Overview• Setting the Context• Why Hydrogen?• The Hydrogen Office
Setting the Context• Scotland’s wind and seas hold some of the most concentrated energy potential in the world• Scottish Government target of 100% electricity from renewables by 2020, currently around 33%• UK has only 1.11 turbines/100km2 c.f. 10.85 in Denmark• 12,000 media articles written in 2010 but just 400 turbines installed• The wind industry now employs >10,000 people, making it larger than the UK coal industry• A recent study indicated that almost 50% Scots agreed Scotland’s energy should come from renewables
What are the issues?• Intermittent supply gives rise to grid instability – intermittent supply could be 50% of installed capacity by 2020 (Scotland)• Large fossil plants required to operate at part load to meet requirements• Spinning reserve is expensive and carbon intensive• By 2020 may be times when wholesale electricity is free due to excess wind, and other times could peak at £1.30/kWh• Need to consider energy storage to meet 2020 targets
Why Hydrogen for Storage?• Only proven technology that can manage intermittent supply, other technologies – flow cell batteries, NaS batteries still not fully proven• Energy density storage higher for hydrogen vs. normal batteries – 33kWh/kg (1.97kWh/kg including enclosure), – 0.16kWh/kg Lithium Ion – 0.04kWh/kg VRLA Battery• Benefits: Can store power over long period of time, systems are compact, no moving parts, no pollution• Drawbacks: Cost and durability of materials, efficiency...?