Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 31
  • 31
  • Crime2

    1. 1. Crimes against property and persons
    2. 3.
    3. 5. Crimes against property <ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Burglary </li></ul><ul><li>Larceny </li></ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul><ul><li>White collar crimes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embezzlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insider trading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing- movies, games, music, software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity theft – credit cards, checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online gambling, child pornography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright infringement </li></ul></ul>
    4. 6. Market for Insurance o D 1 Quantity S 1 Price Q 1 Q 2 P 1 P 2 D 2 Increase in crime Rise in demand for insurance Price and sales increase
    5. 7. o D 1 S 1 S 2 P Q 1 Q 2 P 1 P 2 Market for jewelry Quantity Rise in shop-lifting Sellers install expensive security equipment Supply shifts left Price of jewelry rises Quantity sold falls Works like a tax on goods Cost of security cameras
    6. 8. Burden of crime – who pays the tax? Producers or consumers? <ul><li>Depends on who is more price-sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Less price-sensitive side pays higher share of the extra cost of security equipment </li></ul>
    7. 9. Elastic and Inelastic Demand Quantity Price Q 2 Q1 Quantity Q 2 Q1 P 2 P1 P 2 P1 Price Inelastic Demand D D Price Elastic Demand <ul><li>Elasticity = percentage change in Q for a 1% change in P </li></ul>
    8. 10. Demand price inelastic P Q d 0 Steep Curve: Demand Relatively Inelastic 1. Few close substitutes 2. The good is a necessity 3. Small part of buyer’s budget 4. Short time period 5. Addiction
    9. 11. Demand price elastic P Q d Flat Curve: Demand Relatively Elastic 0 1. Many close substitutes 2. The good is a luxury 3. Large part of a buyer’s budget 4. Long period of time
    10. 12. Extreme Cases Perfectly Inelastic Demand P 0 D 1 Elasticity = 0 Q <ul><li>No matter how much price changes, consumers purchase the same amount of the good. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Insulin, addictive substance </li></ul></ul>
    11. 13. PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY <ul><li>More elastic supply means firms can change supply in larger quantities when price changes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beach-front land supply is inelastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, cars, manufactured goods are elastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply is more elastic in the long run </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anything that can affect a firms ability to change production easily affects the elasticity of supply. </li></ul>E s = Percentage change in quantity supplied of good X Percentage change in the price of good X
    12. 14. Extreme Cases Perfectly Inelastic Supply P 0 S Elasticity = 0 Q <ul><li>No matter how much price changes, fixed quantity is available for sale. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Picasso paintings, land </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. P o P m P Q D 1 Q o D 2 An increase in demand with inelastic supply causes… large increase in price S m
    14. 16. P o P Q D 1 Q o D 2 P L An increase in demand with elastic supply - Smaller price increase S L Q L
    15. 17. Who will pay the tax, buyers or sellers? Quantity Price Q * P S P B Quantity Q * P * P S P * P B Inelastic Demand D D S S Elastic Demand Part of tax paid by buyers Part of tax paid by sellers Inelastic demand: higher share of taxes passed on to buyers via higher prices Elastic demand: higher share of taxes is paid by seller
    16. 18. Crime against persons <ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational and “passion” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggravated assault (severe body injury) </li></ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are planned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual Causes of Death in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>From </li></ul>
    17. 19. Intent important to an understanding of the dynamic process leading to death Confrontation and Choice Intent Outcome KILL (Premeditated Success - Homicide or 1st degree murder) Failure - Assault INJURE Success - Assault (Assault) Failure - No Injury Threaten Homicide 2nd or Manslaughter Could escalate to one of above Except for 1st degree Murder, the path is unclear - can be uncertain until the very end - may change in the process
    18. 20. Capital punishment <ul><li>To deter potential murderers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except murders of passion or under influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrational : No cost – benefit analysis applied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trials that involve death penalty are more expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$300K - over $1million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some trial cost as much as it costs to lock up criminal for 40 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inequality: not everyone can afford a competent lawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes </li></ul>
    19. 21. Expenses for death penalty trials <ul><li>Expenses of capitally-prosecuted cases since 1978 cost Maryland taxpayers $186 million, or $37.2 million for each of the state’s 5 executions since the state reenacted the death penalty </li></ul><ul><li>average cost to Maryland taxpayers for reaching a single death sentence is $3 million, or $1.9 million more than the cost of a non-death penalty case. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes investigation, trial, appeals, and incarceration costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average cost of defending a trial in a federal death case is $620,932 , or 8 times that of a federal murder case in which the death penalty is not sought </li></ul><ul><li>Defendants with low representation costs were more than twice as likely to receive a death sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendants with less than $320,000 in terms of representation costs (the bottom 1/3 of federal capital trials) had a 44% chance of receiving a death sentence at trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defendants whose representation costs were higher than $320,000 (the remaining 2/3 of federal capital trials) had 19% chance of being sentenced to death. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>References to studies quoted are listed on </li></ul>
    20. 22. France was the last Western European Country to abandon the death Penalty in 1977
    21. 24. What purpose did the execution serve? <ul><li>Video of Saddam Hussein’s execution </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrence? </li></ul><ul><li>Detention? No </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation? No </li></ul><ul><li>Retribution? </li></ul>
    22. 25. Execution Witness Area
    23. 26. Execution Chamber
    24. 27. Gas Chamber
    25. 29. 1976 Supreme Court Reinstates Death Penalty
    26. 30. Bureau of Justice Statistics Peak to Peak: 50 years
    27. 31. Executions in the US 1930-2007 Peak to Peak: About 65 years
    28. 32. U.S.
    29. 33. Clearance Ratio, US 1976-2005
    30. 36. Why are so few murderers who receive the death sentence executed? <ul><li>FBI's Uniform Crime Report (UCR) & Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) : </li></ul><ul><li>1 execution for every 1600 murders, or 0.06% </li></ul><ul><li>Time on death row : > 10 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death sentence appeases the proponents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few executions appeases the opponents. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 37. Evidence Against the Death Penalty Being a Deterrent <ul><li>Contiguous States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maine: no death penalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vermont: death penalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Hampshire: death penalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little Variation in the Homicide Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Study by Thorsten Sellin in Hugo Bedau, The Death Penalty in America </li></ul></ul>
    32. 38.
    33. 39. Null Hypothesis: The Defendent is INNOCENT. As prescribed by the U. S. Constitution. Alternate Hypothesis: The Defendent is GUILTY. Distribution of defendents who are innocent Distribution of guilty defendents 0.0 Standard of quality for evidence 1.0 Certainty of Guilt (Certainty of Innocence) <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A B </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Arbitrary Standard Set Innocent, found Guilty Type I Error Guilty, found Innocent Type II Error S*
    34. 40. <ul><li>What is more costly for society: </li></ul><ul><li>convicting an innocent man? </li></ul><ul><li>allowing a guilty man to go free? </li></ul>
    35. 41. Guns and homicide <ul><li>Gun is the most popular weapon of choice </li></ul><ul><li>Choice to Use the Weapon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not made in advance in all but Murder 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The assailant may be unsure of own intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May only want to threaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be provoked to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be deterred from using </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control is all important at this stage </li></ul><ul><li>Gun Violence - > 35,000 deaths per year </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment Cost of Gunshot wounds: $63 Billion/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Selective denial of purchase and possession can reduce the risks of criminal activity by 20-30% </li></ul>
    36. 44. Recession and crime <ul><li>Incomes and legal employment fall </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and drug use rises </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer resources for crime prevension as tax revenues decline </li></ul>
    37. 45. Nikolai Kondratieff (1892-1938) Brought to attention in Joseph Schumpeter’s Business Cycles (1939)
    38. 47. NY Recidivism Trends