Developmental Psychology and Learning (I Bimestre)
ESCUELA : PONENTE : BIMESTRE : DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LEARNING CICLO : INGLÉS I BIMESTRE Dra. María Arias ABRIL – AGOSTO 2007
Scientific study of the human mind What is Psychology?
What is Developmental Psychology? Developmental psychology is a field within psychology that is concerned with describing and understanding how individuals grow and change over their lifetimes. Development is a life-span phenomenon that begins with conception and continues all throughout life.
Objectives Differentiate some general principles of human development Piaget's and Vygotsky`s ideas Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning <ul><li>Implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky`s ideas for cognitive development </li></ul>
Objectives Determine what intelligence is as well as individual differences Recognize cognitive and learning styles Recognize gifted and talented students <ul><li>Recognize individual differences in intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize some aspects of culture and community </li></ul>
What is Cognitivo Development? <ul><li>Gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated. </li></ul>
What are three principles of development? Theorists generally agree that people develop at different rates, that development is an orderly process, and that development takes place gradually.
THE BRAIN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>There are several different areas: </li></ul><ul><li>The cerebellum: </li></ul><ul><li>coordinates and orchestrates balance and smooth, skilled movements. </li></ul><ul><li>It may also play a role in higher cognitive functions. </li></ul>
THE BRAIN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>The Hippocampus: </li></ul><ul><li>It is critical in recalling new information and recent experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>The amygdala: </li></ul><ul><li>It directs emotions </li></ul>
THE BRAIN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>The Thalamus: </li></ul><ul><li>It is involved in our ability to learn new information, particularly if it is verbal. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cerebral Cortex allows the greatest human accomplishments, such as complex problem solving and language. </li></ul>
Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky Stages First year and a half Sensorimotor: experience and do not connect it to things outside 18-24 months to 7 years Preoperational.- Children can think about things in symbolic terms 7 – 12 years Concrete Operational.- Children gain new competence in thinking and are aware of events outside of their lives From 12 years old and up Formal Operational.- People are able to think about abstract relationships Principles 1. Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age. 2. Full cognitive development requires social interaction.
Lev Vygotsky Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition Elaborated the Sociocultural theory of development.
Printing presses, rules, abacus Numbers and mathematical systems, braille, sign language, maps, computers, the Internet, etc. solve problems and create knowledge Cultural tools Real tools Symbolic tools PDAs Cognitive Development Allow people in a society to communicate, think, etc.
<ul><li>Vygotsky (1978) states: "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." (p57). </li></ul>Lev Vygotsky
<ul><li>A second aspects of Vygotsky's theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD). Furthermore, full development during the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone. </li></ul>Lev Vygotsky
<ul><li>Vygotsky's theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For example, in the learning of language, our first utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but once mastered they become internalized and allow "inner speech". </li></ul>Lev Vygotsky
The role of learning and development Vygotsky Vygotsky`s and Piaget`s view Piaget defined development as the active construction of knowledge and learning as the passive formation of associations “ Learning as a tool in development ”
WORDS DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE SEQUENCES MEANINGS SOUNDS VOLUME, VOICE TONE
<ul><li>THE WORK OF ERIK ERIKSON </li></ul><ul><li>He saw development as a passage through a series of stages, each with its particular goals, concerns, accomplishments, and dangers. </li></ul>Personal, Social, and Moral Development
THE WORK OF ERIK ERIKSON (8 stages) <ul><li>Basic trust versus mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy versus shame/doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative versus guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Industry versus inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>Identity versus role confusion (adolescence) </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy versus isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity versus stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Ego integrity versus despair </li></ul>
<ul><li>LAURANCE KOHLBERG : </li></ul><ul><li>REVOLUTIONED OUR UNDERSTANDING OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul>VALUE DEVELOPMENT Pre-Conventional Morality: Stages I and II Conventional Morality: Stages III and IV Postconvntional Morality: Stages Vand VI
Children and Youth at risk Physical abuse Physical neglect Abandonment Unattended medical needs Sexual abuse
Physical Growth and Development GENETICS IS BASED ON THE STUDY OF HEREDITY THE ABCS OF GENETICS HEREDITY, THE BIOLOGICAL TRANSMITTAL OF CHARACTERISTICS FROM PARENT TO OFFSPRING
DNA:deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid DNA and RNA are located in the chromosomes The standard picture of a chromosome
Figure: spectralkaryotype analysis of chromosomes
Human Chromosomes (with an extra copy of Chromosome 21, which causes Down syndrome)
LIFE BEFORE BIRTH <ul><li>The Zygote </li></ul><ul><li>The Embryo </li></ul><ul><li>The Fetus </li></ul>
THE FETUS Age 10 weeks Fingernails develop Age 16 weeks: Growth reaches 8 to 10 inches in lenght LIFE BEFORE BIRTH Age 24 weks: can smile, frown,and grimace Age 28 weeks: brain`s neural circuits are at the same maturational level as the newborn`s
The Nervous System Newborn babies spend most of their days asleep, avering about 16 hours a day It is complete at birth
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT ONE OF THE MOST DRAMATIC FEATURES IN THE INFANCY
SENSORY DEVELOPMENT Babies can discriminate between sweet and sour tastes among certain sounds
<ul><li>At birth, speech is restricted to general, undiffferentiated crying </li></ul><ul><li>Speech is built on a biological fundations </li></ul><ul><li>For Noam Chomsky, there is a heavy genetic component in language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>For Skinner, babies keep some of these sounds- those reinforced by their parents </li></ul><ul><li>Language is processed in an area of the brain`s left hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>( Geschwind, 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Holophrases and telegraphic speech </li></ul><ul><li>Single words 50 words, 18 months “ I want a car” </li></ul>SPEECH DEVELOPMENT
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Linguistic Musical MENTAL ABILITIES Logical-mathematical Spatial