He said, “ I have lost my
umbrella”
Reporting verb +

Inverted commas

Direct
speech
Exact words

,
He said (that) he had ...
PRONOUNS
AND
ADJECTIVES

EXPRESSIONS
OF TIME AND
PLACE

VERBS
DIRECT

I /

MY /

INDIRECT/REPORTED

ME

HE, SHE / HIS, HER / HIM,
HER

YOU / YOUR

I / MY

WE / OUR / US

Don‟t change o...
DIRECT

INDIRECT/REPORTED

TODAY, TONIGHT

THAT DAY / THAT NIGHT

YESTERDAY

THE DAY BEFORE/ THE
PREVIOUS DAY

TOMORROW

T...
TENSE

DIRECT

INDIRECT/REPORTED

Simple
present

He said, ”I never eat meat”

Simple
past

He said that he never ate meat...
We can report:

QUESTION
S

STATEMENTS

SPEAKER‟S
INTENTIONS
 We usually use the verbs SAY and TELL, but
other possible verbs are EXPLAIN, POINT OUT,
COMPLAIN
 THAT can be omitted a...
He said, “ She is coming this week to stay with us”
He said that she was coming that week to stay with them.
She said, “ I...
 The main introductory verbs are
ASK, WONDER, WANT TO KNOW, INQUIRE…
 Apart from the general changes there are other
imp...
He said, “ Where is she going ?”

He asked where

she

was going

“ Do you want to go to the cinema with me today?” he ask...
 We will study them in groups depending on
their behaviour when we apply the necessary
changes.
 They don‟t follow the c...
(I)
TELL +someone + TO INF / NOT TO INF

ORDERS
COMANDS

“Don‟t make too much noise, children” he said.
He told the childr...
( II)
OFFER + TO INF / NOT TO INF
OFFERS

“I can look after the child while you are working” he
said.
He offered to look a...
APOLOGISE FOR + GERUND
APOLOGIES

“I‟m sorry I‟m late” he said.
He apologised for being late

THANK FOR + GERUND
THANKS

“...
STATEMENTS
QUESTIONS ( I )
QUESTIONS ( II )
REQUEST AND ORDERS
Reportedspeech2
Reportedspeech2
Reportedspeech2
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Reportedspeech2

  1. 1. He said, “ I have lost my umbrella” Reporting verb + Inverted commas Direct speech Exact words , He said (that) he had lost his umbrella Reporting verb + (that) Changes: same meaning without exact words Reported speech
  2. 2. PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE VERBS
  3. 3. DIRECT I / MY / INDIRECT/REPORTED ME HE, SHE / HIS, HER / HIM, HER YOU / YOUR I / MY WE / OUR / US Don‟t change or THEY / THEIR / THEM HE, SHE, IT / HIS, HER, ITS / HIM, HER, ITS Don‟t change He THIS,“ THAT to apply for this job” said, I want THE He said that he wanted to apply for the job She told me, “ You have to do some exercise” She told me I had to do some exercise He said to me, “ he came through the window” He said that he ( the thief) had come through the window
  4. 4. DIRECT INDIRECT/REPORTED TODAY, TONIGHT THAT DAY / THAT NIGHT YESTERDAY THE DAY BEFORE/ THE PREVIOUS DAY TOMORROW THE NEXT DAY/ THE FOLLOWING DAY NOW THEN LAST WEEK, YEAR.. THE WEEK BEFORE/ THE PREVIOUS WEEK NEXT WEEK, YEAR… THE FOLLOWING WEEK A YEAR AGO A YEAR BEFORE/ THE PREVIOUS YEAR HERE THERE
  5. 5. TENSE DIRECT INDIRECT/REPORTED Simple present He said, ”I never eat meat” Simple past He said that he never ate meat Pres. Cont She said, “ I‟m waiting for Ann” Past. Cont. She said she was waiting for Ann Pres. Perf. He explained, “I have found a flat” Past. Perf. He explained that he had found a flat. Pres. Perf. Cont He said, “I’ve been waiting for ages” Past. Perf.Con t He said that he had been waiting for ages. Simple Past She said, “ I took it home with me” Past. Perf. She said she had taken it home with her Future He said, “ We will be in Paris on Monday”. Conditio nal He said they would be in Paris on Monday. Fut. Cont. She said, “ I will be using the car myself on the 24th” Cond. Cont. She said that she would be using the car herself on the 24th Can He said, “ You can do it yourself” Could He said I could do it myself May He said, “ She may be at home tonight” Might He said she might be at home that day. Must/ Have to She said, “ You must go to the doctor” Had to She said that I had to go to the doctor.
  6. 6. We can report: QUESTION S STATEMENTS SPEAKER‟S INTENTIONS
  7. 7.  We usually use the verbs SAY and TELL, but other possible verbs are EXPLAIN, POINT OUT, COMPLAIN  THAT can be omitted after SAY or TELL, but it should be kept with other verbs.  Construction: SAY + ( TO + indirect complement ) + ( THAT ) She said to me that she was looking for a job She said she was looking for a job TELL + indirect complement + ( THAT ) She told me that she was looking for a job She told me she was looking for a job S T A T E M E N T S
  8. 8. He said, “ She is coming this week to stay with us” He said that she was coming that week to stay with them. She said, “ I bought these pearls for my mother a year ago” She told me that she had bought the pearls for her mother the previous year/ the year before. John said, “I couldn‟t get on time because I lost the bus” John explained that he couldn’t get on time because he had lost the bus Hadn’t been able to get Christine said, “ we will pay you back next month” Christine told me they would pay me back the following week S T A T E M E N T S
  9. 9.  The main introductory verbs are ASK, WONDER, WANT TO KNOW, INQUIRE…  Apart from the general changes there are other important changes: - The interrogative form changes to affirmative form - The question mark is omitted Q U E S T I O N S
  10. 10. He said, “ Where is she going ?” He asked where she was going “ Do you want to go to the cinema with me today?” he asked. He asked me IF I wanted to go to the cinema with him that day He asked, “have you seen my cousin at school today?” He wanted to know IF I had seen his cousin at school that day Mark asked, “Why are you wearing my new shoes, Peter?” Mark asked Peter WHY he was wearing his new shoes. Q U E S T I O N S
  11. 11.  We will study them in groups depending on their behaviour when we apply the necessary changes.  They don‟t follow the changes in the verb form. Some of them will be followed by INFINITIVE, while others will be followed by GERUND. INFINITIVE GERUND S P E A K E R „S I N T E N T I O N S
  12. 12. (I) TELL +someone + TO INF / NOT TO INF ORDERS COMANDS “Don‟t make too much noise, children” he said. He told the children not to make too much noise ASK+ someone+ TO INF / NOT TO INF PETITIONS “You might post some letters for me” said my boss. My boss asked me to post some letters for him WARN+ someone+ TO INF / NOT TO INF WARNINGS “Don‟t go alone” Her father warned her Her father warned her not to go alone ADVISE + someone +TO INF / NOT TO INF ADVICES “You must see this exhibition” said all my friends. All my friends advised me to see that exhibition REMIND + SOMEONE + TO INF / NOT TO INF REMINDS “Don‟t forget to buy the wine” said Mrs Pitt.
  13. 13. ( II) OFFER + TO INF / NOT TO INF OFFERS “I can look after the child while you are working” he said. He offered to look after the child while she was working PROMISE + TO INF / NOT TO INF PROMISES “ I will give you a raise ” my boss promised. My boss promised to give me a raise REFUSE + TO INF / NOT TO INF REFUSALS THREATENS “I won‟t lend you any more money” his sister said. His sister refused to lend him any more money. THREATEN + TO INF / NOT TO INF “I will call the police if you don‟t stop making noise” said my neighbour My neighbour threatened to call the police if we didn’t stop making noise.
  14. 14. APOLOGISE FOR + GERUND APOLOGIES “I‟m sorry I‟m late” he said. He apologised for being late THANK FOR + GERUND THANKS “You have worked till late, thank you” said my boss. My boss thanked for having work till late SUGGEST + ING “Let‟s go for a walk, it‟s a wonderful afternoon” she SUGGESTIONS said She suggested going for a walk because it was a wonderful afternoon. DENY + ING DENIAL “I didn‟t steal the money” said the employee. The employee denied stealing the money ADMITT + GERUND ADMISSIONS “All right, I took the money” the secretary said. The secretary admitted taking the money
  15. 15. STATEMENTS QUESTIONS ( I ) QUESTIONS ( II ) REQUEST AND ORDERS

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