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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)



Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja ...

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Mgs. Paúl Fernando González Torres
Ciclo: Tercero
Bimestre: Segundo



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  • utpl
  • A and B are not talking about a specific book. utpl
  • A and B are talking about a specific book. utpl
  • Use a before consonant sounds . Use an before vowel sounds . It is the sound , not the letter, that determines whether you use a or an . utpl
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  • Most common nouns can be (count and non-count singular and plural) utpl
  • Primer ejemplo:A and B are students in a classroom. A is a new student. Segundo ejemplo: (it is often indefinite the first time it is mentioned) utpl
  • Remember: In imperative sentences, the subject is you , and you can be either singular or plural utpl
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  • Some adjectives have irregular superlative forms. For example good- the best bad-the worst
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  • Don’t confuse a gerund with the progressive form of the verb: He is drinking coffee right now. utpl
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  • Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive or an object+infinitive. I asked to join the club. I asked them to join the club. utpl
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  • Do not use will to talk about preferences. utpl
  • Would prefer + infinitive is more common than would prefer + gerund. utpl
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  • We usually do not contract might not , and we never contract may not . utpl
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  • We often use have got to instead of have to in informal speech and writing . We usually contract have or has . utpl
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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) Presentation Transcript

  • ESCUELA : NOMBRES: COMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III (2do bimestre) Mgs. Paúl González T. Inglés ABRIL AGOSTO 2011
    • A noun is indefinite when you and your listener do not have a specific person, place, or thing in mind .
    • A: Let’s buy a computer .
    • B: Good idea. Which one should we buy?
    • A noun is definite when you and your listener both know which person, place or thing you are talking about.
    • A: I finally bought the computer !
    • B: Good! You’ve wanted it for a while.
    • Use the indefinite article a/an with singular count nouns that are indefinite .
    • A: I’m reading a fable .
    • B: Oh really? Which one?
    • A: The one that has an e xciting story.
    • It was an h onest mistake.
    • He is a E uropean writer.
    • Use no article or some with plural count nouns and with non-count nouns that are indefinite. Some means an indefinite number:
    • There are (some) books on the floor. (plural count)
    • I had to buy (some) food . (non-count)
    • Uses of a/an , no article , and some :
    • To identify , use:
    • a/an with singular count nouns
    • A: What do you do?
    • B: I’m a student . (sing. count)
    • no article with plural count nouns and non-count nouns
    • A: What are these?
    • B: They’re beans . I’m making soup. (pl. count)
    • To make general statements , use no article with plural count nouns and non-count nouns .
    • Ava loves stories and music .
    • (stories and music in general)
    • Some in general statements means “some, but not at all.”
    • I like some stories , but a lot of them are boring.
    • Use the definite article the with most common nouns that are definite . Use the when:
    • a person, place or thing is unique – there is only one
    • We must take care of the Earth .
    • The context makes it clear which person, place, or thing you mean
    • A: Who is she?
    • B: She’s the teacher .
    • The noun is mentioned for the second time
    • An ant lived next to a river . One day the ant went to the river to drink.
    • A phrase or adjective such as first , best , right , wrong , or only identifies the noun
    • He was the best student in the class.
    • She served the only food she had.
    • Adjectives often go directly before a noun . When you use an article or some , the adjective goes between the article or some and the noun.
    • John has some beautiful guitars .
    • Use (not) as + adjective + as to compare people, places, or things, and show how they are (or aren’t) similar .
    • A: This restaurant is as good as Joe’s.
    • B: But Joe’s is n’t as expensive as this one.
    • It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear.
    • A: I liked the old menu. It had more choices.
    • B: Too bad the new one is n’t as varied . (… as the old menu)
    • Use comparative adjectives + than to show how people, places, or things are different .
    • This office is bigger than the old one.
    • The new employees are more responsible than the old employees.
    • Forming comparative adjectives :
    • Short adjectives (one or some two-syllable):
    ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE tall taller large larger hot hotter happy happier
    • For long adjectives , use more (+) /less (-) + adjective.
    • For some adjectives , like lively , lovely or quiet , you can use either –er or more .
    • This place is more lively than Joe’s.
    • This place is livelier than Joe’s.
    ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE generous more generous intelligent more intelligent
    • It is not necessary to mention both parts of the comparison when the meaning is clear.
    • The new tables are smaller . (… than the old ones)
    • Use superlative adjectives to compare one person, place, or thing with other people, places, or things in a group .
    • Rob is the wisest person I know.
    • Rob’s house in the mountain is the most peaceful place in the world.
    • Forming superlative adjectives :
    • Short adjectives (one syllable and two syllables ending in –y ): the + adjective + -est
    ADJECTIVE SUPERLATIVE tall the tallest large the largest hot the hottest happy the happiest
    • For long adjectives (2 or more syllables), use the most (+) /the least (-) + adjective .
    • For some adjectives , like lively , lovely or quiet , you can use either the … –est or the most/the least .
    • This is the liveliest place in the world.
    • This is the most lively place in the world.
    ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE generous the most generous intelligent the most intelligent
    • A gerund ( base form + -ing ) is a verb that we use like a noun .
    • I enjoy swimming in the lake.
    • Smoking is responsible for several diseases.
    • Not exercising is bad for you.
    • I suggest not drinking too much beer.
    • A gerund can be the subject of a sentence. It is always singular . Use the 3 rd -person-singular form of the verb after gerunds.
    • Inhaling smoke has devastating effects on one’s health.
    • A gerund can also be the object of certain verbs. Use a gerund after these verbs : admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, miss, practice, quit, suggest, understand .
    • The president denies ordering audit.
    • She practiced signing autographs.
    • I suggested not drinking too much beer.
    • We often use go + gerund to describe activities such as shopping, fishing, skiing, swimming , and camping .
    • Let’s go fishing in the river!
    • Sandra will go camping in Europe.
    • They went skiing with their family.
    • Because gerunds are nouns, they can also follow prepositions .
    • I thanked them for helping me.
    • He believes in doing the right thing.
    • Marge is afraid of flying .
    • She’s happy about not working today.
    • Some verbs can be followed by an infinitive ( to + base form of the verb). For example: begin, decide, fail, hope, learn, plan, promise, refuse, try .
    • He hopes to be promoted.
    • She refuses to go to the show.
    • I began to use an ipod.
    • Jack promised not to be late.
    • Some verbs need an object (noun or pronoun) before infinitive . For example: advise, allow, encourage, force, invite, order, remind, tell, warn .
    • This program allows students to interact .
    • I encourage you to access EVA.
    • He forced himself to be silent.
    • Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive . For example: begin, continue, hate, like, love, prefer.
    • Jeff hates studying .
    • Jeff hates to study .
    • To make general statements , you can use:
    • Gerund as subject
    • Writing a paper is hard.
    • it + infinitive
    • It ’s hard to write a paper.
    • We often use prefer to express a general preference.
    • Which do you prefer – comedies or westerns?
    • We use would prefer or would rather to talk about a preference in a specific situation.
    • I’ d rather study the Calculus course.
    • Prefer and would prefer may be followed by a noun , a gerund , or an infinitive .
    • Bob usually prefers action movies.
    • Does Jack prefer reading comics?
    • She would prefer to go to the beach.
    • Would rather can only be followed by the base form of the verb.
    • I’ d rather make coffee at home.
    • I’ d rather not drink alcohol.
    • We often use I’d rather not , by itself, to refuse an offer, suggestion, or invitation.
    • A: Let’s see the movie at Cineworld.
    • B: I’d rather not . I hear it’s terrible.
    • May be and maybe both express possibility.
    • May be is a modal + be . (two words)
    • He may be wrong about that issue.
    • Maybe is an adverb (not a modal). It is always one word and it comes at the beginning of the sentence.
    • Maybe he’ll change his mind.
    • Use may not and might not to express the possibility that something will not happen .
    • He has good intentions, but he might not solve the problems.
    • Use couldn’t to express the idea that something is impossible .
    • A: Why don’t you cut class tomorrow?
    • B: I couldn’t do that. I have to give a presentation .
    • Questions about possibility usually do not use may, might , or could . Instead, they use the future ( will , be going to , the present progressive) or phrases such as Do you think…? or Is it possible that…?
    • A:Do you think it will rain tomorrow too?
    • B: It could stop tonight.
    • The answers to these questions often use may , might or could .
    • When we are almost 100% certain , we use must , have to , or have got to to state affirmative conclusions .
    FACT CONCLUSION Wilson has only one clerk. His shop must be quite small Wilson applied for a job. He has to need money. They pay men for debating with the president. It’ s got to be a joke.
    • When we are less certain about our conclusion , we use may , might , or could to express that something is possible .
    FACT CONCLUSION His hand is swollen. He may write a lot. Watson knows a lot about medicine. He might be a doctor. Vincent knows a lot about cameras. He could be a photographer.
    • To express negative conclusions :
    • Use can’t and couldn’t when you are almost 100 percent certain that something is impossible .
    • He can’t be dead! I just saw him!
    • Use must not when you are slightly less certain .
    • He must not have enough money. He never buys new clothes.
    • Use may not and might not when you are even less certain .
    • He may not know about the plan. His boss doesn’t tell him everything.
    • Do not use have to and have got to to draw negative conclusions.
    • CORRECT: It can’t be true!
    • INCORRECT: It doesn’t have to be true!
    • Use can and could in questions.
    • Could Vincent be in the shop?
    • In short answers , use a modal alone .
    • A: Does he still work at Wilson’s?
    • B: She may not . I saw a new clerk there.
    • Use might(not) + be in short answers to questions that include be .
    • A: Is Ron still with City Bank?
    • B: I’m not sure. He might not be .