METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
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METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)



Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: MS. Nina Aleksandrovna Nesterenko
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Segundo



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METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) Presentation Transcript

    Abril – Agosto 2011
  • Neurolinguistic Programming 1970`sJohn Grindler ( linguist ) Richard Bandler( psychologist)
    It’s a humanistic training philosophy and set of suggestions and training techniques therapist could use in building rapport with clients, gathering information about their internal and external views of the world, and helping them achieve goals and bring about personal change, and designed to convince people that they have the power to control their own and other people’s lives for the better, and prescriptions on how to do that.
  • NLP – isan interpersonal communicationmodel
    “neuro“ refers to the brain and how it functions. “ Neuro” part of NLP is concerned with how we experience the world through our 5 senses and represent it in our minds through neurological process.
    “Linguistic” – refers to a theory communication. It tries to explain both verbal and non-verbal information processing.
    “Linguistic “ part of NLP is concerned with the way the language we use shapes and reflects our thinking and experience of the world.
  • “Programming”refers to patterns or
    “programs’ of thoughts and
    behaviour. This part of NLP is concerned with training ourselves to think, to speak, and act in new and positive ways in order to release our potential and reach the achievements we dream about.
  • Principles of NLP
    “know what you want”
    maximize similarities and minimize
    differences between people
    “ Use your senses” – look at,
    listen to, and feel
    what is happening
    Sensory acuity
    have a range of skills to
    do something else if
    what you are doing is not working.
    Modellingis central to NLP.
    Theeffectiveness of successfulpeopleliesnot in theirskillsbut in theirattitudes, approaches and philosophiestheyhave in commonwhichmakethemcapable of efectivework, and thesecouldbelerned and transmitted.
    In NLP “change “ in a person
  • NLP and Teaching
    NLP can be applied to the teaching of
    all aspects of language.
    The suggested lesson sequence is “to
    help students become aware of a feeling level of the conceptual meaning of a grammatical structure”.
    belief that “building blocks “ of language
    learning and communication are not
    grammar, functions, notions, but
    LEXIS – words and word
    combinations ( word collocations).
    Collocations – are regular
    Occurrence together of words.
    Phrasal verbs and idioms are varieties of
    Lexis plays a central role in language learning.
    Main point
  • Krashen – through reading
    Lewis (2000) – through teacher’s
    talk(teacher is a “knower”,learner –a “discoverer“)
    Teacher's talk is a major source of learner
    input in demonstrating how lexical phrases
    are used for different functional purposes.
    Computer – based applications –
    through investigations and
  • Learning Material
    texts, tapes, teacher's manual
    collections of vocabulary teaching activities
    printout versions of computer corpora collections in text format
    computer programs (CD ROM format, downloaded from sites on the Internet
  • Classroom activities
    Should involve the use of tasks that that draw student’s attention to lexical collocations and seek to enhance their retention and use of collocations.
    Use of comparative analysis via computers
    Use of exercises that focus on lexical phrases through debates, analyzing contexts.
    Use of reading or contexts that enable students to discover the collocations; select the collocations which are crucial for student’s needs
    Use of exercises that involve teaching individual collocations
  • Give synonyms/antonyms
    Write the sentences with the new words
    Store collocations or phrase verbs and idioms in a lexical notebook
    Give feedback on learner’s errors
    Teaching individual collocations
    Making students aware of collocations
    Write word definitions
    Educational movement that is based on
    programs that consist in: tasks that lead to
    a demonstrated mastery of language
    associated with specific skills that are
    necessary for individuals to function
    proficiently in the society.
  • How appropriate is our vocabulary?
    How would we speak in different situations?
    How can we apply our vocabulary
    focusing on life skills?
    How is the function of our language in different contexts?
  • Characteristics of CBLT:
    • -.
  • Characteristics of CBLT
    It has the notion that certain life
    encounters certain language (designers of CBLT can predict the vocabulary and structures likely
    to be encountered in those particular situations)
    CBLT is built around communicative competence and seeks to develop functional communication skills in learners( through specific
    real – world tasks)
    Competencies are designed to
    enable learners to participate effectively
    in society.
  • Description of Competencies
    Knowledge and learning competencies
    Oral competencies
    Reading competencies
    Writing competencies
  • CBLT design
    It designed around the notion of competency
    Competencies consist of description of essential
    skills,attitudes, and behaviours required for
    effective performance of a real-world tasks or
    activities (related to any domain in life, or linked
    to the field of work or to social survival in a new
    environment )
  • According to Auerbach (1986), factors involved in implementation of CBE in ESL :
    1.The focus on successful
    functioning in society
    2. A focus on life skills
    3.Task – or performance-centered
    orientation (what students can do as a result of
    4. Modularized instruction (objectives and
    sub-objectives- to have a clear sense
    of progress).
  • Fill job application
    Perform job interview
    Follow instructions to carry
    out a simple task
    Respond appropriately to
    supervisor’ s comments
    Use social language
    Understand and comment work
    schedules , fill paychecks
    Read charts labels, forms written instructions to perform a task
    State problem and ask for help if necessary
  • Activities
    Follow simple oral
    directions to locate a place
    Report completion of task to
    Respond appropriately to work interruption or
    Ask where object is located: follow oral directions to locate an object
  • Positive Points
    The competencies are specific and
    practical and relate to learners needs
    The learners can judge
    whether the competencies
    are relevant and useful
    Learner knows exactly what
    needs to be learned
    Competencies can be mastered
    one at a time so the learner can
    see what has been learned and
    what still remains to be learned
  • Negative Points
    There are no valid procedures available to
    develop competency
    lists for more programs
    Many of the areas for which competencies are needed are impossible to operationalize (areas of adult living”,“survival”,
    “functioning proficiency in the community”, etc).
  • CommunicativeLanguageTeaching
    ( British language teaching, late 1960s)
    It starts from a theory of a
    language as communication.
    The primary function of
    language is to allow inter-
    action and communication.
    The focus on communicative and contextual factors in language use.
    Communicative acts underline the
    ability to use language for different
  • British linguist, D.A. Wilkins (1972) proposedfunctionaldefinition of language
    Twotypes of meaning:
    1.Notional categories – time, sequence, quantity, location, frequency
    2. Categories of communicativefunction:
    requests, denials, offers, complaints
    The goal develop communicative compe-
    Language involves functions:
    Inviting, agreeing, suggestions ,etc
    which students should learn how to use
    To have enough exposure to
    language and opportunities to use
    it and motivation: language learning
    will be successful.
    The main point of CLT is to remind
    teachers that people learn
    languages not so they “ know“ them
    but so that they can communicate.
  • Characteristics of CLT
    It is a learner-centered approach
    Communication is a creative process that involves trial and error
    Learning a language through using it to communicate
    Integration of all language skills
    Fluency is given priority
    Authentic and meaningful communication is the goal of classroom activities.
  • Appropriateness -use of formal / informal language according to the situation.
    Message focus:creating/understanding of message (real meaning)
    Psycholinguistic processing:engage learners in the use of cognitive and other processes of SL acquisition.
    Free Practice
    Risk – taking
  • Classroom activities
    are unlimited
    1.Task- Based
    Comparing set of pictures and noting
    similarities and differences
    Working out a sequence of
    events in a set of pictures
    Discovering missing pictures
    in a map or pictures
    Giving instructions on how to
    draw a picture or shape or
    how to completea map
    Following directions
    and solving a problem
  • 2. Social Interactionactivities
    Conversation and discussions
    Dialogues and role plays
    Simulations and improvisations
    games ,pair work, interview
  • Learner's Roles
    dents interact with each other
    Students interact with each other
    rather than with the teacher.
    Learners see that failed communication is the joint responsibility, and not the fault of listener or speaker
    Successful communication is achieved collaboratively
  • Teacher’s roles
    Facilitate the communication between all
    participants in classroom, and between the
    participants and the activities and the text.
    To act as an independent participant within
    the learning – teaching group
    As a researcher and learner, counselor,
    group manager.
  • The Role of Materials
    Text – based:
    a lesson topic
    Purpose: asking comprehension questions,
    taking notes, task analysis for thematic
    development, understanding the message,
    asking for more information, a practice
    situation, description , conversation, etc
    - exercisehand-book( text-book, studentbook)
    - activitycards,
    • pair-communicationpractice
    - drills material
  • Materials
    “from life “ materials
    Authentic materials: signs,
    magazines, advertisements,
    newspapers, use of maps,
    charts, graphs.
  • 1.Presentation of a dialogue (or a situation )
    and discussion of languagefunction- formality / informality, setting, topic .
    2. Oral parctice of eachutterance of the dialogue ( situation ) – individually,ingroups, as a wholeclass. Similar dialogues maybecreated.
    3. Questions – answersbasedonthesituation / dialogue.
    4. Questions – answersbasedonthestudents personal experience.
    Tracy Terrell , SthephenKrashen
    It is a communicative approach. Language is viewed
    as a vehicle for communicating meaning and message.
    to achieve basic personal
    communication skills: oral (listening to public announcements)
    • Basic personal communication skills : written ( reading and writing )
    • Academic learning skills: oral (listening
    to a lecture )
    • Academic learning skills: written (taking
    notes in class)
    Specific objectives depend on learners
    needs and the skill (reading, writing,
    listening , and speaking)
    Help beginners become intermediates
    Develop basic communication skills , both oral and written, in every day situations.
  • Characteristics
    - NA places no emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal question and answer.
    • less focus on accuracy
    - Exposure (input ), rather then practice
    -Central role of Comprehension
    BUT it emphasizes
  • Principles of NA theory
    The Acquisition / Learning Hypothesis
    Acquisitionis the “natural way”- it refers to an
    unconscious process that involves the development of
    language proficiency through understanding and
    through meaningful communication.
  • Time - there must be sufficient time for a learner to choose and apply the learned rule.
    Focus on form– focus on
    Knowledge of rules
    2. The Monitor Hypothesis –
    Ability to correct our mistakes while
  • 3. The Natural Order Hypothesis-
    the acquisition of grammatical structures is in a predictable order. Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes.
    4. The input Hypothesis– relationship between the learner's exposure to language and language acquisition
  • 5.The Affective Filter Hypothesis-
    importance of learner's
    emotional state.
    • Motivation
    • Self – confidence
    • Anxiety
    • Low affective filter leads
    to interaction with more
  • Teacher`s role
  • Learner `s Roles
    Pre-production stage – response
    to physical commands, pointing at
    something, etc
  • Early – production- single words, simple questions and, short phrases and simple answers.
  • Speech – emergent phase – role- plays, games, exchange of opinions, group problem solving , etc
    The use of imperative
    Demonstrations (realia)
    The use of pictures, flashcards
    Simple questions and answers
  • Classroom Activities
    The use of visualsto introduce new vocabulary
    Short dialogues
  • The Role of InstructionalMaterials
    Goal make class activities meaningful,
    relate them to the real world, foster
    comprehension and communication
    among learners.
    The use of realia : pictures, visual aids, schedules, advertisements, maps, books, etc.
  • Cooperative Language Teaching
    Learningid dependentonthesocially
    structuredexchange of information
    betweenlearners and in whicheach
    learningof others(Olsenand Kagan,1992)
  • Emphasisonmaximum
    use of cooperative
    and smallgroupsof
    learnersin theclassroom.
  • Objectives
    to increase cooperation rather then
    to develop critical thinking skills
    to develop communicative competence through socially structured interaction activities
    to provide opportunities for L2 learning through the use of interactive pair/group work
    to focus attention on language structures, particular lexical items, and communication through interactive tasks
  • Theory of Learning
    Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget -stress the
    central role of social interaction in
    CLL iscontrastedwithcompetitivelearning.
  • Learningoccurs in groups
    Types of Cooperative Learning Groups
    1. Formal cooperativelearninggroups – are establishedtoachievespecifictasks.
    2. Informal cooperativelearninggroups - facilitatelearningduringdirectteching.
    3. Cooperative base groups – giveeachmembersupport, help,
    encouragement, and assistance
    • Allstudentsworkonthe
    • Teacherdirectspresentation
    of thetask
    • Everyoneshouldknowwhatto do
    • Anygroupmembershouldknowtheanswer and bereadytoreport and explain.
  • For different groups in the same class
    Studentsmay use differentsourcesforresearch
    Workmaybepresented in oral orwritenform
    (notonlyfortheteacher )
  • Classroom activities
    Exchange of opinions
    Sharing information and discussing it
    group projects
    Pair work
    Information-gap activities ( filling missing information during interaction with another group or partner )
    Round tables
    Solving problems
  • Learners Roles
    L.amember of a group,
    Learnersare responsible of their own
    learning: they plan,monitor, and evaluate
    their own learning
    Teacher's Roles
    Teacher creates a well-organized learning environment, establishes goals, plans and structures tasks, assigns students in pairs or groups, selects material and time
    Teacher is facilitator of learning
  • Content – Based Instruction (1980`s)
    In thisapproach, teachingisorganizedaroundthecontentorinformationthatstudentswillacquire, ratherthenaround a linguistictype of syllabus.
    CBI isbasedontheprinciples
    of CommunicativeLanguage
    Teaching – classshouldbe
    focusedon real communication
    and theexchange of information.
  • languageisusedforspecific
    purposes (academic,vocational, social)
    Learningisbelievedtobe more motivatingwhen
    studentsuse topics of a particular interest.
  • Approach
    People learn a second language more
    successfully when they use the language
    as a means of acquiring information.
    CBI better reflects learner's needs for learning a second language-prepare students for academic studies, and to be able to access the content of academic learning and teaching as quickly as possible
    • Vocabulary building
    • Communicative inter –
    • Study skills
    • Group work and team-building techniques
    • Jigsaw reading arrangements
    • Much writing
    • Language skill improvement
    TEACHER must be good knower of the
    subject, besides of English.
    - He/ she selects, adapts
    authenticmaterialfor class use;
    - analyzes the students needs,
    - develops high- level of student
    - uses appropriate error
    correction techniques.
    LEARNERSare sources of content and active participants in the
    selection of topics.
    CBI isbased on content area,
    or theme – based model in which content
    and instructional sequence is chosen
    according to language learning goals.
    - Authentic texts, subject textbooks,
    articles related to the subject.
    Materials could be adapted or
    Modified to achieve maximum comprehensibility.
  • TASK- BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING, India , 1980s( Prabhu)
    TBLT is an approach based on the use of tasks requiring increasingly complex use of language.
    The tasks are done in groups where learners use English they already know.
  • TBLT emphasizes the importance of activities:
    - Which involve real communication
    • In which language is meaningful and is used for carrying out meaningful tasks.
    a. real world tasks
    (ex:phone conversation,
    filling hotel forms, etc )
    b. pedagogical tasks
    (ex: doing a grammar
    exercise, etc)
    PRE- TASK :introduction to a topic, listening, reading,
    brainstorming; activation of essential language previously
    TASK: Planning the task, doing the task ( finding solution
    to a puzzle, reading a map, writing a letter, making a phone
    call, etc), and reporting or presenting the product of task.
    POST –TASK :Focus on language used, error correction,
    comments on tasks; practice of the language (reviewing
    new grammar or vocabulary used during the task, etc;
    discussion of the task.
    Importantclear objectives and a sense of achievement
    Tasks improve learners motivation
    and learning
    Tasks require the learners to use authentic language
    Tasks include physical activity, they involve partnership and collaboration
    NEGATIVE aspects
    Difficult tasks may reduce the attention, therefore, fluency may develop at the expense of accuracy
    ( 072 – 570-275 ( ext. 2327 )