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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
 

COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja ...

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Mgs. Paúl Fernando González Torres
Ciclo: Tercero
Bimestre: Segundo

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  • utpl
  • A and B are not talking about a specific book. utpl
  • A and B are talking about a specific book. utpl
  • Use a before consonant sounds . Use an before vowel sounds . It is the sound , not the letter, that determines whether you use a or an . utpl
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  • Most common nouns can be (count and non-count singular and plural) utpl
  • Primer ejemplo:A and B are students in a classroom. A is a new student. Segundo ejemplo: (it is often indefinite the first time it is mentioned) utpl
  • Remember: In imperative sentences, the subject is you , and you can be either singular or plural utpl
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  • Some adjectives have irregular superlative forms. For example good- the best bad-the worst
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  • Don’t confuse a gerund with the progressive form of the verb: He is drinking coffee right now. utpl
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  • Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive or an object+infinitive. I asked to join the club. I asked them to join the club. utpl
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  • Do not use will to talk about preferences. utpl
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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) Presentation Transcript

  • ESCUELA : NOMBRES: COMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (2do bimestre) Mgs. Paúl González T. Inglés ABRIL AGOSTO 2011
  • ARTICLES: INDEFINITE AND DEFINITE
    • A noun is indefinite when you and your listener do not have a specific person, place, or thing in mind .
    • A: Let’s buy a computer .
    • B: Good idea. Which one should we buy?
    • A noun is definite when you and your listener both know which person, place or thing you are talking about.
    • A: I finally bought the computer !
    • B: Good! You’ve wanted it for a while.
    • Use the indefinite article a/an with singular count nouns that are indefinite .
    • A: I’m reading a fable .
    • B: Oh really? Which one?
    • A: The one that has an e xciting story.
    • It was an h onest mistake.
    • He is a E uropean writer.
    • Use no article or some with plural count nouns and with non-count nouns that are indefinite. Some means an indefinite number:
    • There are (some) books on the floor. (plural count)
    • I had to buy (some) food . (non-count)
    • Uses of a/an , no article , and some :
    • To identify , use:
    • a/an with singular count nouns
    • A: What do you do?
    • B: I’m a student . (sing. count)
    • no article with plural count nouns and non-count nouns
    • A: What are these?
    • B: They’re beans . I’m making soup. (pl. count)
    • To make general statements , use no article with plural count nouns and non-count nouns .
    • Ava loves stories and music .
    • (stories and music in general)
    • Some in general statements means “some, but not at all.”
    • I like some stories , but a lot of them are boring.
    • Use the definite article the with most common nouns that are definite . Use the when:
    • a person, place or thing is unique – there is only one
    • We must take care of the Earth .
    • The context makes it clear which person, place, or thing you mean
    • A: Who is she?
    • B: She’s the teacher .
    • The noun is mentioned for the second time
    • An ant lived next to a river . One day the ant went to the river to drink.
    • A phrase or adjective such as first , best , right , wrong , or only identifies the noun
    • He was the best student in the class.
    • She served the only food she had.
    • Adjectives often go directly before a noun . When you use an article or some , the adjective goes between the article or some and the noun.
    • John has some beautiful guitars .
  • ADJECTIVES: COMPARISONS
    • Use (not) as + adjective + as to compare people, places, or things, and show how they are (or aren’t) similar .
    • A: This restaurant is as good as Joe’s.
    • B: But Joe’s is n’t as expensive as this one.
    • It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear.
    • A: I liked the old menu. It had more choices.
    • B: Too bad the new one is n’t as varied . (… as the old menu)
    • Use comparative adjectives + than to show how people, places, or things are different .
    • This office is bigger than the old one.
    • The new employees are more responsible than the old employees.
    • Forming comparative adjectives :
    • Short adjectives (one or some two-syllable):
    ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE tall taller large larger hot hotter happy happier
    • For long adjectives , use more (+) /less (-) + adjective.
    • For some adjectives , like lively , lovely or quiet , you can use either –er or more .
    • This place is more lively than Joe’s.
    • This place is livelier than Joe’s.
    ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE generous more generous intelligent more intelligent
    • It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear.
    • The new tables are smaller . (… than the old ones)
  • ADJECTIVES: SUPERLATIVES
    • Use superlative adjectives to compare one person, place, or thing with other people, places, or things in a group .
    • Rob is the wisest person I know.
    • Rob’s house in the mountain is the most peaceful place in the world.
    • Forming superlative adjectives :
    • Short adjectives (one syllable and two syllables ending in –y ): the + adjective + -est
    ADJECTIVE SUPERLATIVE tall the tallest large the largest hot the hottest happy the happiest
    • For long adjectives (2 or more syllables), use the most (+) /the least (-) + adjective .
    • For some adjectives , like lively , lovely or quiet , you can use either the … –est or the most/the least .
    • This is the liveliest place in the world.
    • This is the most lively place in the world.
    ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE generous the most generous intelligent the most intelligent
  • GERUNDS: SUBJECT AND OBJECT
    • A gerund ( base form + -ing ) is a verb that we use like a noun .
    • I enjoy swimming in the lake.
    • Smoking is responsible for several diseases.
    • Not exercising is bad for you.
    • I suggest not drinking too much beer.
    • A gerund can be the subject of a sentence. It is always singular . Use the 3 rd -person-singular form of the verb after gerunds.
    • Inhaling smoke has devastating effects on one’s health.
    • A gerund can also be the object of certain verbs. Use a gerund after these verbs : admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, miss, practice, quit, suggest, understand .
    • The president denies ordering audit.
    • She practiced signing autographs.
    • I suggested not drinking too much beer.
    • We often use go + gerund to describe activities such as shopping, fishing, skiing, swimming , and camping .
    • Let’s go fishing in the river!
    • Sandra will go camping in Europe.
    • They went skiing with their family.
    • Because gerunds are nouns, they can also follow prepositions .
    • I thanked them for helping me.
    • He believes in doing the right thing.
    • Marge is afraid of flying .
    • She’s happy about not working today.
    • INFINITIVES AFTER CERTAIN VERBS
    • Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive ( to + base form of the verb). For example: begin, decide, fail, hope, learn, plan, promise, refuse, try .
    • He hopes to be promoted.
    • She refuses to go to the show.
    • I began to use an ipod.
    • Jack promised not to be late.
    • Some verbs need an object (noun or pronoun) before infinitive . For example: advise, allow, encourage, force, invite, order, remind, tell, warn .
    • This program allows students to interact .
    • I encourage you to access EVA.
    • He forced himself to be silent.
    • GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
    • Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive . For example: begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer.
    • Jeff hates studying .
    • Jeff hates to study .
    • To make general statements , you can use:
    • Gerund as subject
    • Writing a paper is hard.
    • it + infinitive
    • It ’s hard to write a paper.
  • PREFERENCES: PREFER, WOULD PREFER, WOULD RATHER
    • We often use prefer to express a general preference.
    • Which do you prefer – comedies or westerns?
    • We use would prefer or would rather to talk about a preference in a specific situation.
    • I’ d rather study the Calculus course.
    • Prefer and would prefer may be followed by a noun , a gerund , or an infinitive .
    • Bob usually prefers action movies.
    • Does Jack prefer reading comics?
    • She would prefer to go to the beach.
    • Would rather can only be followed by the base form of the verb.
    • I’ d rather make coffee at home.
    • I’ d rather not drink alcohol.
    • We often use I’d rather not , by itself, to refuse an offer, suggestion, or invitation.
    • A: Let’s see the movie at Cineworld.
    • B: I’d rather not . I hear it’s terrible.
  • FUTURE POSSIBILITY: MAY, MIGHT, COULD
    • May be and maybe both express possibility.
    • May be is a modal + be . (two words)
    • He may be wrong about that issue.
    • Maybe is an adverb (not a modal). It is always one word and it comes at the beginning of the sentence.
    • Maybe he’ll change his mind.
    • Use may not and might not to express the possibility that something will not happen .
    • He has good intentions, but he might not solve the problems.
    • Use couldn’t to express the idea that something is impossible .
    • A: Why don’t you cut class tomorrow?
    • B: I couldn’t do that. I have to give a presentation .
    • Questions about possibility usually do not use may, might , or could . Instead, they use the future ( will , be going to , the present progressive) or phrases such as Do you think…? or Is it possible that…?
    • A:Do you think it will rain tomorrow too?
    • B: It could stop tonight.
    • The answers to these questions often use may , might or could .
  • CONCLUSIONS: MUST, HAVE (GOT) TO, MAY, MIGHT, COULD, CAN’T
    • When we are almost 100% certain , we use must , have to , or have got to to state affirmative conclusions .
    FACT CONCLUSION Wilson has only one clerk. His shop must be quite small Wilson applied for a job. He has to need money. They pay men for debating with the president. It’ s got to be a joke.
    • When we are less certain about our conclusion , we use may , might , or could to express that something is possible .
    FACT CONCLUSION His hand is swollen. He may write a lot. Watson knows a lot about medicine. He might be a doctor. Vincent knows a lot about cameras. He could be a photographer.
    • To express negative conclusions :
    • Use can’t and couldn’t when you are almost 100 percent certain that something is impossible .
    • He can’t be dead! I just saw him!
    • Use must not when you are slightly less certain .
    • He must not have enough money. He never buys new clothes.
    • Use may not and might not when you are even less certain .
    • He may not know about the plan. His boss doesn’t tell him everything.
    • Do not use have to and have got to to draw negative conclusions.
    • CORRECT: It can’t be true!
    • INCORRECT: It doesn’t have to be true!
    • Use can and could in questions.
    • Could Vincent be in the shop?
    • In short answers , use a modal alone .
    • A: Does he still work at Wilson’s?
    • B: She may not . I saw a new clerk there.
    • Use might(not) + be in short answers to questions that include be .
    • A: Is Ron still with City Bank?
    • B: I’m not sure. He might not be .