ESCUELA : PONENTE : BIMESTRE : DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LEARNING CICLO : INGLÉS I BIMESTRE Dra. María Arias ABRIL – AGOSTO 2007
Scientific study of the human mind What is Psychology?
What is Developmental Psychology? Developmental psychology is a field within psychology that is concerned with describing and understanding how individuals grow and change over their lifetimes. Development is a life-span phenomenon that begins with conception and continues all throughout life.
Objectives Differentiate some general principles of human development Piaget's and Vygotsky`s ideas Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning
Implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky`s ideas for cognitive development
Objectives Determine what intelligence is as well as individual differences Recognize cognitive and learning styles Recognize gifted and talented students
It is involved in our ability to learn new information, particularly if it is verbal.
The Cerebral Cortex allows the greatest human accomplishments, such as complex problem solving and language.
Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky Stages First year and a half Sensorimotor: experience and do not connect it to things outside 18-24 months to 7 years Preoperational.- Children can think about things in symbolic terms 7 – 12 years Concrete Operational.- Children gain new competence in thinking and are aware of events outside of their lives From 12 years old and up Formal Operational.- People are able to think about abstract relationships Principles 1. Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age. 2. Full cognitive development requires social interaction.
Lev Vygotsky Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition Elaborated the Sociocultural theory of development.
Printing presses, rules, abacus Numbers and mathematical systems, braille, sign language, maps, computers, the Internet, etc. solve problems and create knowledge Cultural tools Real tools Symbolic tools PDAs Cognitive Development Allow people in a society to communicate, think, etc.
Vygotsky (1978) states: "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." (p57).
A second aspects of Vygotsky's theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD). Furthermore, full development during the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.
Vygotsky's theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For example, in the learning of language, our first utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but once mastered they become internalized and allow "inner speech".
The role of learning and development Vygotsky Vygotsky`s and Piaget`s view Piaget defined development as the active construction of knowledge and learning as the passive formation of associations “ Learning as a tool in development ”
WORDS DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE SEQUENCES MEANINGS SOUNDS VOLUME, VOICE TONE
THE FETUS Age 10 weeks Fingernails develop Age 16 weeks: Growth reaches 8 to 10 inches in lenght LIFE BEFORE BIRTH Age 24 weks: can smile, frown,and grimace Age 28 weeks: brain`s neural circuits are at the same maturational level as the newborn`s
The Nervous System Newborn babies spend most of their days asleep, avering about 16 hours a day It is complete at birth