on the Internet
Classroom activities Should involve the use of tasks that that draw student’s attention to lexical collocations and seek to enhance their retention and use of collocations. Use of comparative analysis via computers Use of exercises that focus on lexical phrases through debates, analyzing contexts. Use of reading or contexts that enable students to discover the collocations; select the collocations which are crucial for student’s needs Use of exercises that involve teaching individual collocations
Give synonyms/antonyms Write the sentences with the new words Store collocations or phrase verbs and idioms in a lexical notebook Give feedback on learner’s errors Teaching individual collocations Making students aware of collocations Write word definitions
COMPETENCY – BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING USA, 1970`s (CBLT) Educational movement that is based on programs that consist in: tasks that lead to a demonstrated mastery of language associated with specific skills that are necessary for individuals to function proficiently in the society.
How appropriate is our vocabulary? How would we speak in different situations? How can we apply our vocabulary focusing on life skills? How is the function of our language in different contexts?
Characteristics of CBLT It has the notion that certain life encounters certain language (designers of CBLT can predict the vocabulary and structures likely to be encountered in those particular situations) CBLT is built around communicative competence and seeks to develop functional communication skills in learners( through specific real – world tasks) Competencies are designed to enable learners to participate effectively in society.
Description of Competencies Knowledge and learning competencies Oral competencies Reading competencies Writing competencies
CBLT design It designed around the notion of competency Competencies consist of description of essential skills,attitudes, and behaviours required for effective performance of a real-world tasks or activities (related to any domain in life, or linked to the field of work or to social survival in a new environment )
According to Auerbach (1986), factors involved in implementation of CBE in ESL : 1.The focus on successful functioning in society 2. A focus on life skills 3.Task – or performance-centered orientation (what students can do as a result of instruction) 4. Modularized instruction (objectives and sub-objectives- to have a clear sense of progress).
Fill job application Perform job interview Follow instructions to carry out a simple task Respond appropriately to supervisor’ s comments Use social language Understand and comment work schedules , fill paychecks Read charts labels, forms written instructions to perform a task State problem and ask for help if necessary Activities
Activities Follow simple oral directions to locate a place Report completion of task to supervisor Respond appropriately to work interruption or modification Ask where object is located: follow oral directions to locate an object
Positive Points The competencies are specific and practical and relate to learners needs The learners can judge whether the competencies are relevant and useful Learner knows exactly what needs to be learned Competencies can be mastered one at a time so the learner can see what has been learned and what still remains to be learned
Negative Points There are no valid procedures available to develop competency lists for more programs Many of the areas for which competencies are needed are impossible to operationalize (areas of adult living”,“survival”, “functioning proficiency in the community”, etc).
CommunicativeLanguageTeaching ( British language teaching, late 1960s) It starts from a theory of a language as communication. The primary function of language is to allow inter- action and communication. The focus on communicative and contextual factors in language use. Communicative acts underline the ability to use language for different purposes.
British linguist, D.A. Wilkins (1972) proposedfunctionaldefinition of language Twotypes of meaning: 1.Notional categories – time, sequence, quantity, location, frequency 2. Categories of communicativefunction: requests, denials, offers, complaints The goal develop communicative compe- tence.
STRANDS OF CLT Language involves functions: Inviting, agreeing, suggestions ,etc which students should learn how to use To have enough exposure to language and opportunities to use it and motivation: language learning will be successful. The main point of CLT is to remind teachers that people learn languages not so they “ know“ them but so that they can communicate.
Characteristics of CLT It is a learner-centered approach Communication is a creative process that involves trial and error Learning a language through using it to communicate Integration of all language skills Fluency is given priority Authentic and meaningful communication is the goal of classroom activities.
Appropriateness -use of formal / informal language according to the situation. Message focus:creating/understanding of message (real meaning) Psycholinguistic processing:engage learners in the use of cognitive and other processes of SL acquisition. Free Practice Risk – taking
Classroom activities are unlimited 1.Task- Based Comparing set of pictures and noting similarities and differences Working out a sequence of events in a set of pictures Discovering missing pictures in a map or pictures Giving instructions on how to draw a picture or shape or how to completea map Following directions and solving a problem
2. Social Interactionactivities Conversation and discussions Debates Dialogues and role plays Simulations and improvisations games ,pair work, interview
Learner's Roles dents interact with each other Students interact with each other rather than with the teacher. Learners see that failed communication is the joint responsibility, and not the fault of listener or speaker Successful communication is achieved collaboratively
Teacher’s roles Facilitate the communication between all participants in classroom, and between the participants and the activities and the text. To act as an independent participant within the learning – teaching group As a researcher and learner, counselor, group manager.
The Role of Materials Text – based: a lesson topic Purpose: asking comprehension questions, taking notes, task analysis for thematic development, understanding the message, asking for more information, a practice situation, description , conversation, etc
Materials Realia: “from life “ materials Authentic materials: signs, magazines, advertisements, newspapers, use of maps, charts, graphs.
1.Presentation of a dialogue (or a situation ) and discussion of languagefunction- formality / informality, setting, topic . 2. Oral parctice of eachutterance of the dialogue ( situation ) – individually,ingroups, as a wholeclass. Similar dialogues maybecreated. 3. Questions – answersbasedonthesituation / dialogue. 4. Questions – answersbasedonthestudents personal experience. PROCEDURE
The NATURAL APPROACH Tracy Terrell , SthephenKrashen It is a communicative approach. Language is viewed as a vehicle for communicating meaning and message. to achieve basic personal communication skills: oral (listening to public announcements)
Basic personal communication skills : written ( reading and writing )
OBJECTIVES of NA Specific objectives depend on learners needs and the skill (reading, writing, listening , and speaking) Help beginners become intermediates Develop basic communication skills , both oral and written, in every day situations.
Characteristics - NA places no emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal question and answer.
less focus on accuracy
- Exposure (input ), rather then practice -Central role of Comprehension BUT it emphasizes
Principles of NA theory The Acquisition / Learning Hypothesis Acquisitionis the “natural way”- it refers to an unconscious process that involves the development of language proficiency through understanding and through meaningful communication.
Time - there must be sufficient time for a learner to choose and apply the learned rule. Focus on form– focus on correctness. Knowledge of rules 2. The Monitor Hypothesis – Ability to correct our mistakes while communicating. CONDITIONS
3. The Natural Order Hypothesis- the acquisition of grammatical structures is in a predictable order. Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes. 4. The input Hypothesis– relationship between the learner's exposure to language and language acquisition
5.The Affective Filter Hypothesis- importance of learner's emotional state.
STAGES Pre-production stage – response to physical commands, pointing at something, etc
Early – production- single words, simple questions and, short phrases and simple answers.
Speech – emergent phase – role- plays, games, exchange of opinions, group problem solving , etc
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES The use of imperative Demonstrations (realia) The use of pictures, flashcards Physicaldescriptions Simple questions and answers
Classroom Activities The use of visualsto introduce new vocabulary Identifiyingthepictureaccordingtodescription Short dialogues Conversations
The Role of InstructionalMaterials Goal make class activities meaningful, relate them to the real world, foster comprehension and communication among learners. The use of realia : pictures, visual aids, schedules, advertisements, maps, books, etc.
Cooperative Language Teaching Learningid dependentonthesocially structuredexchange of information betweenlearners and in whicheach learnerismotivatedtoincreasethe learningof others(Olsenand Kagan,1992)
Emphasisonmaximum use of cooperative activitiesinvolvingpairs and smallgroupsof learnersin theclassroom. MAIN POINT
Objectives to increase cooperation rather then competition to develop critical thinking skills to develop communicative competence through socially structured interaction activities GOALS to provide opportunities for L2 learning through the use of interactive pair/group work to focus attention on language structures, particular lexical items, and communication through interactive tasks
Theory of Learning Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget -stress the central role of social interaction in learning. CLL iscontrastedwithcompetitivelearning. workingtogetherto accomplishsharedgoals. Cooperation
Learningoccurs in groups Types of Cooperative Learning Groups 1. Formal cooperativelearninggroups – are establishedtoachievespecifictasks. 2. Informal cooperativelearninggroups - facilitatelearningduringdirectteching. 3. Cooperative base groups – giveeachmembersupport, help, encouragement, and assistance tosucceedacademically.
Anygroupmembershouldknowtheanswer and bereadytoreport and explain.
For different groups in the same class Topicsmaybedifferentforeachgroup Studentsmay use differentsourcesforresearch Workmaybepresented in oral orwritenform Eachgrouppresentswork forthewholeclass (notonlyfortheteacher )
Classroom activities Exchange of opinions Sharing information and discussing it group projects Pair work Information-gap activities ( filling missing information during interaction with another group or partner ) Interviews Round tables Solving problems
Learners Roles L.amember of a group, Learnersare responsible of their own learning: they plan,monitor, and evaluate their own learning Teacher's Roles Teacher creates a well-organized learning environment, establishes goals, plans and structures tasks, assigns students in pairs or groups, selects material and time Teacher is facilitator of learning
Content – Based Instruction (1980`s) In thisapproach, teachingisorganizedaroundthecontentorinformationthatstudentswillacquire, ratherthenaround a linguistictype of syllabus. CBI isbasedontheprinciples of CommunicativeLanguage Teaching – classshouldbe focusedon real communication and theexchange of information.
languageisusedforspecific purposes (academic,vocational, social) Learningisbelievedtobe more motivatingwhen studentsuse topics of a particular interest. Thelanguagethatisbeingtaughtcould beusedtopresentsubjectmatter Mainpoint
Approach People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information. CBI better reflects learner's needs for learning a second language-prepare students for academic studies, and to be able to access the content of academic learning and teaching as quickly as possible
TEACHER`S ROLES TEACHER must be good knower of the subject, besides of English. - He/ she selects, adapts authenticmaterialfor class use; - analyzes the students needs, - develops high- level of student esteem, - uses appropriate error correction techniques.
LEARNER`S ROLES LEARNERSare sources of content and active participants in the selection of topics.
MATERIALS CBI isbased on content area, or theme – based model in which content and instructional sequence is chosen according to language learning goals. - Authentic texts, subject textbooks, articles related to the subject. Materials could be adapted or Modified to achieve maximum comprehensibility. MATERIALS
TASK- BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING, India , 1980s( Prabhu) TBLT is an approach based on the use of tasks requiring increasingly complex use of language. The tasks are done in groups where learners use English they already know.
TBLT emphasizes the importance of activities: - Which involve real communication
In which language is meaningful and is used for carrying out meaningful tasks.
a. real world tasks (ex:phone conversation, filling hotel forms, etc ) b. pedagogical tasks (ex: doing a grammar exercise, etc) TASKS
CLASS ROCEDURE PRE- TASK :introduction to a topic, listening, reading, brainstorming; activation of essential language previously learned TASK: Planning the task, doing the task ( finding solution to a puzzle, reading a map, writing a letter, making a phone call, etc), and reporting or presenting the product of task. POST –TASK :Focus on language used, error correction, comments on tasks; practice of the language (reviewing new grammar or vocabulary used during the task, etc; discussion of the task. Importantclear objectives and a sense of achievement
POSITIVE POINTS Tasks improve learners motivation and learning Tasks require the learners to use authentic language Tasks include physical activity, they involve partnership and collaboration NEGATIVE aspects Difficult tasks may reduce the attention, therefore, fluency may develop at the expense of accuracy