ESCUELA :  Ciencias de la Educación – Carrera de Inglés. NOMBRES: COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR 4 FECHA: ABRIL  – AGOSTO 2009 Lic....
Gerunds <ul><li>A la forma básica del verbo se le agrega –ing. </li></ul><ul><li>Es un  sustantivo  que se lo forma a part...
<ul><li>No se puede confundir entre un verbo con –ing en un tiempo progresivo y un gerundio.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li><...
<ul><li>Los gerundios pueden actuar en la oración de diferentes formas: </li></ul><ul><li>Como sujeto: </li></ul><ul><li>A...
<ul><li>Como objetos: </li></ul><ul><li>Aquí debemos tomar en cuenta los verbos que nos permiten utilizar un gerundio desp...
<ul><li>Como complementos (frases que describen o explican al sujeto u objeto de la oración) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></...
<ul><li>Como objetos de una preposición. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>The kid was afraid  of  opening the door....
<ul><li>Para demostrar posesión. </li></ul><ul><li>(cuando se escribe o habla formalmente) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul...
<ul><li>En presente </li></ul><ul><li>Going camping can be a great experience. </li></ul><ul><li>En pasado </li></ul><ul><...
Infinitives <ul><li>¿ Cómo se forma un infinitivo? </li></ul><ul><li>to + forma base de un verbo </li></ul><ul><li>to+ wor...
<ul><li>Como sujetos: </li></ul><ul><li>(formal) </li></ul><ul><li>To complete the task helps me to improve my knowledge. ...
<ul><li>Como objetos </li></ul><ul><li>(de sujeto para describirlo o explicarlo) </li></ul><ul><li>The students’ activity ...
<ul><li>Algunos verbos van seguidos solamente por </li></ul><ul><li>infinitivos. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother decided to s...
<ul><li>Verbs followed by infinitives or gerunds </li></ul><ul><li>with no change in meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>They began...
Too+ Adjective / Adverb Infinitive The project is too complicated to finish  on time. Luis works too slowly to meet  the d...
Adjective / Adverb + enough Infinitive Arthur is intelligent enough to complete the task. He didn’t study hard enough to p...
Enough + Noun Infinitive They have enough patience to teach kids patience enough
<ul><li>Simple infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>Andrea allowed us to get in. </li></ul><ul><li>Past infinitive </li></ul><ul><...
Function To modify verbs The topic  often  causes controversy. To modify adjectives The topic is  extremely  controversial...
Types Manner Carol performed the play  amazingly. Time Researchers discovered a new vaccine  recently . Place We can camp ...
Sentence Adverbs: Placement Beginning Definitely , she is an excellent student. Definitely , she works hard. Middle She is...
Focus Adverbs: Placement and Meaning They just don’t support what he says. They think he’s wrong. don’t just They agree wi...
Negative Adverbs: Placement and Inversion We  rarely agree on such things. Rarely do we I have seldom heard that idea. Sel...
Other adverbs that force inversion Here is your money. There goes the bus. Here it is. There it goes.
<ul><li>Características: </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Function as regular nouns (sustantivos) </l...
<ul><li>What is not clear about this assignment   is </li></ul><ul><li>noun   v </li></ul><ul><li>the objective </li></ul>...
<ul><li>I   can’t believe   that you are relatives . </li></ul><ul><li>s  v  (noun) object </li></ul><ul><li>I   wonder   ...
<ul><li>The problem   is   whether Mark will finish the  </li></ul><ul><li>s  v  (noun) c </li></ul><ul><li>task . </li></...
<ul><li>It   is   amazing   that you finished on time . </li></ul><ul><li>s v   adj.   (noun)  c </li></ul><ul><li>It   is...
<ul><li>“ That” is a grammatical word that simply introduces a clause. (no clear meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>“ That” can be...
<ul><li>They can occur within a statement or within another question. </li></ul><ul><li>These questions are more polite. <...
<ul><li>Direct Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What time   is   it ? </li></ul><ul><li>wh-  aux  s </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect...
Wh-questions
 
Yes/No questions <ul><li>Is Sophia free on Friday? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know if/whether Sophia is free on Friday? </li...
<ul><li>Do  you have my number? </li></ul><ul><li>I have no idea if/whether she has my </li></ul><ul><li>number. </li></ul...
Conditionals <ul><li>In English, there are many different ways of making sentences with If. It is important that: </li></u...
Zero Conditional <ul><li>We use the zero conditional to express a  situation that is always true .  </li></ul><ul><li>Pres...
First Conditional <ul><li>We use the first conditional to express  real possibilities.   </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple ...
Second Conditional <ul><li>We use the second conditional to express an  unreal situation . The situation or condition is i...
Third Conditional <ul><li>We use the third conditional to imagine the  consequence of events that happened or began to hap...
Mixed Conditional <ul><li>(2nd & 3rd Conditional) </li></ul><ul><li>The mixed conditional is a  mixture between the 2nd an...
The Subjunctive   <ul><li>Some adjectives can be followed by a subjunctive verb, like anxious, determined, eager. </li></u...
The Subjunctive <ul><li>Certain adjectives can also be used with the subjunctive and `It`, like advisable, critical, desir...
 
Communicative Grammar 4,II Bim
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Communicative Grammar 4,II Bim

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Los gerundios y las frases con gerundios cumplen la misma función que un sustantivo.

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  • Communicative Grammar 4,II Bim

    1. 1. ESCUELA : Ciencias de la Educación – Carrera de Inglés. NOMBRES: COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR 4 FECHA: ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009 Lic. César Ochoa Cueva. II BIMESTRE
    2. 2. Gerunds <ul><li>A la forma básica del verbo se le agrega –ing. </li></ul><ul><li>Es un sustantivo que se lo forma a partir de un verbo. </li></ul><ul><li>Los gerundios y las frases con gerundios cumplen la misma función que un sustantivo. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Reading can be a relaxing activity. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>No se puede confundir entre un verbo con –ing en un tiempo progresivo y un gerundio. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>Mark is playing soccer with his friends. </li></ul><ul><li>(jugando)- verbo en forma progressiva </li></ul><ul><li>Playing is his favorite hobby. </li></ul><ul><li>(jugar)(juego)-sustantivo </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Los gerundios pueden actuar en la oración de diferentes formas: </li></ul><ul><li>Como sujeto: </li></ul><ul><li>Acting in that movie was a new </li></ul><ul><li>s </li></ul><ul><li>experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning other languages is challenging. </li></ul><ul><li>s </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Como objetos: </li></ul><ul><li>Aquí debemos tomar en cuenta los verbos que nos permiten utilizar un gerundio despues de los mismos: </li></ul><ul><li>love / like / advise /suggest /enjoy /consider </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>Judy suggested going to her house . </li></ul><ul><li> objeto </li></ul><ul><li>Walter enjoys working in the garden . </li></ul><ul><li> objeto </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Como complementos (frases que describen o explican al sujeto u objeto de la oración) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>Ann’s favorite hobby is reading books . </li></ul><ul><li>c </li></ul><ul><li>(esta describiendo el sujeto) </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Como objetos de una preposición. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>The kid was afraid of opening the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary is good at playing tennis. </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel is happy about going to the trip. </li></ul><ul><li>Nota: be careful with the preposition (to) </li></ul><ul><li>I look forward to hearing from you. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Para demostrar posesión. </li></ul><ul><li>(cuando se escribe o habla formalmente) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>David’s talking about everything upsets me. </li></ul><ul><li>His talking about everything upsets me. </li></ul><ul><li>(possessive noun / pronoun) </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t like David talking about everything. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t like him talking about everything. </li></ul><ul><li>(name / object pronoun) </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>En presente </li></ul><ul><li>Going camping can be a great experience. </li></ul><ul><li>En pasado </li></ul><ul><li>Having worked so hard made me feel happy. </li></ul><ul><li>En forma pasiva : </li></ul><ul><li>Present: </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy loves being praised. </li></ul><ul><li>Past: </li></ul><ul><li>He does not feel good about having been punished. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Infinitives <ul><li>¿ Cómo se forma un infinitivo? </li></ul><ul><li>to + forma base de un verbo </li></ul><ul><li>to+ work / to play / to run / to read… </li></ul><ul><li>Cumplen la misma función que un sustantivo. </li></ul><ul><li>Actúan dentro de una oración de diferentes maneras: </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Como sujetos: </li></ul><ul><li>(formal) </li></ul><ul><li>To complete the task helps me to improve my knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>(frases con It ) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s important to go to the doctor when you feel sick. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s helpful for students to finish this activity. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Como objetos </li></ul><ul><li>(de sujeto para describirlo o explicarlo) </li></ul><ul><li>The students’ activity is to draw a picture. </li></ul><ul><li>¿Cómo hacemos una forma negativa? </li></ul><ul><li>Le anteponemos la palabra “not” al infinitivo. </li></ul><ul><li>I asked you not to close the door. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Algunos verbos van seguidos solamente por </li></ul><ul><li>infinitivos. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother decided to study abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Otros requieren un sustantivo o pronombre </li></ul><ul><li>My friend invited me to play cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Otros van seguidos de un sustantivo o </li></ul><ul><li>pronombre mas un infinitivo dependiendo del </li></ul><ul><li>significado del verbo. </li></ul><ul><li>We expected to finish on time. </li></ul><ul><li>We expected Jim to finish on time. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Verbs followed by infinitives or gerunds </li></ul><ul><li>with no change in meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>They began to encourage her. </li></ul><ul><li>They began encouraging her. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs followed by infinitives or gerunds </li></ul><ul><li>with a significant change in meaning : </li></ul><ul><li>I stopped to go to the store. </li></ul><ul><li>I stopped going to the store. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Too+ Adjective / Adverb Infinitive The project is too complicated to finish on time. Luis works too slowly to meet the deadline.
    16. 16. Adjective / Adverb + enough Infinitive Arthur is intelligent enough to complete the task. He didn’t study hard enough to pass the test.
    17. 17. Enough + Noun Infinitive They have enough patience to teach kids patience enough
    18. 18. <ul><li>Simple infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>Andrea allowed us to get in. </li></ul><ul><li>Past infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>Clark seems to have had trouble at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>The assignment was supposed to have been finished by this morning. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Function To modify verbs The topic often causes controversy. To modify adjectives The topic is extremely controversial. To modify other adverbs He treated the topic very fairly. To modify entire sentences Unfortunately , the topic is controversial.
    20. 20. Types Manner Carol performed the play amazingly. Time Researchers discovered a new vaccine recently . Place We can camp here . Frequency We apply questionnaires very often .
    21. 21. Sentence Adverbs: Placement Beginning Definitely , she is an excellent student. Definitely , she works hard. Middle She is definitely an excellent student. She definitely works hard. End She is an excellent student, definitely . She works hard, definitely .
    22. 22. Focus Adverbs: Placement and Meaning They just don’t support what he says. They think he’s wrong. don’t just They agree with him 100%. Even she can do that. Anyone can do that She can do even that. It’s amazing how many things she can do. Only men can participate. Women can’t. Men can only participate. They can’t do anything else.
    23. 23. Negative Adverbs: Placement and Inversion We rarely agree on such things. Rarely do we I have seldom heard that idea. Seldom have I They never disagreed with him. Never did they disagreed
    24. 24. Other adverbs that force inversion Here is your money. There goes the bus. Here it is. There it goes.
    25. 25. <ul><li>Características: </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Function as regular nouns (sustantivos) </li></ul><ul><li>They can act in the sentence in different positions </li></ul>Noun Clauses That, QW: why, what or whether or if
    26. 26. <ul><li>What is not clear about this assignment is </li></ul><ul><li>noun v </li></ul><ul><li>the objective </li></ul><ul><li>c </li></ul><ul><li>That funny face make me laugh. </li></ul><ul><li>noun v c </li></ul>Subjects
    27. 27. <ul><li>I can’t believe that you are relatives . </li></ul><ul><li>s v (noun) object </li></ul><ul><li>I wonder what I should give her . </li></ul><ul><li>s v (noun) object </li></ul>Objects
    28. 28. <ul><li>The problem is whether Mark will finish the </li></ul><ul><li>s v (noun) c </li></ul><ul><li>task . </li></ul><ul><li>The situation is that she needs to continue </li></ul><ul><li>s v (noun) c </li></ul><ul><li>studying. </li></ul>Subject complements
    29. 29. <ul><li>It is amazing that you finished on time . </li></ul><ul><li>s v adj. (noun) c </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear that you understand everything . </li></ul><ul><li>s v adj. (noun) c </li></ul>Adjective Complements
    30. 30. <ul><li>“ That” is a grammatical word that simply introduces a clause. (no clear meaning) </li></ul><ul><li>“ That” can be omitted when it introduces an object noun clause or a complement noun clause. Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>I think (that) she is smart. </li></ul><ul><li>It is incredible (that) you are the one in the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject noun clauses beginning with “that” are formal. </li></ul>Algunas otras características
    31. 31. <ul><li>They can occur within a statement or within another question. </li></ul><ul><li>These questions are more polite. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use If to introduce a subject noun clause. </li></ul>Embedded Questions
    32. 32. <ul><li>Direct Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What time is it ? </li></ul><ul><li>wh- aux s </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know what time it is ? </li></ul><ul><li> wh- s aux </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t believe what time it is . </li></ul>Embedded Questions
    33. 33. Wh-questions
    34. 35. Yes/No questions <ul><li>Is Sophia free on Friday? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know if/whether Sophia is free on Friday? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Bob in town? </li></ul><ul><li>We are not sure if/whether Bob is in town. </li></ul>
    35. 36. <ul><li>Do you have my number? </li></ul><ul><li>I have no idea if/whether she has my </li></ul><ul><li>number. </li></ul><ul><li>Will Mary be at the party? </li></ul><ul><li>Please ask Mary if/whether she will be at </li></ul><ul><li>the party. </li></ul>
    36. 37. Conditionals <ul><li>In English, there are many different ways of making sentences with If. It is important that: </li></ul><ul><li>1) You understand the difference between sentences that express real possibilities, and those that express unreal situations. </li></ul><ul><li>2) You learn which tenses follow each conditional. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Zero Conditional <ul><li>We use the zero conditional to express a situation that is always true . </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple + present simple </li></ul><ul><li>If I read too much, I get a headache </li></ul>
    38. 39. First Conditional <ul><li>We use the first conditional to express real possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Present simple + future </li></ul><ul><li>If I go to the concert, I'll see Ricky Martin. </li></ul>
    39. 40. Second Conditional <ul><li>We use the second conditional to express an unreal situation . The situation or condition is improbable, impossible, imaginary or contrary to known facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Past simple + would (conditional) </li></ul><ul><li>If I won the lottery, I would buy a house. </li></ul>
    40. 41. Third Conditional <ul><li>We use the third conditional to imagine the consequence of events that happened or began to happen in the past . </li></ul><ul><li>Past Perfect + would have + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>If I had known, I would have gone to visit you. </li></ul>
    41. 42. Mixed Conditional <ul><li>(2nd & 3rd Conditional) </li></ul><ul><li>The mixed conditional is a mixture between the 2nd and 3rd conditional . </li></ul><ul><li>If the weather had been better, we would go back next year. </li></ul><ul><li>If I'd been born in 1980, I'd be 23 years old now. </li></ul><ul><li>(remember: I'd been born - I'd = I had; I'd be 23 years - I'd = I would) </li></ul>
    42. 43. The Subjunctive <ul><li>Some adjectives can be followed by a subjunctive verb, like anxious, determined, eager. </li></ul><ul><li>He was determined that they do not </li></ul><ul><li> separate. </li></ul><ul><li>  The political campaign is eager that their </li></ul><ul><li> candidate step out of the shadows. </li></ul><ul><li>I am anxious that he discuss this with me </li></ul><ul><li> soon. </li></ul>
    43. 44. The Subjunctive <ul><li>Certain adjectives can also be used with the subjunctive and `It`, like advisable, critical, desirable, essential, fitting, imperative, important, necessary, vital. </li></ul><ul><li>It is imperative that you get home before </li></ul><ul><li> dark. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that everyone follow the </li></ul><ul><li>rules. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary that everyone be calm in times of </li></ul><ul><li>danger. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential that you arrive before 5pm. </li></ul>

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