ESCUELA : NOMBRES GRAMMAR I FECHA : INGLÉS Ing. Jhoana Paladines OCTUBRE 2008-FEBRERO 2009
UNIT 26: THE SIMPLE PRESENT  AND THE PRESENT PROGRESIVE  <ul><li>Simple Present  </li></ul><ul><li>Use the  SP  to tell or...
UNIT 26: ADVERBS <ul><li>ADVERBS .- adverbs and expressions of frequency tell how often we do something. </li></ul><ul><li...
UNIT 27 NON ACTION VERBS  <ul><li>Non action verbs do the following:  </li></ul><ul><li>Express emotion (love, want) </li>...
UNIT 28 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
UNIT 28 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
UNIT 30 BE GOING TO FOR FUTURE  <ul><li>Use be going to + base form to:  </li></ul><ul><li>State facts about the future  <...
UNIT 30 BE GOING TO FOR FUTURE  <ul><li>Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + be+ going to+ base form of verb ...
UNIT 30:BE GOING TO FOR FUTURE <ul><li>YES/NO QUESTIONS  </li></ul><ul><li>BE + Subject + going to + base form of Verb? </...
UNIT 31: WILL FOR THE FUTURE <ul><li>Use  will  to:  </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about things that will take place in the futur...
UNIT 31: WILL FOR THE FUTURE <ul><li>Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + will+ base form of verb+ time marke...
UNIT 31: WILL FOR FUTURE <ul><li>YES/NO QUESTIONS  </li></ul><ul><li>Will + Subject + base form of Verb? </li></ul><ul><li...
UNIT 32 MAY OR MIGHT FOR POSSIBILITY May   and  might  are modal verbs and express possibility.  May  and  might  are foll...
UNIT 32 MAY OR MIGHT FOR POSSIBILITY <ul><li>Affirmative sentences  </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + may/might + base form of a...
UNIT 33 Some - Any <ul><li>Some and any refer to an amount.  </li></ul><ul><li>Use some and any with plural count nouns an...
UNIT 33 How much/ How many <ul><li>Use  how much  and  how many  to ask about quantity.  </li></ul><ul><li>How much .- wit...
UNIT 33 Few and Little <ul><li>Use  little  and  few  in affirmative sentences  </li></ul><ul><li>Little .- non count noun...
UNIT 35 POSSESIVES PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES  SUBJECT PRONOUNS  OBJECT PRONOUN  POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES  POSSESSIVE PRONOUN  I...
UNIT 35 POSSESIVES <ul><li>A  possessive adjectives  shows belonging.  </li></ul><ul><li>This is  her  bag.  </li></ul><ul...
UNIT 36 CAN OR MAY FOR PERMISSION  <ul><li>Use  can  and  may  to:  </li></ul><ul><li>Give permission.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Use  can’t  and  may   not  to deny permission.  </li></ul><ul><li>You  may not  swim in the river.  </li></ul><ul...
UNIT 37 REQUESTS <ul><li>Polite  requests  </li></ul><ul><li>Would you please open the door? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you  ...
<ul><li>Would like  is a polite way of saying want. </li></ul><ul><li>Would like  can be followed by a noun or an infiniti...
UNIT 37 OFFERS  <ul><li>Use  Would you like…….?  for offers or invitations.  </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like some tea?  <...
UNIT 38 SHOULD AND OUGHT TO <ul><li>Use  should   to  give advice or to talk about what is right. Use should to talk about...
UNIT 38 SHOULD AND OUGHT TO <ul><li>Affirmative sentences  </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + should/ought to + base form of a ve...
UNIT 38 SHOULD AND OUGHT TO <ul><li>YES/NO QUESTIONS  </li></ul><ul><li>Should + Subject + base form of Verb? </li></ul><u...
UNIT 38 HAD BETTER/HAD BETTER NOT <ul><li>Use  had better  to give advice.  Had better  is stronger than  should .  Had be...
UNIT 39 HAVE TO AND MUST <ul><li>Use  have   to   and  must   to talk about things that are necessary.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
UNIT 39 HAVE TO AND MUST <ul><li>“ Have to” Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + do not/ does not + base form of...
UNIT 39 HAVE TO AND MUST <ul><li>“ Must” Affirmative sentences  </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + must + base form of a verb </l...
UNIT 40 THE COMPARATIVE <ul><li>Use the  comparative form of an adjective + than  to compare two people, places or things....
UNIT 40 THE COMPARATIVE <ul><li>Luisa is younger than Alberto  </li></ul><ul><li>Luisa is younger than he is  </li></ul><u...
UNIT 43 THE SUPERLATIVE <ul><li>Use the  superlative form of an adjective  to compare three or more people, places or thin...
<ul><li>THANKS! </li></ul>
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Grammar I

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  • Grammar I

    1. 1. ESCUELA : NOMBRES GRAMMAR I FECHA : INGLÉS Ing. Jhoana Paladines OCTUBRE 2008-FEBRERO 2009
    2. 2. UNIT 26: THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND THE PRESENT PROGRESIVE <ul><li>Simple Present </li></ul><ul><li>Use the SP to tell or ask about habits, customs, regular occurrences, routines and facts. </li></ul><ul><li>I listen to the radio now </li></ul>Present Progressive Use the PP to tell or ask an action that is happening right now or these days. I am listening to the radio now
    3. 3. UNIT 26: ADVERBS <ul><li>ADVERBS .- adverbs and expressions of frequency tell how often we do something. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs and expressions of frequency are often used with the simple present. They rarely occur with the present progressive. </li></ul><ul><li>After Be </li></ul><ul><li>Before other verbs </li></ul>
    4. 4. UNIT 27 NON ACTION VERBS <ul><li>Non action verbs do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Express emotion (love, want) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe sense or appearance (seem) </li></ul><ul><li>Express a need or preference (need) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a thought (know) </li></ul><ul><li>Show possession (belong, own, have) </li></ul><ul><li>Give a measurement (cost) </li></ul><ul><li>Be expresses a state of being </li></ul><ul><li>Important : we usually don’t use non action verbs in the present progressive. </li></ul>
    5. 5. UNIT 28 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
    6. 6. UNIT 28 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
    7. 7. UNIT 30 BE GOING TO FOR FUTURE <ul><li>Use be going to + base form to: </li></ul><ul><li>State facts about the future </li></ul><ul><li>Make predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about plans </li></ul>
    8. 8. UNIT 30 BE GOING TO FOR FUTURE <ul><li>Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + be+ going to+ base form of verb </li></ul><ul><li>She is going to go to Miami </li></ul><ul><li>Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + be+ not+ going to+ base form of verb </li></ul><ul><li>They are not going to buy a new house. </li></ul>
    9. 9. UNIT 30:BE GOING TO FOR FUTURE <ul><li>YES/NO QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>BE + Subject + going to + base form of Verb? </li></ul><ul><li>Is she going to read his new book? </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative answer: Yes, she is </li></ul><ul><li>Negative answer: No she isn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Wh – QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Wh-word +be +subject + going to + </li></ul><ul><li>Base form of Verb? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are they going to study? </li></ul><ul><li>In the library </li></ul>
    10. 10. UNIT 31: WILL FOR THE FUTURE <ul><li>Use will to: </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about things that will take place in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>To make predictions. </li></ul><ul><li>To make a promise or give assurance. </li></ul><ul><li>To ask for or offer something. </li></ul>
    11. 11. UNIT 31: WILL FOR THE FUTURE <ul><li>Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + will+ base form of verb+ time marker </li></ul><ul><li>She will go to Miami </li></ul><ul><li>She´ll go to Miami </li></ul><ul><li>Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + will + not+ base form of verb+ time marker </li></ul><ul><li>They will not buy a new house. </li></ul><ul><li>They won’t buy a new house </li></ul>
    12. 12. UNIT 31: WILL FOR FUTURE <ul><li>YES/NO QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Will + Subject + base form of Verb? </li></ul><ul><li>Will she read his new book? </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative answer: Yes, she will </li></ul><ul><li>Negative answer: No she won’t </li></ul><ul><li>Wh – QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Wh-word +will +subject + base form of Verb? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will they study? </li></ul><ul><li>In the library </li></ul>
    13. 13. UNIT 32 MAY OR MIGHT FOR POSSIBILITY May and might are modal verbs and express possibility. May and might are followed by the base form of the verb. Use will or going to , not may or might, to ask yes/no questions about the future.
    14. 14. UNIT 32 MAY OR MIGHT FOR POSSIBILITY <ul><li>Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + may/might + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>They may/might visit her mother </li></ul><ul><li>Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + may/might + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>He may/ might not play soccer </li></ul>
    15. 15. UNIT 33 Some - Any <ul><li>Some and any refer to an amount. </li></ul><ul><li>Use some and any with plural count nouns and non-count nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Some.- In affirmative sentences and in questions when offer or ask for something. They bought some tea </li></ul><ul><li>Any.- in negative sentences and in questions. </li></ul><ul><li>She doesn’t need any milk </li></ul>
    16. 16. UNIT 33 How much/ How many <ul><li>Use how much and how many to ask about quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>How much .- with non count nouns </li></ul><ul><li>How many .- with count nouns </li></ul><ul><li>How much water does she need? </li></ul><ul><li>How many apples did you buy? </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT: </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it’s not necessary to repeat the noun after how much and how many. </li></ul><ul><li>I need some money - How much do you need? </li></ul>
    17. 17. UNIT 33 Few and Little <ul><li>Use little and few in affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Little .- non count nouns </li></ul><ul><li>I have little money. </li></ul><ul><li>They had little milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Few .- count nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Please, wait a few minutes more. </li></ul><ul><li>We need a few onions </li></ul>
    18. 18. UNIT 35 POSSESIVES PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES SUBJECT PRONOUNS OBJECT PRONOUN POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES POSSESSIVE PRONOUN I Me My Mine He Him His His She Her Her Hers It It Its -- We Us Our Ours You You Your Yours They Them Their Their
    19. 19. UNIT 35 POSSESIVES <ul><li>A possessive adjectives shows belonging. </li></ul><ul><li>This is her bag. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s their bike. </li></ul><ul><li>A possessive pronoun replaces a noun and a possessive adjective. They are never followed by a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>This is hers . </li></ul><ul><li>Hers is nice. </li></ul><ul><li>These are ours . </li></ul><ul><li> Ours are blue </li></ul>
    20. 20. UNIT 36 CAN OR MAY FOR PERMISSION <ul><li>Use can and may to: </li></ul><ul><li>Give permission. </li></ul><ul><li>You may go to the park (permission) </li></ul><ul><li>You can watch television now. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for permission </li></ul><ul><li>May I go to the bathroom? Yes, you may </li></ul><ul><li> No, you may not </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Use can’t and may not to deny permission. </li></ul><ul><li>You may not swim in the river. </li></ul><ul><li>They can’t go to the discotheque. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Can I help you? or May I help you? to offer help to someone. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible answers </li></ul>Thanks you Thanks Yes , thanks No, thanks + a reason
    22. 22. UNIT 37 REQUESTS <ul><li>Polite requests </li></ul><ul><li>Would you please open the door? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you turn on the TV? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you help me? </li></ul>Possible answers Sure -- Of course Ok --- I’d be glad to Sorry, I can’t I d like to but….
    23. 23. <ul><li>Would like is a polite way of saying want. </li></ul><ul><li>Would like can be followed by a noun or an infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>I would like some tea/ They’d like an orange </li></ul><ul><li>She would like to visit you </li></ul><ul><li>He’d like to go to the park </li></ul>UNIT 37 DESIRES
    24. 24. UNIT 37 OFFERS <ul><li>Use Would you like…….? for offers or invitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like some tea? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like to dance? </li></ul>Possible Answers Yes, thank you No, thanks Yes, I would NOT: No, I wouldn’t like any, thank you
    25. 25. UNIT 38 SHOULD AND OUGHT TO <ul><li>Use should to give advice or to talk about what is right. Use should to talk about the present of future. </li></ul><ul><li>Ought to has the same meaning as should. We don’t use ought to in questions or in negatives. </li></ul>
    26. 26. UNIT 38 SHOULD AND OUGHT TO <ul><li>Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + should/ought to + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>She should/ought to visit her mother </li></ul><ul><li>Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + shouldn’t + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>He should not play soccer </li></ul><ul><li>He shouldn’t play soccer </li></ul>
    27. 27. UNIT 38 SHOULD AND OUGHT TO <ul><li>YES/NO QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Should + Subject + base form of Verb? </li></ul><ul><li>Should she go to the university? </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative answer: Yes, she should </li></ul><ul><li>Negative answer: No she shouldn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Wh – QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Wh-word +should +subject + base form of Verb? </li></ul><ul><li>Where should they go? </li></ul>
    28. 28. UNIT 38 HAD BETTER/HAD BETTER NOT <ul><li>Use had better to give advice. Had better is stronger than should . Had better is used to talk about the present or the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + had better + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>She had better go to the dentist. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + had better not + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>He had better not go out. </li></ul><ul><li>He ’d better not go out. </li></ul>
    29. 29. UNIT 39 HAVE TO AND MUST <ul><li>Use have to and must to talk about things that are necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Must is stronger than have to </li></ul><ul><li>The past of must and have to is had to. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Have to” Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject +have to/ has to + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>She has to go to the dentist. </li></ul><ul><li>They have to go to the library </li></ul><ul><li>He has to do his homework </li></ul>
    30. 30. UNIT 39 HAVE TO AND MUST <ul><li>“ Have to” Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + do not/ does not + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>He does not have to watch a lot of TV. </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t have to make their bed. </li></ul><ul><li>She doesn’t have to buy the yellow house. </li></ul>
    31. 31. UNIT 39 HAVE TO AND MUST <ul><li>“ Must” Affirmative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + must + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>She must go to the dentist. </li></ul><ul><li>They must finish the project </li></ul><ul><li>“ Must” Negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject + must not + base form of a verb </li></ul><ul><li>He must not swim. </li></ul><ul><li>He mustn’t read the newspaper everyday. </li></ul>
    32. 32. UNIT 40 THE COMPARATIVE <ul><li>Use the comparative form of an adjective + than to compare two people, places or things. </li></ul>Long Longer Hot Hotter Busy Busier Good Better Intelligent More intelligent Small Smaller Big Bigger Easy Easier Bad worse Expensive More expensive Tall taller Far Farther Wonderful More wonderful
    33. 33. UNIT 40 THE COMPARATIVE <ul><li>Luisa is younger than Alberto </li></ul><ul><li>Luisa is younger than he is </li></ul><ul><li>Luisa is younger than he </li></ul><ul><li>Luisa is younger than him. </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal is faster? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is faster, giraffe or a </li></ul>
    34. 34. UNIT 43 THE SUPERLATIVE <ul><li>Use the superlative form of an adjective to compare three or more people, places or things. </li></ul>Long Longest Hot Hottest Busy Busiest Good Best Intelligent The most intelligent Small Smallest Big Biggest Easy Easiest Bad Worst Expensive The most expensive Tall tallest Far Farthest Wonderful The most wonderful
    35. 35. <ul><li>THANKS! </li></ul>
    36. 36. are

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