He said, “ I have lost my
Reporting verb +
He said (that) he had lost his
verb + (that)
Changes: same meaning without exact
OF TIME AND
HE, SHE / HIS, HER / HIM,
YOU / YOUR
I / MY
WE / OUR / US
Don‟t change or THEY / THEIR
HE, SHE, IT / HIS, HER, ITS /
HIM, HER, ITS
He THIS,“ THAT to apply for this job”
said, I want
He said that he wanted to apply for the job
She told me, “ You have to do some exercise”
She told me I had to do some exercise
He said to me, “ he came through the window”
He said that he ( the thief) had come through the
THAT DAY / THAT NIGHT
THE DAY BEFORE/ THE
THE NEXT DAY/ THE
LAST WEEK, YEAR..
THE WEEK BEFORE/ THE
NEXT WEEK, YEAR…
THE FOLLOWING WEEK
A YEAR AGO
A YEAR BEFORE/ THE
He said, ”I never eat meat”
He said that he never ate meat
She said, “ I‟m waiting for Ann”
She said she was waiting for Ann
He explained, “I have found a flat”
He explained that he had found a flat.
He said, “I’ve been waiting for
He said that he had been waiting for
She said, “ I took it home with me”
She said she had taken it home with
He said, “ We will be in Paris on
He said they would be in Paris on
She said, “ I will be using the car
myself on the 24th”
She said that she would be using the
car herself on the 24th
He said, “ You can do it yourself”
He said I could do it myself
He said, “ She may be at home
He said she might be at home that day.
She said, “ You must go to the
She said that I had to go to the doctor.
We can report:
We usually use the verbs SAY and TELL, but
other possible verbs are EXPLAIN, POINT OUT,
THAT can be omitted after SAY or TELL, but it
should be kept with other verbs.
SAY + ( TO + indirect complement ) + ( THAT )
She said to me that she was looking for a
She said she was looking for a job
TELL + indirect complement + ( THAT )
She told me that she was looking for a job
She told me she was looking for a job
He said, “ She is coming this week to stay with us”
He said that she was coming that week to stay with them.
She said, “ I bought these pearls for my mother a year ago”
She told me that she had bought the pearls for her mother the previous year/ the year before.
John said, “I couldn‟t get on time because I lost the bus”
John explained that he couldn’t get on time because he had lost the bus
Hadn’t been able to get
Christine said, “ we will pay you back next month”
Christine told me they would pay me back the following week
The main introductory verbs are
ASK, WONDER, WANT TO KNOW, INQUIRE…
Apart from the general changes there are other
- The interrogative form changes to affirmative
- The question mark is omitted
He said, “ Where is she going ?”
He asked where
“ Do you want to go to the cinema with me today?” he asked.
He asked me
wanted to go to the cinema with him that day
He asked, “have you seen my cousin at school today?”
He wanted to know IF I had seen his cousin at school that day
Mark asked, “Why are you wearing my new shoes, Peter?”
Mark asked Peter WHY he was wearing his new shoes.
We will study them in groups depending on
their behaviour when we apply the necessary
They don‟t follow the changes in the verb form.
Some of them will be followed by INFINITIVE,
while others will be followed by GERUND.
TELL +someone + TO INF / NOT TO INF
“Don‟t make too much noise, children” he said.
He told the children not to make too much noise
ASK+ someone+ TO INF / NOT TO INF
“You might post some letters for me” said my boss.
My boss asked me to post some letters for him
WARN+ someone+ TO INF / NOT TO INF
“Don‟t go alone” Her father warned her
Her father warned her not to go alone
ADVISE + someone +TO INF / NOT TO INF
“You must see this exhibition” said all my friends.
All my friends advised me to see that exhibition
REMIND + SOMEONE + TO INF / NOT TO INF
“Don‟t forget to buy the wine” said Mrs Pitt.
OFFER + TO INF / NOT TO INF
“I can look after the child while you are working” he
He offered to look after the child while she was
PROMISE + TO INF / NOT TO INF
“ I will give you a raise ” my boss promised.
My boss promised to give me a raise
REFUSE + TO INF / NOT TO INF
“I won‟t lend you any more money” his sister said.
His sister refused to lend him any more money.
THREATEN + TO INF / NOT TO INF
“I will call the police if you don‟t stop making noise” said my
My neighbour threatened to call the police if we didn’t stop
APOLOGISE FOR + GERUND
“I‟m sorry I‟m late” he said.
He apologised for being late
THANK FOR + GERUND
“You have worked till late, thank you” said my boss.
My boss thanked for having work till late
SUGGEST + ING
“Let‟s go for a walk, it‟s a wonderful afternoon” she
She suggested going for a walk because it was a
DENY + ING
“I didn‟t steal the money” said the employee.
The employee denied stealing the money
ADMITT + GERUND
“All right, I took the money” the secretary said.
The secretary admitted taking the money
QUESTIONS ( I )
QUESTIONS ( II )
REQUEST AND ORDERS