Water is essential in our lives. It is considered as a universal solvent. Do
you know that the human body consists of 70% of water? Water can be a
liquid, a solid, or a gas. Liquid water flows. Solid water is ice. Water in the
form of a gas is called water vapour.
WHERE IS WATER FOUND ON EARTH?
Liquid water fills the ocean, lakes, ponds, rivers, and swamps. Water
droplets form rain clouds. Liquid water makes beads of dew on the grass.
It seeps down into the ground. It fills underground lakes and streams.
Ice falls as hail or crystals of snow. Ice forms on ponds and frosty
windowpanes. Huge sheets of ice make glaciers and icecaps at the North
and South poles.
Water vapour is always present in the air. Water vapour makes clouds in
the sky. Water vapour makes fog that hangs close to the ground. It is the
steam that comes out of a teakettle.
CONSTITUENT OF WATER
Water is made up of two elements i.e. hydrogen and oxygen. Water is
considered to be a universal solvent because of its capability of dissolving
PROPERTIES OF WATER
It is colourless.
It has a high surface tension.
It is odourless.
DO YOU KNOW HOW TO TEST FOR WATER? HERE ARE A FEW
It is neutral to both red and blue litmus paper and has pH of 7.
It turns white anhydrous copper (II) tetraoxosulphate (IV) to blue
HOW DO WE CONSUME WATER?
Water is consumed in many ways; here are a few points;
o DOMESTIC PURPOSES: water is used for cooking, drinking and washing
in our homes. It is sometimes left running in the sink which wastes
o INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES: water is used to prepare chemicals and
o ENERGY PRODUCTION: water is used to turn turbines to produce
electricity (hydroelectric power).
o AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES: used for irrigation of farmlands for growth
and development of plan.
CONSUMATION OF WATER
IN OUR HOMES
This refers to a situation whereby a water body is made impure and unsafe
for human consumption.
CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION
1. Oil spillage: Tema being one of Ghana’s industries cities has many
industries whose waste products are mainly oil. This mostly occurs
during the production, distribution, and refining stages. These oil spills
enter oceans and rivers from faulty and accident tankers as well as
offshore oil wells.
2. Untreated sewage from plants, animals and humans.
3. Bad mining practices: Because mining is one of Ghana’s major
activities, there are usual discharges from mining sites in the form of
acid mine-water and also acid rain contribute to water pollution.
EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION
It leads to the increased in water borne diseases. Water-borne diseases
are infectious diseases spread primarily through contaminated water
Water pollution poses a number of health problems
How would you solve these problems in your locality?
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF WATER POLLUTION
a) Raw sewage should be treated before discharged.
b) The Municipal Assemblies and the other assemblies should
provide rubbish cans so that rubbish empty tins and plastics can
properly be disposed off.
c) Education: the government must educate people on the need to
keep their water bodies clean. This can be done through the use of
the media, forums and programs. For it is when we THINK
GLOBALLY that we can ACT LOCALLY.
Water is never safe for drinking. Water undergoes several
processes before distributed to people for use. Some of these
WAYS THROUGH WHICH WATER IS STORED IN GHANA
DAMS AND RIVERS: We build dams to control water. A dam built
across a river or stream stops the water’s flow. Water collects in a
lake behind the dam. The lake stores water for people to use later.
The lake, or water storage area, is called a reservoir.
The use of containers to store water for future use.Eg; the use of
polytanks, reservoirs e.t.c.
BY; GROUP OF TONGA
EMMANUEL OSAE OMARI(EINSTEIN)
FREDERICK KWAME AGBLEVOR(NEWTON)
REXFORD BANNERMAN WILLIAMS(ROOSEVELT)
SANDRA ALEXANDRA MENSAH(SHAKESPEAR)