English Pholonogy (II Bimestre)


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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
English Phonology
II Bimestre
Abril-Agosto 2007
Ponente: Dra. Cármen Benitez

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English Pholonogy (II Bimestre)

  2. 2. VOWELS <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Vowels are defined from the phonetical and phonological points of view </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetically: deals with the way a sound is produced, so, </li></ul><ul><li>vowels are sounds articulated without any closure in the vocal tract or a degree of narrowing (oral or nasal) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonologically: deals with the place vowels have in a word, so </li></ul><ul><li>vowels are sounds occurring at the center of the syllable and receive the stress with most intensity. </li></ul>
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF VOWELS <ul><li>ACCORDING TO PHONETIC FEATURES </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in movement during articulation </li></ul><ul><li> Simple Complex </li></ul><ul><li>/ æ / / e / / i:/ / ɔ:ɪ / </li></ul><ul><li>The tension of the tongue muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Tense Lax </li></ul><ul><li>/ əʊ / / əʊ / / ɪ / /ɔ: / </li></ul><ul><li>The position of the lower jaw </li></ul><ul><li>High Mid Low </li></ul><ul><li> / ɪ / / u: / / e / /ɔ:ɪ / /æ / / a / </li></ul><ul><li>The position of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Front Central Back </li></ul><ul><li>/ i: / / a: / /u: / </li></ul><ul><li>The position of the lips </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded Unrounded </li></ul><ul><li> / uʊ / / ɪ / </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>VOWELS ACCORDING TO LENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>Short: /ɪ/, /e/, /æ/, /ʌ/, /ɒ/, /ʊ/ </li></ul><ul><li>Long: / ı:/, /ɜ:/, /ɑ:/, /ɔ:/, /u:/ </li></ul><ul><li>VOWELS ACCORDING TO THE PLANES OF THE MOUTH. </li></ul><ul><li>ACCORDING TO THE VERTICAL PLANE OF THE MOUTH: HIGH, MID and LOW VOWELS. These names correspond to the position of the lower jaw . It was explained before. </li></ul><ul><li>ACCORDING TO THE HORIZONTAL PLANE OF THE MOUTH: FRONT, CENTRAL and BACK VOWELS. These names correspond to the position of the tongue and it was explained before. </li></ul>
  5. 5. SEMIVOWELS AND GLIDES <ul><li>Sound functioning as a consonant, but lacking the PHONETIC characteristic normally associated with consonants (such as FRICTION or CLOSURE) but functioning as them. </li></ul><ul><li>They are: / y /, / w /, / r / and / : / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLIDES WITH / y /: The / y /-glide is a movement in the point of articulation of the vowel toward a higher and more in front position. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>yellow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLIDES WITH / w /: The / w /-glide is a movement toward a position that is higher and farther back in the mouth, with accompanying lip-pounding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLIDES WITH / r / AND / : / : The / r /-glide is a movement toward a central retroflex position from some other position. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>here there </li></ul>
  6. 6. NASALIZATION <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>We call nasalization to the change of an oral vowel to a nasal one because of the effect of a neighboring sound. </li></ul><ul><li>medal, neighbor, nasal, mother </li></ul><ul><li>When does it occur? </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs when a vowel is preceded by a nasal consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare: </li></ul><ul><li>mate / late pen / men </li></ul>
  7. 7. DISTRIBUTION <ul><li>It is the total set of context or environments, in which a sound unit can occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel allophones, </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pairs, </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthongs and triphthongs. </li></ul><ul><li>VOWEL ALLOPHONES: </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTHENED and UNLENGTHENED ALLOPHONES. </li></ul><ul><li>They are articulated in such a way that the vowel sound is the longest within the syllable. The length or duration of a vowel depends on the type of consonant sound that follows in an adjacent position. We use a dot [ : ] to indicate that a vowel is lengthened. </li></ul><ul><li>sell, begin, singer </li></ul><ul><li>UNLENGTHENED VOWEL ALLOPHONES: This type of sounds are relatively short within the syllable, and it determines that the syllable is UNSTRESSED. </li></ul><ul><li>rip, pick, set, left </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMAL PAIRS, phonologically : a pair of words which differ in only one phoneme. m e n, m a n </li></ul><ul><li>A minimal pair with vowel contrast is a pair of words which differ only by a vowel sound. For example, in the words SIT and SAT, the difference is in the vowel sound of each word / i/ and / e / respectively. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>DIPHTHONGS: </li></ul><ul><li>DIPHTHONG: combination of two vowel sounds within a single syllable. </li></ul><ul><li>Two elements: stronger, weaker = Elements of the diphthong </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthongs are made with the tongue beginning in one position and gliding to another before the sound closes. </li></ul><ul><li>ARTICULATORILY: </li></ul><ul><li>- Distance the tongue travels: “WIDE”= long glide </li></ul><ul><li>“ NARROW” = short glide </li></ul><ul><li>- Direction of the tongue: &quot;CLOSING&quot; = closer position </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;CENTRING“= central position </li></ul><ul><li> AUDITORILY: A ccording to the prominence of the elements: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;FALLING“ = when the first element is more prominent than the second &quot;RISING“ = when the second element is more prominent than the first. </li></ul><ul><li>In English, all diphthongs are considered generally &quot;falling&quot;. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>PITCH </li></ul><ul><li> SEGMENTAL PHONEMES (vowles and consonants) </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRASEGMENTAL PHONEMES special features of speech add meaning to what we say. They are PITCH, STRESS and JUNCTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>What is PITCH? </li></ul><ul><li>The h eight of tone, produced by the tension of the vocal cords. Permits the ordering of sounds on a scale running from low (grave) to high (acute). </li></ul><ul><li>INTONATION PATTERNS: </li></ul><ul><li>A RISE IN PITCH.- occurs on the last syllable and reaches a point below the next higher pitch,. In the drill material, the rise is represented by a rising arrow ( ). </li></ul><ul><li>Is it yours? </li></ul><ul><li>A FADING AWAY INTO SILENCE, not accompanied by a terminal rise. There is often a fall in pitch, especially if the phrase ends on pitch 1 . The &quot;fading away&quot; is represented by a break or space in the &quot;staff&quot; and the absence or an upturned arrow. </li></ul><ul><li>We are going to the movies </li></ul><ul><li>A SLOWING DOWN OR SUSTENSION OF THE VOICE, not accompanied by a pitch rise or a fading away. Sometimes this kind of phrase-ending contour has been described as a &quot;SHIFTING OF GEARS&quot;. A dotted vertical line is used to represent this kind of contour. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to talk about …. er… </li></ul>
  10. 10. STRESS <ul><li>D efined as the loudness, intensity or articulatory energy with which a syllable is spoken. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same as pitch, it helps to add meaning to what we say. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress also helps to differenciate the meaning or grammatical function of a word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To emphasize or contrast information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>present / present </li></ul><ul><li>There are four contrasting degrees of stress in English. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ' / called the PRIMARY, LOUD or HEAVY STRESS; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ^ / called the SECONDARY or MEDIUM STRESS; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ` / called the TERTIARY, THIRD or LIGHT STRESS; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ ◡ / called the WEAK or MINIMAL STRESS. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>WORD STRESS: It's the stress given to one or more syllables in an individual word when it stands alone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-syllable words or any other word said in isolation, so it is not necessary to use a stress mark when transcribing them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a word has two or more syllables, at least one of them is stressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SENTENCE STRESS: It is the stress given to different words in a sentence to bring out the meaning of connected speech. </li></ul><ul><li>The same sentence can be said using different stress depending on what you want to say. </li></ul><ul><li>yes How are you? </li></ul><ul><li>yes? How are you? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>MAJOR-MINOR STRESS DISTINCTION: (useful). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major stress: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs ,. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor stress: personal pronouns, short prepositions, auxiliary verb, articles and the like, except when these have special contrastive (or shifted) stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONTRASTIVE OR EMPHATIC STRESS: primary stress can be put on any word in the phrase to show contrast or emphasis . This is not the only means of showing contrast, but it is an extremely common device. For example, it is possible to say: </li></ul><ul><li>HER DRESS IS PRÉTTY, HER DRESS ÍS PRETTY, </li></ul><ul><li>HER DRÉSS IS PRETTY, or HÉR DRESS IS PRETTY. </li></ul>
  13. 13. JUNCTURE <ul><li>This is another suprasegmental phoneme, known as the manner of transition from one segmental phoneme to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Juncture is an extremely important sound feature in English. Let's note its role differentiating phrases such as: </li></ul><ul><li>A NODE from AN ODE </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE SHOES from WHY CHOOSE </li></ul><ul><li>NIGHT RATE from NITRATE </li></ul><ul><li>A NAME from AN AIM </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>INTERNAL JUNCTURE identifies a type of juncture that occurs within a phrase . We can distinguish: </li></ul><ul><li>1. INTERNAL CLOSE JUNCTURE: is the normal transition from one phoneme to the next within an utterance. For example, in the word TR AIN, the close juncture is determined by the manner of transition / t/ to / r /. </li></ul><ul><li>2. INTERNAL OPEN JUNCTURE (+) it is a manner of transition which contrasts with close juncture. It keeps meanings apart. This is a manner of transition from one phoneme to the next in two uterances. Let's analyze the following pairs of phrases: </li></ul><ul><li>A NAME AN AIM </li></ul><ul><li>NIGHT RATE NITRATE </li></ul><ul><li>SHORE TRAIN SHORT RAIN </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>TERMINAL OR EXTERNAL JUNCTURE: The term TERMINAL JUNCTURE refers to a juncture that occurs AT THE END OF SENTENCES AND PHRASES. We also have: </li></ul><ul><li>DOUBLE BAR JUNCTURE/ /: This is a terminal juncture that means A RISE IN PITCH. Also called RISING JUNCTURE, ocurs in QUESTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>are you OK? a:+ ju:+ əʊ keɪ || </li></ul><ul><li>DOUBLE CROSS JUNCTURE/#/: This is a terminal juncture that indicates a fading away into silence. </li></ul><ul><li>let’s go lets +g əʊ # </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE BAR JUNCTURE/ /: This is a terminal juncture that is marked by a sustention of the voice. This pause determines a change in the sense or meaning of the expression. Let's see these two questions: </li></ul><ul><li>I CAN TELL MARY I CAN TELL, MARY </li></ul><ul><li>a ɪ +kæn + tel meri: # a ɪ +kæn + tel | meri:/ </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li> TRANSCRIPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>What is to transcribe? </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribing means to put what we say into speech sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>What do we use to transcribe? </li></ul><ul><li>We use the English Phonetic Alphabeth which is the set of symbols that represent speech sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>When transcribing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do not use capital letters (we do not use letters, but symbols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most of the times the symbol is the same letter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not use periods or punctuation marks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write the word as it is pronounced, not as it is written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not use other phonetic symbols </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION.- is a graphic representation of speech sounds which records as many differences in sound as it is possible to perceive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is also called narrow or allophonic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is written within square brackets [ ]. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION , it is also a graphic representation of speech sounds, which records only those differences in sound that are significant in the particular language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also called phonemic or broad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is written between diagonal bars or slanted lines / /. </li></ul></ul>