Professor: Sophia Bishop
Living in digital world can cause positive and negative
affects on our life. On one hand it is much more
convenient to keep in touch with relatives all around
the world, and share files with people without meeting
them in person. And what about the online shopping?
Good things are always good, however there is
something called Cyber Crime.
So what is Cyber Crimes and what types of cyber
crimes do we face everyday.
“Cyber crime encompasses any criminal act
dealing with computers and networks
(called hacking). Additionally, cyber crime also
includes traditional crimes conducted through
In this presentation I will discuss and try to
distinguish two very similar and commonly used
“In the computer security context, a hacker is someone who seeks and exploits
weaknesses in a computer system or computer network. Hackers may be
motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, or challenge.The
subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer
underground and is now a known community.”
Cracking on the other hand is hacking with criminal intent. A
cracker is the common term used to describe a malicious hacker.
There are two main types of
In cryptanalysis and computer security password cracking is the
process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in
or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach is to
repeatedly try guesses for the password.
“Software cracking is the modification of software to remove or disable
features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software,
usually related to protection methods: ( copy protection, protection against the
manipulation of software), trial/demo version, serial number, hardware key, date
checks, CD check or software annoyances like and screens and adware.” 
How can Hackers be
“The word "hacker" gets used in a pejorative sense by journalists an awful lot. Some people think
this is perfectly reasonable; others find it offensive, and recommend an alternative term for that
meaning.” (Techrepublic) 
The use of the word in press and in public creates a confusion for people who are less involved in
the computer world.
Hacking is usually done by a person who knows the computer systems and is incredibly curious to
learn more about the product. Hackers do it for satisfaction and inspiration. Usually hacking can be
good , or bad. Where on the other hand Crackers can harm not only the machine that is affected
but also the personal information that is stored on the machine. As a result of that many people can
be affected because of the stolen data bases and damaged computers.
Hacking: Positive side
Hacking can be used to prevent a loss of information
by companies and individuals before the actually
attacked. So called cyber security ( group of hackers)
will try to attack you system to find the weakness.
Hackers do not actually damage or ruin the system or
machine it self.
Is hacking ethical?
If we will look at hacking from a Utilitarian  point of view, hacking
does maximizes our happiness by protecting the systems from Cracking.
Moreover, It stimulates the computer Geeks to create new products and
systems that are different from each other, which is an overall happiness
again, because progress is always good.
Hacking can be also compared to burglary. It is trespassing to the
personal space of other person. However, there is no way to clarify the
amounts of personal space online.
In 2002 on Twenty First Century Conference, a senior security
analyst for Microsoft, Steven Lipner admitted that hackers help
to develop and improve new product.
“We work very cooperatively with a lot of them (hackers) and
we will work with anybody who reports information to us that
we need to know to protect our customers. We do ask them
(hackers) when they report to keep those vulnerabilities private
until we can fix the problem, assuming there is one”.
Negative side of Hacking :
This is where the issue of distinguishing the hacking and
cracking really occurs. As long as the actions are done for good,
and the intent of this action was curiosity and improvement it is
hacking. But as soon as it becomes to getting profits, gathering
the information, or modifying the system, it becomes Cracking.
The law has no clear separation between those two types of cyber
crimes. Which in some perspective makes thing very
It is very hard to legally or ethically distinguish
hacking from cracking. The only way to do so is to
find an intent and interest of the hacker. As well as to
analyze the results of the action. The law should be
separated for hacking and cracking.