METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)


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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: MS. Nina Aleksandrovna Nesterenko
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Segundo

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METHODOLOGY I (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

  1. 1. METHODOLOGY I<br />Abril – Agosto 2011<br />ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL<br />SEGUNDO <br />ESCUELA:<br />BIMESTRE:<br />NOMBRE:<br />M.S. NINA NESTERENKO<br />
  2. 2. Neurolinguistic Programming 1970`sJohn Grindler ( linguist ) Richard Bandler( psychologist)<br />It’s a humanistic training philosophy and set of suggestions and training techniques therapist could use in building rapport with clients, gathering information about their internal and external views of the world, and helping them achieve goals and bring about personal change, and designed to convince people that they have the power to control their own and other people’s lives for the better, and prescriptions on how to do that.<br />
  3. 3. NLP – isan interpersonal communicationmodel<br />“neuro“ refers to the brain and how it functions. “ Neuro” part of NLP is concerned with how we experience the world through our 5 senses and represent it in our minds through neurological process. <br />“Linguistic” – refers to a theory communication. It tries to explain both verbal and non-verbal information processing.<br />“Linguistic “ part of NLP is concerned with the way the language we use shapes and reflects our thinking and experience of the world. <br />
  4. 4. “Programming”refers to patterns or<br />“programs’ of thoughts and<br />behaviour. This part of NLP is concerned with training ourselves to think, to speak, and act in new and positive ways in order to release our potential and reach the achievements we dream about. <br />
  5. 5. Principles of NLP<br />“know what you want”<br />maximize similarities and minimize <br /> differences between people<br />“ Use your senses” – look at,<br /> listen to, and feel <br /> what is happening <br />Outcomes<br />Rapport<br />Sensory acuity <br />Flexibility<br />have a range of skills to <br />do something else if <br />what you are doing is not working.<br />
  6. 6. SKILLS vs PHILOSOPHY<br />Modellingis central to NLP.<br />Theeffectiveness of successfulpeopleliesnot in theirskillsbut in theirattitudes, approaches and philosophiestheyhave in commonwhichmakethemcapable of efectivework, and thesecouldbelerned and transmitted.<br />Otherscouldlearnfromthese<br />modelstobeeffectivethe<br />sameway<br />In NLP “change “ in a person<br />isveryimportant<br />
  7. 7. NLP and Teaching<br />NLP can be applied to the teaching of <br /> all aspects of language.<br />The suggested lesson sequence is “to <br /> help students become aware of a feeling level of the conceptual meaning of a grammatical structure”. <br />
  8. 8. THE LEXICAL APPROACH<br />belief that “building blocks “ of language<br />learning and communication are not<br />grammar, functions, notions, but <br />LEXIS – words and word<br />combinations ( word collocations).<br />Collocations – are regular <br />Occurrence together of words.<br />Phrasal verbs and idioms are varieties of<br />collocations.<br />Lexis plays a central role in language learning. <br />Main point<br />
  9. 9. Krashen – through reading<br />Lewis (2000) – through teacher’s<br />talk(teacher is a “knower”,learner –a “discoverer“)<br />Teacher's talk is a major source of learner<br />input in demonstrating how lexical phrases<br />are used for different functional purposes. <br />Computer – based applications – <br />through investigations and <br />comparison. <br />
  10. 10. Learning Material<br />texts, tapes, teacher's manual<br />collections of vocabulary teaching activities<br />printout versions of computer corpora collections in text format<br />computer programs (CD ROM format, downloaded from sites on the Internet<br />
  11. 11. Classroom activities<br />Should involve the use of tasks that that draw student’s attention to lexical collocations and seek to enhance their retention and use of collocations.<br />Use of comparative analysis via computers<br />Use of exercises that focus on lexical phrases through debates, analyzing contexts.<br />Use of reading or contexts that enable students to discover the collocations; select the collocations which are crucial for student’s needs<br /> Use of exercises that involve teaching individual collocations<br />
  12. 12. Give synonyms/antonyms<br />Write the sentences with the new words<br />Store collocations or phrase verbs and idioms in a lexical notebook<br />Give feedback on learner’s errors <br />Teaching individual collocations<br />Making students aware of collocations<br />Write word definitions<br />
  13. 13. COMPETENCY – BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING USA, 1970`s (CBLT)<br />Educational movement that is based on<br />programs that consist in: tasks that lead to<br />a demonstrated mastery of language<br />associated with specific skills that are<br />necessary for individuals to function<br />proficiently in the society. <br />
  14. 14. How appropriate is our vocabulary?<br />How would we speak in different situations?<br />How can we apply our vocabulary<br /> focusing on life skills?<br />How is the function of our language in different contexts?<br />
  15. 15. Characteristics of CBLT:<br /><ul><li>-. </li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of CBLT<br />It has the notion that certain life <br /> encounters certain language (designers of CBLT can predict the vocabulary and structures likely <br /> to be encountered in those particular situations)<br />CBLT is built around communicative competence and seeks to develop functional communication skills in learners( through specific<br /> real – world tasks) <br />Competencies are designed to<br /> enable learners to participate effectively<br /> in society.<br />
  16. 16. Description of Competencies<br />Knowledge and learning competencies<br />Oral competencies<br />Reading competencies<br /> Writing competencies<br />
  17. 17. CBLT design<br />It designed around the notion of competency <br />Competencies consist of description of essential<br />skills,attitudes, and behaviours required for<br />effective performance of a real-world tasks or<br />activities (related to any domain in life, or linked<br />to the field of work or to social survival in a new<br />environment )<br />
  18. 18. According to Auerbach (1986), factors involved in implementation of CBE in ESL :<br />1.The focus on successful <br /> functioning in society<br />2. A focus on life skills<br />3.Task – or performance-centered <br />orientation (what students can do as a result of<br />instruction)<br />4. Modularized instruction (objectives and<br />sub-objectives- to have a clear sense<br />of progress).<br />
  19. 19. Fill job application<br />Perform job interview<br />Follow instructions to carry <br /> out a simple task<br />Respond appropriately to <br /> supervisor’ s comments<br />Use social language<br />Understand and comment work <br /> schedules , fill paychecks<br />Read charts labels, forms written instructions to perform a task<br />State problem and ask for help if necessary<br /> Activities<br />
  20. 20. Activities<br /> Follow simple oral<br />directions to locate a place<br /> Report completion of task to <br /> supervisor<br /> Respond appropriately to work interruption or <br /> modification<br />Ask where object is located: follow oral directions to locate an object<br />
  21. 21. Positive Points<br />The competencies are specific and<br /> practical and relate to learners needs<br />The learners can judge<br /> whether the competencies<br />are relevant and useful<br />Learner knows exactly what <br />needs to be learned<br />Competencies can be mastered <br />one at a time so the learner can<br />see what has been learned and<br />what still remains to be learned <br />
  22. 22. Negative Points<br />There are no valid procedures available to <br />develop competency<br />lists for more programs<br />Many of the areas for which competencies are needed are impossible to operationalize (areas of adult living”,“survival”, <br />“functioning proficiency in the community”, etc). <br />
  23. 23. CommunicativeLanguageTeaching<br />( British language teaching, late 1960s)<br /> It starts from a theory of a <br /> language as communication. <br /> The primary function of <br /> language is to allow inter-<br /> action and communication. <br />The focus on communicative and contextual factors in language use.<br />Communicative acts underline the <br /> ability to use language for different <br /> purposes. <br />
  24. 24. British linguist, D.A. Wilkins (1972) proposedfunctionaldefinition of language<br />Twotypes of meaning:<br /> 1.Notional categories – time, sequence, quantity, location, frequency<br />2. Categories of communicativefunction:<br />requests, denials, offers, complaints<br />The goal develop communicative compe- <br />tence. <br />
  25. 25. STRANDS OF CLT<br />Language involves functions: <br />Inviting, agreeing, suggestions ,etc<br />which students should learn how to use<br /> To have enough exposure to<br />language and opportunities to use<br />it and motivation: language learning<br />will be successful.<br />The main point of CLT is to remind <br />teachers that people learn<br />languages not so they “ know“ them<br />but so that they can communicate. <br />
  26. 26. Characteristics of CLT<br />It is a learner-centered approach<br />Communication is a creative process that involves trial and error <br />Learning a language through using it to communicate<br />Integration of all language skills<br />Fluency is given priority<br />Authentic and meaningful communication is the goal of classroom activities. <br />
  27. 27. Appropriateness -use of formal / informal language according to the situation.<br />Message focus:creating/understanding of message (real meaning)<br />Psycholinguistic processing:engage learners in the use of cognitive and other processes of SL acquisition.<br />Free Practice<br />Risk – taking<br />
  28. 28. Classroom activities<br />are unlimited<br />1.Task- Based<br />Comparing set of pictures and noting<br /> similarities and differences<br /> Working out a sequence of <br /> events in a set of pictures<br /> Discovering missing pictures<br /> in a map or pictures<br />Giving instructions on how to <br /> draw a picture or shape or<br /> how to completea map<br />Following directions<br /> and solving a problem<br />
  29. 29. 2. Social Interactionactivities<br />Conversation and discussions<br />Debates<br />Dialogues and role plays<br />Simulations and improvisations<br />games ,pair work, interview <br />
  30. 30. Learner's Roles<br />dents interact with each other <br />Students interact with each other <br /> rather than with the teacher. <br />Learners see that failed communication is the joint responsibility, and not the fault of listener or speaker<br />Successful communication is achieved collaboratively<br />
  31. 31. Teacher’s roles<br />Facilitate the communication between all <br />participants in classroom, and between the<br /> participants and the activities and the text. <br />To act as an independent participant within<br />the learning – teaching group<br />As a researcher and learner, counselor, <br /> group manager. <br />
  32. 32. The Role of Materials<br /> Text – based:<br />a lesson topic<br />Purpose: asking comprehension questions,<br />taking notes, task analysis for thematic<br />development, understanding the message,<br />asking for more information, a practice<br />situation, description , conversation, etc<br />
  33. 33. TASK – BASED MATERIALS<br />- exercisehand-book( text-book, studentbook)<br />- activitycards,<br /><ul><li>pair-communicationpractice</li></ul> material,<br />- drills material<br />
  34. 34. Materials<br />Realia:<br /> “from life “ materials <br />Authentic materials: signs,<br /> magazines, advertisements, <br />newspapers, use of maps, <br />charts, graphs.<br />
  35. 35. 1.Presentation of a dialogue (or a situation )<br /> and discussion of languagefunction- formality / informality, setting, topic .<br />2. Oral parctice of eachutterance of the dialogue ( situation ) – individually,ingroups, as a wholeclass. Similar dialogues maybecreated.<br />3. Questions – answersbasedonthesituation / dialogue.<br />4. Questions – answersbasedonthestudents personal experience. <br />PROCEDURE<br />
  36. 36. The NATURAL APPROACH<br />Tracy Terrell , SthephenKrashen<br />It is a communicative approach. Language is viewed<br />as a vehicle for communicating meaning and message. <br />to achieve basic personal <br /> communication skills: oral (listening to public announcements)<br /><ul><li>Basic personal communication skills : written ( reading and writing )
  37. 37. Academic learning skills: oral (listening</li></ul> to a lecture )<br /><ul><li>Academic learning skills: written (taking</li></ul> notes in class)<br />GOALS<br />
  38. 38. OBJECTIVES of NA<br />Specific objectives depend on learners<br /> needs and the skill (reading, writing, <br />listening , and speaking) <br />Help beginners become intermediates<br />Develop basic communication skills , both oral and written, in every day situations.<br />
  39. 39. Characteristics<br />- NA places no emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal question and answer. <br /><ul><li>less focus on accuracy </li></ul> - Exposure (input ), rather then practice<br />-Central role of Comprehension<br />BUT it emphasizes<br />
  40. 40. Principles of NA theory<br />The Acquisition / Learning Hypothesis <br />Acquisitionis the “natural way”- it refers to an<br />unconscious process that involves the development of<br />language proficiency through understanding and <br />through meaningful communication. <br />
  41. 41. Time - there must be sufficient time for a learner to choose and apply the learned rule.<br />Focus on form– focus on<br /> correctness.<br />Knowledge of rules <br />2. The Monitor Hypothesis –<br />Ability to correct our mistakes while<br />communicating. <br />CONDITIONS<br />
  42. 42. 3. The Natural Order Hypothesis-<br />the acquisition of grammatical structures is in a predictable order. Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes.<br />4. The input Hypothesis– relationship between the learner's exposure to language and language acquisition<br />
  43. 43. 5.The Affective Filter Hypothesis-<br />importance of learner's<br /> emotional state.<br /><ul><li>Motivation
  44. 44. Self – confidence
  45. 45. Anxiety
  46. 46. Low affective filter leads</li></ul> to interaction with more <br /> confidence.<br />
  47. 47. Teacher`s role<br />
  48. 48. Learner `s Roles<br />
  49. 49. STAGES<br />Pre-production stage – response<br />to physical commands, pointing at<br />something, etc<br />
  50. 50. Early – production- single words, simple questions and, short phrases and simple answers.<br />
  51. 51. Speech – emergent phase – role- plays, games, exchange of opinions, group problem solving , etc<br />
  52. 52. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES<br />The use of imperative<br />Demonstrations (realia)<br />The use of pictures, flashcards<br />Physicaldescriptions<br />Simple questions and answers<br />
  53. 53. Classroom Activities<br />The use of visualsto introduce new vocabulary<br />Identifiyingthepictureaccordingtodescription<br />Short dialogues<br />Conversations<br />
  54. 54. The Role of InstructionalMaterials<br />Goal make class activities meaningful,<br />relate them to the real world, foster<br />comprehension and communication<br />among learners. <br />The use of realia : pictures, visual aids, schedules, advertisements, maps, books, etc.<br />
  55. 55. Cooperative Language Teaching<br />Learningid dependentonthesocially<br />structuredexchange of information<br />betweenlearners and in whicheach<br />learnerismotivatedtoincreasethe<br />learningof others(Olsenand Kagan,1992)<br />
  56. 56. Emphasisonmaximum<br />use of cooperative<br />activitiesinvolvingpairs<br />and smallgroupsof<br />learnersin theclassroom.<br />MAIN POINT<br />
  57. 57. Objectives<br />to increase cooperation rather then <br /> competition<br />to develop critical thinking skills<br />to develop communicative competence through socially structured interaction activities<br />GOALS<br />to provide opportunities for L2 learning through the use of interactive pair/group work<br />to focus attention on language structures, particular lexical items, and communication through interactive tasks<br />
  58. 58. Theory of Learning<br />Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget -stress the<br />central role of social interaction in<br />learning.<br />CLL iscontrastedwithcompetitivelearning. <br />workingtogetherto<br />accomplishsharedgoals.<br />Cooperation<br />
  59. 59. Learningoccurs in groups<br />Types of Cooperative Learning Groups<br />1. Formal cooperativelearninggroups – are establishedtoachievespecifictasks. <br />2. Informal cooperativelearninggroups - facilitatelearningduringdirectteching.<br />3. Cooperative base groups – giveeachmembersupport, help, <br />encouragement, and assistance<br />tosucceedacademically. <br />
  60. 60. IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GROUP WORK<br />Foronegroup:<br /><ul><li>Allstudentsworkonthe</li></ul>samematerial<br /><ul><li>Teacherdirectspresentation</li></ul> of thetask<br /><ul><li>Everyoneshouldknowwhatto do
  61. 61. Anygroupmembershouldknowtheanswer and bereadytoreport and explain.</li></li></ul><li>For different groups in the same class<br />Topicsmaybedifferentforeachgroup<br />Studentsmay use differentsourcesforresearch<br />Workmaybepresented in oral orwritenform<br />Eachgrouppresentswork<br />forthewholeclass<br />(notonlyfortheteacher )<br />
  62. 62. Classroom activities<br />Exchange of opinions<br />Sharing information and discussing it<br />group projects<br />Pair work<br />Information-gap activities ( filling missing information during interaction with another group or partner )<br />Interviews<br />Round tables<br />Solving problems<br />
  63. 63. Learners Roles<br />L.amember of a group, <br />Learnersare responsible of their own<br />learning: they plan,monitor, and evaluate<br />their own learning <br />Teacher's Roles<br />Teacher creates a well-organized learning environment, establishes goals, plans and structures tasks, assigns students in pairs or groups, selects material and time<br /> Teacher is facilitator of learning<br />
  64. 64. Content – Based Instruction (1980`s)<br />In thisapproach, teachingisorganizedaroundthecontentorinformationthatstudentswillacquire, ratherthenaround a linguistictype of syllabus.<br />CBI isbasedontheprinciples<br /> of CommunicativeLanguage<br />Teaching – classshouldbe<br />focusedon real communication<br />and theexchange of information.<br />
  65. 65. languageisusedforspecific<br />purposes (academic,vocational, social)<br />Learningisbelievedtobe more motivatingwhen<br />studentsuse topics of a particular interest. <br />Thelanguagethatisbeingtaughtcould<br />beusedtopresentsubjectmatter<br />Mainpoint<br />
  66. 66. Approach<br />People learn a second language more <br />successfully when they use the language<br />as a means of acquiring information.<br />CBI better reflects learner's needs for learning a second language-prepare students for academic studies, and to be able to access the content of academic learning and teaching as quickly as possible<br />
  67. 67. CLASS ACTIVITIES<br /><ul><li>Vocabulary building
  68. 68. Communicative inter –</li></ul> action<br /><ul><li>Study skills
  69. 69. Group work and team-building techniques
  70. 70. Jigsaw reading arrangements
  71. 71. Much writing
  72. 72. Language skill improvement</li></li></ul><li>TEACHER`S ROLES<br />TEACHER must be good knower of the <br />subject, besides of English. <br />- He/ she selects, adapts <br />authenticmaterialfor class use; <br /> - analyzes the students needs, <br />- develops high- level of student <br /> esteem, <br />- uses appropriate error<br /> correction techniques. <br />
  73. 73. LEARNER`S ROLES<br />LEARNERSare sources of content and active participants in the<br /> selection of topics.<br />
  74. 74. MATERIALS<br /> CBI isbased on content area,<br />or theme – based model in which content<br />and instructional sequence is chosen<br />according to language learning goals.<br />- Authentic texts, subject textbooks, <br /> articles related to the subject.<br />Materials could be adapted or <br />Modified to achieve maximum comprehensibility. <br />MATERIALS<br />
  75. 75. TASK- BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING, India , 1980s( Prabhu)<br />TBLT is an approach based on the use of tasks requiring increasingly complex use of language. <br />The tasks are done in groups where learners use English they already know. <br />
  76. 76. TBLT emphasizes the importance of activities:<br />- Which involve real communication<br /><ul><li>In which language is meaningful and is used for carrying out meaningful tasks. </li></ul>a. real world tasks<br /> (ex:phone conversation,<br /> filling hotel forms, etc )<br />b. pedagogical tasks<br />(ex: doing a grammar<br /> exercise, etc)<br />TASKS<br />
  77. 77. CLASS ROCEDURE<br />PRE- TASK :introduction to a topic, listening, reading,<br />brainstorming; activation of essential language previously<br />learned<br />TASK: Planning the task, doing the task ( finding solution<br />to a puzzle, reading a map, writing a letter, making a phone<br />call, etc), and reporting or presenting the product of task.<br />POST –TASK :Focus on language used, error correction,<br />comments on tasks; practice of the language (reviewing <br />new grammar or vocabulary used during the task, etc;<br />discussion of the task. <br />Importantclear objectives and a sense of achievement<br />
  78. 78. POSITIVE POINTS<br />Tasks improve learners motivation <br /> and learning<br />Tasks require the learners to use authentic language<br />Tasks include physical activity, they involve partnership and collaboration <br />NEGATIVE aspects<br />Difficult tasks may reduce the attention, therefore, fluency may develop at the expense of accuracy<br />
  79. 79.<br /> ( 072 – 570-275 ( ext. 2327 )<br />THANK YOU!<br />