Appropriate ICT for Papua New Guinea - comp soc Nov 09
Appropriate Technology for ICT in Developing CountriesTreading between Dream and Reality Victor van Reijswoud Professor of Information Systems Divine Word University Papua New Guinea
Outline1.Our Challenge2.Appropriate Technology for ICT3.Some Examples4.Conclusions and Way Forward
Our Challenge“ Information and Communication Technologies are a key input for economic development and growth. They offer opportunities for global integration while retaining the identity of the traditional societies. ICT can increase the economic and social well-being of poor people,and can empower individuals and communities. Finally ICT can enhance the effectiveness,efﬁciency and transparency of the public sector, including the delivery of social services.” (World Bank, 2002)
Our moral responsibility● Connect to the rest of the world● Provide affordable access to ICT for all● Build an ICT infrastructure with limited funds● Keep recurrent costs as low as possible● Have local ICT capacity available● Support local culture
Some Figures C omputer Us e Internet Us e (per 100 people) (per 100 people) D eveloping C ountries 2.5 2.6 Leas t D eveloped C ountries 0.3 0.2 Arab S tates 2.1 1.6 Eas t As ia and the Pacif i c 3.3 4.1 Latin America and the C aribbean 5.9 4.9 S outh As ia 0.8 0.6 S ub-S aharan Africa 1.2 0.8 C entral & Eas tern Europe & C IS 5.5 4.3 O EC D 36.3 33.2 High-income O EC D 43.7 40Computer and internet use in different regions (UNDP 2006) ,
More Figures R ank C ountry Acces s index C onnectivity IC T diffus ion index index 175 S olomon Is lands 0.341 0.016 0.115 151 Papua New Guinea 0.393 0.021 0.207 135 Vanuatu 0.444 0.023 0.233 103 Fiji 0.521 0.078 0.299 15 New Zealand 0.832 0.478 0.655 9 Australia 0.807 0.589 0.698Index for ICT Diffusion in the Asia-Pacif i region United Nations 2007 c
Definition Appropriate ICT “The integrated and participatory approach that results in tools and processes for establishingInformation and Communication Technology (ICT) that is suitable for the cultural, environmental, organisational, economic and political conditions in which it is intended to be used.” In other words: Adapt to the context!
Appropriate Technology - 11. It should be possible to implement/ realize technological solutions with limited financial resources.2. The use of available resources must be emphasized to reduce the costs and to guarantee the supply of resources e.g., for maintenance3. Technologies may be relatively labor-intensive, but must have a higher output than the traditional technologies.4. The technology must be understandable for people without specific or academic training5. Small rural communities should be able to produce and maintain the technology
Appropriate Technology - 26. The technology must result into economic and/or social progress.7. The technology must be fully understandable for the local population, the end-users resulting into possibilities for them to become involved in the possible innovation and extension of the use of the technology8. The technological solutions must be flexible and easily to be adapted to changing circumstances.9. The technology must contribute to the increase of productivity10.The technology should not have a negative impact on the environment.
3 focus areas● Hardware● Software● MethodologiesIn the context of the system development life cycle ● Definition ● Design ● Construction ● Installation ● Operation / Maintenance
The A-ICT Check listThe Appropriate ICT Framework results in achecklist with questions that guides to: 1.Selection of appropriate ICT hardware 2.Selection of appropriate ICT software 3.Approproate methodologies for introduction and deployment of ICT
Appropriate Hardware for PNG● Durable● Strong and dust/damp resistant● Easy to maintain – no special tools● Easy to upgrade● Parts available
One-Laptop-per-Child project - 1To create educational opportunities for the worldspoorest children by providing each child with arugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptopwith content and software designed forcollaborative, joyful, self-empowered learning.When children have access to this type of toolthey get engaged in their own education. Theylearn, share, create, and collaborate. Theybecome connected to each other, to the world andto a brighter future.
One-Laptop-per-Child project - 2The XO is a potent learning tooldesigned and built especially forchildren in developing countries,living in some of the most remoteenvironments. It’s about the sizeof a small textbook. It has built-inwireless and a unique screen thatis readable under direct sunlightfor children who go to schooloutdoors. It’s extremely durable,brilliantly functional, energy-efficient, and fun.
Making two (ten) of onehttp://www2.userful.com/A simple and free way to transformyour dual-monitor linux PC into adual-station PC.Using just one PC youll be able tosupport two independent users. Allyou need is a computer with twomonitors connected and an extraUSB keyboard and mouse.Can be extended to 10 users withpaid version
Linux Terminal Server Project● The Linux Terminal Server Project adds thin- client support to Linux servers. LTSP is a flexible, cost effective solution that is empowering schools, businesses, and organizations all over the world to easily install and deploy desktop workstations.● A growing number of Linux distributions include LTSP out-of-the-box.
This is also nice(but still too expensive for most of us)
Appropriate Software for PNG● Affordable / free● Easy to use● Usable on older/second hand hardware● Adaptable and scalable● No internet activation / no massive updates● Limited file sizes● Allowing localization
Free and Open Source Software● Free redistribution of software● Source code availability and distribution. To allow easy evolution and adaptation of programs● Explicit permission to modify the software and further redistribute derived works under the same license terms.FOSS provides low cost alternatives but yet industrystrength solutions ● Desktop ● Server
Ubuntu Light● Recommended configuration: ● Pentium 2 or better ● 96MB of RAM or better ● 4GB Hard Drive or better● www.u-lite.org
No cost solution● Small and medium size organisations can automate at zero software cost: ● IP cop gateway ● SME server as file server ● Ubuntu / Open Office on the desktop ● ClamAV virus protect (for the win machines) ● Email / website through google apps ● Databases with Base. MySQL ● Etc When we only had the right advisors!
Appropriate Methodologies for PNG● Addressing limited understanding of the users● User requirements driven (not vendor-driven)● Need to address: ● Environment ● Organisation ● Economical / financial ● Political ● CULTURE● Participative (as in PNG tradition)
Conclusions● ICT is PNG is not heading in an appropiate direction● Dreamers and clever business men lead the way● This leads to: ● Exclusion of large groups ● Slow ICT adoption ● High levels of software piracy ● White elephants● Accept that we have limited resources!!!
Way Forward● Government should promote appropriate ICT solutions● All large ICT projects need to be assessed by independent and well qualified ICT experts● Donors need to implement appropriate ICT solutions (no financial legacy after project)● Build up in-country best practices● Support program for young entrepreneurs nur- turing innovation● Awareness program for users
10Q 10Q More information: Prof. Victor van Reijswoudvvvanreijswoud@dwu.ac.pg +675 7650 7946