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METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
 

METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: MS. Nina Aleksandrovna Nesterenko
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Segundo

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    METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) Presentation Transcript

    • METHODOLOGY I
      Abril – Agosto 2011
      ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL
      SEGUNDO
      ESCUELA:
      BIMESTRE:
      NOMBRE:
      M.S. NINA NESTERENKO
    • Neurolinguistic Programming 1970`sJohn Grindler ( linguist ) Richard Bandler( psychologist)
      It’s a humanistic training philosophy and set of suggestions and training techniques therapist could use in building rapport with clients, gathering information about their internal and external views of the world, and helping them achieve goals and bring about personal change, and designed to convince people that they have the power to control their own and other people’s lives for the better, and prescriptions on how to do that.
    • NLP – isan interpersonal communicationmodel
      “neuro“ refers to the brain and how it functions. “ Neuro” part of NLP is concerned with how we experience the world through our 5 senses and represent it in our minds through neurological process.
      “Linguistic” – refers to a theory communication. It tries to explain both verbal and non-verbal information processing.
      “Linguistic “ part of NLP is concerned with the way the language we use shapes and reflects our thinking and experience of the world.
    • “Programming”refers to patterns or
      “programs’ of thoughts and
      behaviour. This part of NLP is concerned with training ourselves to think, to speak, and act in new and positive ways in order to release our potential and reach the achievements we dream about.
    • Principles of NLP
      “know what you want”
      maximize similarities and minimize
      differences between people
      “ Use your senses” – look at,
      listen to, and feel
      what is happening
      Outcomes
      Rapport
      Sensory acuity
      Flexibility
      have a range of skills to
      do something else if
      what you are doing is not working.
    • SKILLS vs PHILOSOPHY
      Modellingis central to NLP.
      Theeffectiveness of successfulpeopleliesnot in theirskillsbut in theirattitudes, approaches and philosophiestheyhave in commonwhichmakethemcapable of efectivework, and thesecouldbelerned and transmitted.
      Otherscouldlearnfromthese
      modelstobeeffectivethe
      sameway
      In NLP “change “ in a person
      isveryimportant
    • NLP and Teaching
      NLP can be applied to the teaching of
      all aspects of language.
      The suggested lesson sequence is “to
      help students become aware of a feeling level of the conceptual meaning of a grammatical structure”.
    • THE LEXICAL APPROACH
      belief that “building blocks “ of language
      learning and communication are not
      grammar, functions, notions, but
      LEXIS – words and word
      combinations ( word collocations).
      Collocations – are regular
      Occurrence together of words.
      Phrasal verbs and idioms are varieties of
      collocations.
      Lexis plays a central role in language learning.
      Main point
    • Krashen – through reading
      Lewis (2000) – through teacher’s
      talk(teacher is a “knower”,learner –a “discoverer“)
      Teacher's talk is a major source of learner
      input in demonstrating how lexical phrases
      are used for different functional purposes.
      Computer – based applications –
      through investigations and
      comparison.
    • Learning Material
      texts, tapes, teacher's manual
      collections of vocabulary teaching activities
      printout versions of computer corpora collections in text format
      computer programs (CD ROM format, downloaded from sites on the Internet
    • Classroom activities
      Should involve the use of tasks that that draw student’s attention to lexical collocations and seek to enhance their retention and use of collocations.
      Use of comparative analysis via computers
      Use of exercises that focus on lexical phrases through debates, analyzing contexts.
      Use of reading or contexts that enable students to discover the collocations; select the collocations which are crucial for student’s needs
      Use of exercises that involve teaching individual collocations
    • Give synonyms/antonyms
      Write the sentences with the new words
      Store collocations or phrase verbs and idioms in a lexical notebook
      Give feedback on learner’s errors
      Teaching individual collocations
      Making students aware of collocations
      Write word definitions
    • COMPETENCY – BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING USA, 1970`s (CBLT)
      Educational movement that is based on
      programs that consist in: tasks that lead to
      a demonstrated mastery of language
      associated with specific skills that are
      necessary for individuals to function
      proficiently in the society.
    • How appropriate is our vocabulary?
      How would we speak in different situations?
      How can we apply our vocabulary
      focusing on life skills?
      How is the function of our language in different contexts?
    • Characteristics of CBLT:
      • -.
    • Characteristics of CBLT
      It has the notion that certain life
      encounters certain language (designers of CBLT can predict the vocabulary and structures likely
      to be encountered in those particular situations)
      CBLT is built around communicative competence and seeks to develop functional communication skills in learners( through specific
      real – world tasks)
      Competencies are designed to
      enable learners to participate effectively
      in society.
    • Description of Competencies
      Knowledge and learning competencies
      Oral competencies
      Reading competencies
      Writing competencies
    • CBLT design
      It designed around the notion of competency
      Competencies consist of description of essential
      skills,attitudes, and behaviours required for
      effective performance of a real-world tasks or
      activities (related to any domain in life, or linked
      to the field of work or to social survival in a new
      environment )
    • According to Auerbach (1986), factors involved in implementation of CBE in ESL :
      1.The focus on successful
      functioning in society
      2. A focus on life skills
      3.Task – or performance-centered
      orientation (what students can do as a result of
      instruction)
      4. Modularized instruction (objectives and
      sub-objectives- to have a clear sense
      of progress).
    • Fill job application
      Perform job interview
      Follow instructions to carry
      out a simple task
      Respond appropriately to
      supervisor’ s comments
      Use social language
      Understand and comment work
      schedules , fill paychecks
      Read charts labels, forms written instructions to perform a task
      State problem and ask for help if necessary
      Activities
    • Activities
      Follow simple oral
      directions to locate a place
      Report completion of task to
      supervisor
      Respond appropriately to work interruption or
      modification
      Ask where object is located: follow oral directions to locate an object
    • Positive Points
      The competencies are specific and
      practical and relate to learners needs
      The learners can judge
      whether the competencies
      are relevant and useful
      Learner knows exactly what
      needs to be learned
      Competencies can be mastered
      one at a time so the learner can
      see what has been learned and
      what still remains to be learned
    • Negative Points
      There are no valid procedures available to
      develop competency
      lists for more programs
      Many of the areas for which competencies are needed are impossible to operationalize (areas of adult living”,“survival”,
      “functioning proficiency in the community”, etc).
    • CommunicativeLanguageTeaching
      ( British language teaching, late 1960s)
      It starts from a theory of a
      language as communication.
      The primary function of
      language is to allow inter-
      action and communication.
      The focus on communicative and contextual factors in language use.
      Communicative acts underline the
      ability to use language for different
      purposes.
    • British linguist, D.A. Wilkins (1972) proposedfunctionaldefinition of language
      Twotypes of meaning:
      1.Notional categories – time, sequence, quantity, location, frequency
      2. Categories of communicativefunction:
      requests, denials, offers, complaints
      The goal develop communicative compe-
      tence.
    • STRANDS OF CLT
      Language involves functions:
      Inviting, agreeing, suggestions ,etc
      which students should learn how to use
      To have enough exposure to
      language and opportunities to use
      it and motivation: language learning
      will be successful.
      The main point of CLT is to remind
      teachers that people learn
      languages not so they “ know“ them
      but so that they can communicate.
    • Characteristics of CLT
      It is a learner-centered approach
      Communication is a creative process that involves trial and error
      Learning a language through using it to communicate
      Integration of all language skills
      Fluency is given priority
      Authentic and meaningful communication is the goal of classroom activities.
    • Appropriateness -use of formal / informal language according to the situation.
      Message focus:creating/understanding of message (real meaning)
      Psycholinguistic processing:engage learners in the use of cognitive and other processes of SL acquisition.
      Free Practice
      Risk – taking
    • Classroom activities
      are unlimited
      1.Task- Based
      Comparing set of pictures and noting
      similarities and differences
      Working out a sequence of
      events in a set of pictures
      Discovering missing pictures
      in a map or pictures
      Giving instructions on how to
      draw a picture or shape or
      how to completea map
      Following directions
      and solving a problem
    • 2. Social Interactionactivities
      Conversation and discussions
      Debates
      Dialogues and role plays
      Simulations and improvisations
      games ,pair work, interview
    • Learner's Roles
      dents interact with each other
      Students interact with each other
      rather than with the teacher.
      Learners see that failed communication is the joint responsibility, and not the fault of listener or speaker
      Successful communication is achieved collaboratively
    • Teacher’s roles
      Facilitate the communication between all
      participants in classroom, and between the
      participants and the activities and the text.
      To act as an independent participant within
      the learning – teaching group
      As a researcher and learner, counselor,
      group manager.
    • The Role of Materials
      Text – based:
      a lesson topic
      Purpose: asking comprehension questions,
      taking notes, task analysis for thematic
      development, understanding the message,
      asking for more information, a practice
      situation, description , conversation, etc
    • TASK – BASED MATERIALS
      - exercisehand-book( text-book, studentbook)
      - activitycards,
      • pair-communicationpractice
      material,
      - drills material
    • Materials
      Realia:
      “from life “ materials
      Authentic materials: signs,
      magazines, advertisements,
      newspapers, use of maps,
      charts, graphs.
    • 1.Presentation of a dialogue (or a situation )
      and discussion of languagefunction- formality / informality, setting, topic .
      2. Oral parctice of eachutterance of the dialogue ( situation ) – individually,ingroups, as a wholeclass. Similar dialogues maybecreated.
      3. Questions – answersbasedonthesituation / dialogue.
      4. Questions – answersbasedonthestudents personal experience.
      PROCEDURE
    • The NATURAL APPROACH
      Tracy Terrell , SthephenKrashen
      It is a communicative approach. Language is viewed
      as a vehicle for communicating meaning and message.
      to achieve basic personal
      communication skills: oral (listening to public announcements)
      • Basic personal communication skills : written ( reading and writing )
      • Academic learning skills: oral (listening
      to a lecture )
      • Academic learning skills: written (taking
      notes in class)
      GOALS
    • OBJECTIVES of NA
      Specific objectives depend on learners
      needs and the skill (reading, writing,
      listening , and speaking)
      Help beginners become intermediates
      Develop basic communication skills , both oral and written, in every day situations.
    • Characteristics
      - NA places no emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal question and answer.
      • less focus on accuracy
      - Exposure (input ), rather then practice
      -Central role of Comprehension
      BUT it emphasizes
    • Principles of NA theory
      The Acquisition / Learning Hypothesis
      Acquisitionis the “natural way”- it refers to an
      unconscious process that involves the development of
      language proficiency through understanding and
      through meaningful communication.
    • Time - there must be sufficient time for a learner to choose and apply the learned rule.
      Focus on form– focus on
      correctness.
      Knowledge of rules
      2. The Monitor Hypothesis –
      Ability to correct our mistakes while
      communicating.
      CONDITIONS
    • 3. The Natural Order Hypothesis-
      the acquisition of grammatical structures is in a predictable order. Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes.
      4. The input Hypothesis– relationship between the learner's exposure to language and language acquisition
    • 5.The Affective Filter Hypothesis-
      importance of learner's
      emotional state.
      • Motivation
      • Self – confidence
      • Anxiety
      • Low affective filter leads
      to interaction with more
      confidence.
    • Teacher`s role
    • Learner `s Roles
    • STAGES
      Pre-production stage – response
      to physical commands, pointing at
      something, etc
    • Early – production- single words, simple questions and, short phrases and simple answers.
    • Speech – emergent phase – role- plays, games, exchange of opinions, group problem solving , etc
    • CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
      The use of imperative
      Demonstrations (realia)
      The use of pictures, flashcards
      Physicaldescriptions
      Simple questions and answers
    • Classroom Activities
      The use of visualsto introduce new vocabulary
      Identifiyingthepictureaccordingtodescription
      Short dialogues
      Conversations
    • The Role of InstructionalMaterials
      Goal make class activities meaningful,
      relate them to the real world, foster
      comprehension and communication
      among learners.
      The use of realia : pictures, visual aids, schedules, advertisements, maps, books, etc.
    • Cooperative Language Teaching
      Learningid dependentonthesocially
      structuredexchange of information
      betweenlearners and in whicheach
      learnerismotivatedtoincreasethe
      learningof others(Olsenand Kagan,1992)
    • Emphasisonmaximum
      use of cooperative
      activitiesinvolvingpairs
      and smallgroupsof
      learnersin theclassroom.
      MAIN POINT
    • Objectives
      to increase cooperation rather then
      competition
      to develop critical thinking skills
      to develop communicative competence through socially structured interaction activities
      GOALS
      to provide opportunities for L2 learning through the use of interactive pair/group work
      to focus attention on language structures, particular lexical items, and communication through interactive tasks
    • Theory of Learning
      Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget -stress the
      central role of social interaction in
      learning.
      CLL iscontrastedwithcompetitivelearning.
      workingtogetherto
      accomplishsharedgoals.
      Cooperation
    • Learningoccurs in groups
      Types of Cooperative Learning Groups
      1. Formal cooperativelearninggroups – are establishedtoachievespecifictasks.
      2. Informal cooperativelearninggroups - facilitatelearningduringdirectteching.
      3. Cooperative base groups – giveeachmembersupport, help,
      encouragement, and assistance
      tosucceedacademically.
    • IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GROUP WORK
      Foronegroup:
      • Allstudentsworkonthe
      samematerial
      • Teacherdirectspresentation
      of thetask
      • Everyoneshouldknowwhatto do
      • Anygroupmembershouldknowtheanswer and bereadytoreport and explain.
    • For different groups in the same class
      Topicsmaybedifferentforeachgroup
      Studentsmay use differentsourcesforresearch
      Workmaybepresented in oral orwritenform
      Eachgrouppresentswork
      forthewholeclass
      (notonlyfortheteacher )
    • Classroom activities
      Exchange of opinions
      Sharing information and discussing it
      group projects
      Pair work
      Information-gap activities ( filling missing information during interaction with another group or partner )
      Interviews
      Round tables
      Solving problems
    • Learners Roles
      L.amember of a group,
      Learnersare responsible of their own
      learning: they plan,monitor, and evaluate
      their own learning
      Teacher's Roles
      Teacher creates a well-organized learning environment, establishes goals, plans and structures tasks, assigns students in pairs or groups, selects material and time
      Teacher is facilitator of learning
    • Content – Based Instruction (1980`s)
      In thisapproach, teachingisorganizedaroundthecontentorinformationthatstudentswillacquire, ratherthenaround a linguistictype of syllabus.
      CBI isbasedontheprinciples
      of CommunicativeLanguage
      Teaching – classshouldbe
      focusedon real communication
      and theexchange of information.
    • languageisusedforspecific
      purposes (academic,vocational, social)
      Learningisbelievedtobe more motivatingwhen
      studentsuse topics of a particular interest.
      Thelanguagethatisbeingtaughtcould
      beusedtopresentsubjectmatter
      Mainpoint
    • Approach
      People learn a second language more
      successfully when they use the language
      as a means of acquiring information.
      CBI better reflects learner's needs for learning a second language-prepare students for academic studies, and to be able to access the content of academic learning and teaching as quickly as possible
    • CLASS ACTIVITIES
      • Vocabulary building
      • Communicative inter –
      action
      • Study skills
      • Group work and team-building techniques
      • Jigsaw reading arrangements
      • Much writing
      • Language skill improvement
    • TEACHER`S ROLES
      TEACHER must be good knower of the
      subject, besides of English.
      - He/ she selects, adapts
      authenticmaterialfor class use;
      - analyzes the students needs,
      - develops high- level of student
      esteem,
      - uses appropriate error
      correction techniques.
    • LEARNER`S ROLES
      LEARNERSare sources of content and active participants in the
      selection of topics.
    • MATERIALS
      CBI isbased on content area,
      or theme – based model in which content
      and instructional sequence is chosen
      according to language learning goals.
      - Authentic texts, subject textbooks,
      articles related to the subject.
      Materials could be adapted or
      Modified to achieve maximum comprehensibility.
      MATERIALS
    • TASK- BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING, India , 1980s( Prabhu)
      TBLT is an approach based on the use of tasks requiring increasingly complex use of language.
      The tasks are done in groups where learners use English they already know.
    • TBLT emphasizes the importance of activities:
      - Which involve real communication
      • In which language is meaningful and is used for carrying out meaningful tasks.
      a. real world tasks
      (ex:phone conversation,
      filling hotel forms, etc )
      b. pedagogical tasks
      (ex: doing a grammar
      exercise, etc)
      TASKS
    • CLASS ROCEDURE
      PRE- TASK :introduction to a topic, listening, reading,
      brainstorming; activation of essential language previously
      learned
      TASK: Planning the task, doing the task ( finding solution
      to a puzzle, reading a map, writing a letter, making a phone
      call, etc), and reporting or presenting the product of task.
      POST –TASK :Focus on language used, error correction,
      comments on tasks; practice of the language (reviewing
      new grammar or vocabulary used during the task, etc;
      discussion of the task.
      Importantclear objectives and a sense of achievement
    • POSITIVE POINTS
      Tasks improve learners motivation
      and learning
      Tasks require the learners to use authentic language
      Tasks include physical activity, they involve partnership and collaboration
      NEGATIVE aspects
      Difficult tasks may reduce the attention, therefore, fluency may develop at the expense of accuracy
    • nnesterenko@utpl.edu.ec
      ( 072 – 570-275 ( ext. 2327 )
      THANK YOU!