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BCSD-UK Decentralised Energy Guide

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  • 1. This guide aims to provide specific and practical information to support your implementation of decentralised energy systems. The guide will help you understand the right solution for different situations and help you understand which groups of people you will need for delivery. Use the buttons below to navigate around the guide. what when why how who whereThis section covers This section covers This section covers This section covers This section covers This section coverscontext for DE and key scenarios for reasons to key enablers and which parties you links to sources of the technologies the application of consider DE current business may need to deliver further information involved DE models a DE scheme
  • 2. What This section provides some introductory information defining the context for decentralised energy and some of the main technologies involved.Definition of DE What you need to do first Technologies ESCo what when why how who where
  • 3. Definition of Decentralised EnergyThere are many different definitions of “decentralised energy”.The Government takes a broad view using the term “distributed energy” to refer to the widerange of technologies that do not rely on the high-voltage electricity transmission network or the gasgrid.This includes:•All plants connected to a distribution network rather than the transmission network.•Small-scale plants that supply electricity to a building, industrial site or community, potentially sellingsurplus electricity back into a distribution network.•Microgeneration, i.e. small installations of solar panels, wind turbines or biomass/waste burners thatsupply one building or small community, again potentially selling any surplus.•Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, including: o Large CHP plants (where the electricity output feeds into the transmission network but the heat is used locally). o Building or community level CHP plants. o ‘Micro-CHP’ plants that effectively replace domestic boilers, generating both electricity and heat for the home.•Non-gas heat sources such as biomass, wood, solar thermal panels, geothermal energy or heatpumps, where the heat is used in just one household or is piped to a number of users in a building orcommunity. next › what when why how who where
  • 4. Local Generation Distributed energy schemes use a range of fuels to generate heat and electricity more efficiently by being close to the point of use. The heat is distributed and used in district heating networks, can generate chilled water for cooling and be used in industrial processes. The electricity is sold locally or exported onto the grid.what when why how who where
  • 5. Energy Efficiency Measures• Should be the starting point of any energy strategy.• Most important in achieving targets.• Insulation Technology.• Innovative solutions applied to all the micro renewable technologies.• Ongoing source of business opportunity. next › what when why how who where
  • 6. Hierarchy of Energy Efficiency in BuildingsAcross our cities and communities these are the routes to lowering carbon emissions, reducingenergy use and improving energy security, beyond central generation. what when why how who where
  • 7. Energy Companies (ESCos)What is an ESCo?  The precise role and responsibilities of an ESCo are tailored to meet the needs of the specific project or initiative. In general, ESCo’s are used to deliver the  following objectives:• CO2 reduction;• Renewable energy projects;• Energy savings;• Energy efficiency services;• Energy advice; or• Tackling fuel poverty.However, this list is not exhaustive and one of the main benefits of an ESCo is its flexibility.ESCo’s may be used to oversee the financing, construction, operation and maintenance of the system.  However the precise responsibilities of the ESCo will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual scheme.An Energy Service Company (ESCo) is not a magic wand that makes an unviable project viable, however, an ESCo may take a different view on acceptable rates of return and risk than other companies. next › what when why how who where
  • 8. ESCos 2ESCo and risk managementAn ESCo can spread the risk by transferring responsibility to those stakeholders best placed to manage them.  In the case of financial risk, an ESCo may choose to enter into a fixed cost arrangement and incur the risk of project overspend.Not only can an ESCo reduce the risk involved in a project, it can also ensure a much more rapid outcome.  By forming a group whose sole purpose is the specified project, it can provide a focussed delivery.  In contrast, for example, a local authority has many responsibilities and so time management issues may result in delays to the scheme.Furthermore an ESCo can ensure that the parties managing the project have sufficient knowledge about the topic.  By involving either public or private entities with previous experience implementing similar schemes, the outcome of the project can be much more secure.In some cases it can be useful to produce a risk matrix containing the risks at all stages of the project.  This ensures that all eventualities have been considered, all involved parties are aware of their responsibilities, and that each stage of the project is successful.  This matrix will be tailored to the specific project and include only the relevant risks.  next › what when why how who where
  • 9. ESCo Case Study 1ESCoThameswey Energy Ltd (est. 2007)Aim: Install a range of sustainable and renewableenergy projects to meet the Council’s ClimateChange Strategy objectives.  Improve theenvironment within the Borough of Woking for thebenefit of local residents.Mechanism: Thameswey Energy Ltd wasestablished, a joint venture company betweenThameswey Limited (a company wholly owned byWoking Borough Council) and Xergi Ltd.  TheESCo was setup to finance, build and operatesmall scale CHP stations, to provide energyservices by private wire and distributed heatingnetworks to institutional, commercial andresidential customers.Outcome: A CHP system provides heat,electricity and chilled water to district buildings. Further expansions will provide energy to otherresidents and revenue generated is being investedinto similar schemes. next › what when why how who where
  • 10. ESCo Case Study 2ESCo2Aberdeen Heat & Power (est. 2000)Aim: Improve the local authority’s housing stock and reduce fuel costs for tenants.  Find a more energy efficientheating method than mains electricity in the city’s multi-storey blocks.Mechanism: An ESCo was created to manage the scheme, and it in turn employed contractors and consultants toconstruct and install the CHP plant. Outcome: 288 flats are now connected to the community CHP scheme, which has created an annual cost saving of£83,396 for residents. The carbon savings from the scheme, compared to the existing heating systems, equate to 411tonnes per year. next › what when why how who where
  • 11. ESCo Case Study 3ESCo 3Southampton Geothermal Heating Company (est. 1986)Aim: That Southampton City Council “must not only advocate sustainable development, but demonstrate its commitment”by investing in energy efficient services.Mechanism: Southampton Geothermal Heating Company Ltd was created in a joint agreement between SouthamptonCity Council and Utilicom (a specialist energy management company).  The ESCo is solely owned by Utilicom so as tominimise risk for the local authority.Outcome: A geothermal well is used alongside a CHP generator to provide energy to local residents and businesses. 10,000 tonnes of carbon emissions are avoided annually and the council receive revenue of£10-15,000 a year from the sale of surplus energy. next › what when why how who where
  • 12. ESCo Case Study 4ESCo 4Mill Energy Services Ltd (est. 2003)Aim:  Meet the commitment of the developer toensure that the refurbished apartments arecarbon neutral and that carbon emissions fromground floor properties are minimised. Mechanism: An ESCo (wholly owned by theresidents and tenants of the building) wascreated to operate and maintain the renewableenergy generating assets, and to create revenueto cover ongoing costs.Outcome: A 50kW photovoltaic system andbiomass CHP provide heating, electricity anddrinking water to 130 apartments and severalground floor businesses.  This results inapproximately a 600 tonne reduction in carbonemissions annually.  Various energy savingmeasures, including high specification windowsetc, were also installed. what when why how who where
  • 13. Technologies Combined Heat & Power Heat Pumps (Ground & Air)Biomass Heating Small Scale Wind Small Scale Hydro Solar Water Heating Solar Photovoltaic Fuel Cells Combustion Gasification Anaerobic Digestion Energy from Landfill Gaswhat when why how who where
  • 14. Combined Heat & PowerHow it worksBurns gas to produce heating and hot water. Uses internal combustion technology. Prime mover isan engine, with heat output a bi-product of electrical generation.Generation & heating equally prioritised (compared to micro CHP which is heat demand lead).Space, noise and output constraints are less of an issue (compared to domestic customers; due toplant room availability).We will ensure that your CHP is correctly sized to meetthe majority of your demand for heating. It is usuallymore cost effective to undersize the CHP to provide themajority of your base load and use another appliance(such as a gas boiler) to provide supplementary heating.Control panel optimises electrical & heat generation.Power unit is a combustion engine.Burns fuel (nat. gas) to drive generator.Heat exchangers extract energy from exhaust and oil toprovide useful heating in the premises. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 15. Combined Heat & Power 2SpecificationProduct MicrogenerationProduct Type Combined Heat & PowerClassification Low CarbonOutput 13 kW(e) 29 kW(t)Efficiency% 70% (gas) 26% (electricity)Generation 87,600 kWh(t)/yr 39,426 kWh(e)/yrCarbon Saving 75% reduction compared to Gas alone.Technology BenefitsLow Carbon – Uses fossil fuels to generate heat and power in a highly efficient manner, ideal forcarbon reduction and operational efficiency improvements. If fuelled by a bio fuel, then CHP can beconsidered a renewable or carbon neutral technology.Combined Heat & Power – The plant installed is ideal for high heating and electricityrequirements. Leisure centres, schools, hospitals all fit this category. Heat requirement needs to below temperature (<100 deg); not suitable for chemical or manufacturing processes. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 16. Combined Heat & Power 3Typical InstallationsSchools - Good requirement for heat all year (especially with swimming pools) and high electricaldemand.Hospitals - High heat and electrical demand throughout the year.Small scale heat networks – high electrical demand throughout the year. Small heat demand insummer but CHPs can be undersized with addition of efficient boilers to ensure electrical demand issized adequately. NB addition of chiller units will improve heat demand and therefore the options are increased. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 17. Ground Source Heat PumpsHow it worksSolar energy stored in ground is extracted by ground loop and pumpedinto compressor.Compressor pressurises low temperature refrigerant to convert into hightemperature thermal output for CH and DHW.Carbon & renewable credits can be earned.Government backed with grants and central funding available to offsethigh capital cost.Recognised in building regs and Code for Sustainable Homes.PressureTemperature ConnectedVolumeSolar energy is captured by ground loop water and pumped to HeatPlant.Heat transfer vaporises refrigerant in Heat Plant.Compressor compresses vapour into liquid.Low grade energy in vapour is captured as high grade heat.High grade heat is pumped around CH system. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 18. Ground Source Heat Pumps 2SpecificationProduct MicrogenerationProduct Type HeatClassification RenewableOutput up to 40 kW(t)Efficiency CoP 4.0 CH 3.5 DWHGeneration 25,000 kWh(t)/yrCarbon Saving up to 40% compared to GasTechnology BenefitsRenewable – Although GSHP uses grid supplied energy to operate; it is collecting solar energy via theground which acts like a huge battery, storing the energy as heat. If coupled with a renewable energytariff, or electrical generating renewables; a GSHP could be totally renewable in operation.All electric – A GSHP only requires an electrical connection to operate; ideal for off gas installations.Comparative running costs vs LPG or oil are very favourable.Grant funding applicable – Several grants, including the LCBP Phase 2 are viable for this technology. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 19. Ground Source Heat Pumps 3Typical InstallationsSchools – Mainly new build with efficient heat circuits (underfloor or low temp rads).Village Halls – Any requirement to heat large areas with low temperatures.Offices – Any underfloor heating system or low temp circuit is ideal for improved CoP’s. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 20. Air Source Heat PumpsHow it worksAlternative to Ground Source Heat Pump installationAmbient heat from air is extracted by evaporator in compressor unit.Compressor pressurises low temperature refrigerant to convert into high temperature thermal output forCH and DHWCan work to temperatures of -20 deg.Installation is simpler than GSHP, but efficiency is less.Same technology as GSHP, only different heat source PressureTemperature ConnectedVolume Energy is captured by fan unit from temperature in air.Heat transfer vaporises refrigerant in ASHPCompressor compresses vapour into liquidLow grade energy in vapour is captured as high grade heatHigh grade heat is pumped around CH system next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 21. Air Source Heat Pumps 2SpecificationProduct MicrogenerationProduct Type HeatClassification RenewableOutput up to 14.6 kW(t)Efficiency CoP 3.3 CH 2.3 DHWGeneration 25,000 kWh(t)/yrCarbon Saving up to 30% compared to GasTechnology BenefitsRenewable – Although ASHP uses grid supplied energy to operate; it is collecting ambient energy via theair which acts like a huge battery, storing the energy as heat. If coupled with a renewable energy tariff, orelectrical generating renewables; an ASHP could be totally renewable in operation.Invisible heating solution – Although efficiency isn’t as high as GSHP, the installation costs and ease ofintegration (no ground loops or boreholes) make ASHP an attractive proposition for retrofit applications.Typical InstallationsOffices – Mainly for warm air heating systems and air handling systems. (Some heat pumps can provideair conditioning but for this reason ASHP won’t attract grant funding). ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 22. Biomass Heating• Burning biomass does not consume fossil fuels, but it does release CO2 into the environment. Biomass boilers require management and maintenance, take time to heat up and cool down.• There is increasing concern that biofuel production may divert land from food production and forestry and this could raise as many sustainability issues as it is trying to solve.• For small-scale domestic applications of biomass the fuel usually takes the form of wood pellets, wood chips or wood logs.• The cost for boilers varies; a typical 15kW (average size required for a three-bedroom semi detached house) pellet boiler would cost around £5,000 - £14,000 installed, including the cost of the flue and commissioning. A manual log feed system of the same size would be slightly cheaper. A wood pellet boiler could save you around £750 a year in energy bills and around 6 tonnes of C02 per year when installed in an electrically heated home. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 23. Biomass Heating 2SpecificationProduct MicrogenerationProduct Type HeatClassification RenewableOutput up to 70 kW(t)Efficiency 90% fuel efficiency.Generation 25,000 kWh(t)/yrCarbon Saving Up to 56% compared to Gas.Technology BenefitsRenewable – Wood is deemed a renewable source of fuel, especially with short rotation coppice (SRC)sources such as willow.Different Market Conditions – Wood fuel will not follow the gas demand curve and price fluctuationswill be driven by different market conditions in short term.Grant funding applicable – LCBP Phase 2 funding of up to 50% project value is available for thistechnology.Typical InstallationsSchools, visitor centres, office buildings, civic buildings. Local factors to consider are availability offuel supply and space for fuel storage. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 24. Biomass Heating 3How it works• Wood pellets are created from waste in manufacturing processes. These are deemed carbon neutral as they have the carbon content from the photosynthesis process – i.e. the only carbon emitted is the carbon captured while the tree is living (excludes embodied carbon from manufacture, transport, etc.)• Carbon & renewable credits can be earned • Government backed with grants and central funding available to offset capital cost• Recognised in building regs and Code for sustainable homes.• Best utilised as base load heating with separate appliance to provide peak load heating (such as a gas boiler).• Large hopper holds wood pellets which are driven into local hopper.• Pellets are slightly heated to remove moisture while in transit to combustion chamber.• High temperature (initially from a heat gun, but then self sustaining from combustion) breaks down wood into composite parts.• Combustible material ignites from the heat providing energy to heat building.• Heat is passed into distribution system via plate heat exchanger.• None toxic Ash is created (<2% fuel volume) and can be used as a fertiliser. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 25. Small Scale Wind• Generally < 50kw. May be only 4-500w.• Ideal way to generate clean, renewable energy.• Established technology.• Normally 3 blades driving a generator.• Stand alone independent often in remote locations.• Grid connected for higher use applications.• Mast and Building mounted Planning issues.• Wind power is a clean, renewable source of energy which produces no carbon dioxide emissions or waste products.• Larger systems in the region of 2.5kW to 6kW would cost between £11,000 - £19,000 installed. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 26. Small Scale Wind 2Technology BenefitsRenewable – Powered by wind; an abundant and renewable source of energy.Multiple Revenue Streams – As well as offsetting grid supplied (and purchased) energy, reducingutility bills; ROC credits can also be sold to utility suppliers, increasing earnings potential.Visible – Visible green endorsement has many CR benefits. Schools can benefit from addedcurriculum material.Grant funding applicable – LCBP Phase 2 funding of up to 50% of the cost of purchase andinstallation is available for this technology.Typical InstallationsSchools – Tend to have plenty of room to maximise energy yield (turbulence from close buildings,trees, etc. has negative impact on energy capture). And can offset capital cost using LCBP Phase 2funding. Good use as an educational tool and as a visible commitment to renewable energy. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 27. Small Scale Hydro• Hydro power systems use running water turning a turbine to produce electricity. A micro hydro plant is one that generates less than 100kW.• Typically used in hilly areas or river valleys where water falls from a higher level to a lower level.• Turbine mounted in the flow generates electricity.• Electricity produced depends on volume and speed of flow.• For medium heads, there is a fixed cost of about £10,000 and then about £2,500 per kW up to around 10kW - so a typical 5kW domestic scheme might cost £20-£25,000. Unit costs drop for larger schemes. Maintenance costs vary but small scale hydro systems are very reliable. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 28. Solar Water HeatingHow it worksSolar energy heats collector, transferring heat into heat transfer medium (glycol).Glycol is pumped through distribution circuit through a pump station into a specially designed twin coil solarcylinder.Cylinder is heated by solar coil and any additional heatrequired is provided by existing heating appliance(gas boiler, etc.) via the upper coil in the cylinder.Temp sensors on plate and in cylinder operate pump setsby detecting when supply and demand are available.Pumps circulate heat from solar panels to lower coil toheat domestic hot water supply.DHW tank stores this energy until a demand is required.SpecificationProduct MicrogenerationProduct Type HeatClassification RenewableOutput up to 10 kW(t)Efficiency 50%Generation 6000 kWh(t) next ›Carbon Saving up to 1.2 tonnes compared to electricity alone  ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 29. Solar Water Heating 2Technology BenefitsRenewable – Operated by the most abundant renewable resource – the sun. Ideal for sites withhigh hot water demand (leisure centres, restaurants).Visible – Visible green endorsement has many CR benefits. Schools can benefit from addedcurriculum material.Typical InstallationsSchools – New build or retrofit with access to southern elevations. Can be installed on roof, in roofor even on a building façade.Leisure centres – Has a constantly high demand for hot water and can utilise high yield periods(summer months).Offices – Any offices with central hot water systems and/or catering facilities for hot water demand. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 30. Solar PhotovoltaicHow it worksSolar Radiation (Photons) strike mono or poly crystalline structure in PV panel.This photon energy ‘excites’ unpaired electrons in atomic structure and some are released from structure,creating electron flow or direct current electricity.DC electricity flows into inverters where it is inverted into grid compliant 230v supply.Inverters are closely sized to the panel to ensure that the system is designed to run efficiently. The Inverterefficiency is key to the overall installation.SpecificationProduct MicrogenerationProduct Type PowerClassification RenewableOutput up to 26 kW(t)Efficiency 12% at panel 96% at inverterGeneration 14,000 kWh(e)Carbon Saving up to 6 tonnes pa compared to grid supplied electricity next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 31. Solar Photovoltaic 2Technology BenefitsRenewable – Operated by the most abundant renewable resource – the sun. Ideal for all sites withlittle shading and good electrical demand.Visible – Visible green endorsement has many CR benefits. Schools can benefit from addedcurriculum material.Typical InstallationsOffices – Any with good solar yield (i.e. little shading from trees or other buildings). Most offices havehigh electrical demand in summer due to IT equipment and air conditioning. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 32. Fuel Cells• Based on a chemical reaction.• Combines hydrogen & oxygen.• Forms electricity, water & heat.• Silent operation.• Low maintenance.• High efficiencies.• Very low (even zero) emissions.• Commonly reforms natural gas or other fossil fuel.• With operating temperatures as low as 80°C, fuel cells can be installed in private households and light commercial operations as well as meeting all the energy requirements of large industrial operations. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 33. Combustion: Energy Recovery IncinerationCombustion of a fuel, most often waste , under controlled conditions in which the heat released is recovered for a beneficial purpose. This may be to provide steam or hot water for industrial or domestic users, or for electricity generation. Combined heat and power (CHP) incinerators provide both heat and electricity. The fuel value (calorific value) of household waste is about one third that of coal. The most widely deployed ERI process is called ‘mass burn’. Waste is burned on a moving grate in a boiler with little or no pre-processing. The boiler and grate system therefore have to be large and robust enough to withstand all conceivable articles in the waste stream.The basic components of a plant are the:• waste bunker and reception building where waste is delivered by road, potentially rail, or occasionally by river and stored prior to use• combustion unit(s) which burn the waste• heat recovery and power generation plant• flue gas cleaning equipment which cleans the combustion gases prior to discharge to air• ash collection facility• exhaust stack which discharges the combustion gases to the air. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 34. GasificationGasification is a manufacturing process that converts any material containing carbon—such as coal,petroleum coke (petcoke), or biomass—into synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas can be burned toproduce electricity or further processed to manufacture chemicals, fertilizers, liquid fuels, substitutenatural gas (SNG), or hydrogen.Gasification has been reliably used on a commercial scale worldwide for more than 50 years in therefining, fertilizer, and chemical industries, and for more than 35 years in the electric power industry.Power Generation with GasificationCoal can be used as a feedstock to produce electricity via gasification, commonly referred to asIntegrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). This particular coal-to-power technology allows thecontinued use of coal without the high level of air emissions associated with conventional coal-burningtechnologies. In gasification power plants, the pollutants in the syngas are removed before the syngasis combusted in the turbines. In contrast, conventional coal combustion technologies capture thepollutants after combustion, which requires cleaning a much larger volume of the exhaust gas.Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of waste in the absence of air to produce char, pyrolysis oil andsyngas. e.g. the conversion of wood to charcoal. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 35. Anaerobic DigestionAnaerobic digestion is a biological process defined as the breakdown of organic matter by naturally occurring bacteria in the absence of air into biogas and biofertiliser and at a temperature, either in the mesophilic range (35-42°C) or in the thermophilic range (52-55°C).There are broadly three uses for biogas:• In a conventional boiler to produce hot water or steam.• In a stationary engine to produce power.• As biomethane for vehicle fuel. next › ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 36. Anaerobic Digestion 2Food Waste Digesters • The weekly collection of source-separated food waste is now being recognised by the Waste & Resource Action Programme (WRAP), a Government funded organisation, as being the most successful way of diverting this waste from landfill.Farm Digestion • Anaerobic digestion has a natural place on the farm, not just as a process within a cows stomach, but as part of a waste management system enhancing the recycling of nutrients, and as a source of renewable energy. The emphasis will come from one or a mixture of the following; • Feedstock, for example you may have a specific product to treat that is currently costing you a lot of money to deal with or you may want to import food waste and charge a gate fee. • Biofertiliser, for example you may want to enhance the management of your manure producing a more homogenous material to apply accurately to land or alternatively you may want to bring in feedstocks, which contain nutrients that will eventually be utilised on your land making mineral fertiliser savings. • Energy, for example, you may have high energy requirements on site which could be met using anaerobic digestion, making electricity savings while claiming renewable obligation certificates. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 37. Energy from Landfill Gas• Power generation from the gas captured in landfill sites.• Landfill gas is a mixture comprising mainly methane and carbon dioxide, formed when biodegradable wastes break down within a landfill as a result of anaerobic microbiological action.• The biogas can be collected by drilling wells into the waste and extracting it as it is formed. It can then be used in an engine or turbine for power generation, or used to provide heat for industrial processes situated near the landfill site.• Landfill sites can generate commercial quantities of landfill gas for up to 30 years after wastes have been deposited.• Recovering this gas and using it as a fuel not only ensures the continued safety of the site after landfilling has finished, but also provides a significant long term income from power and/or heat sales. ‹ return to technologies what when why how who where
  • 38. When This section provides some milestones at which a decentralised energy solution could be considered. It also provides some case studies to bring the topic to life. Waste Spatial Planning / Regeneration New Build Refurbishment or Extensionwhat when why how who where
  • 39. WasteBusiness and Domestic Waste is an important potential feedstock for Decentralised Energygeneration.When you have a waste stream with a significant calorific value.When the cost of landfill makes DE economically viable.When you have a significant source of waste near to a requirement for energy or heat. what when why how who where
  • 40. Spatial Planning / RegenerationLocal Authorities should give full consideration to the suitability and application of DecentralisedEnergy provision in all of their Spatial Planning and Regeneration Strategies. what when why how who where
  • 41. New BuildDE solutions to provide Heat and Power should be fully evaluated in any New Build proposition forHouses, Schools, Hospitals, Office complexes or Factories. what when why how who where
  • 42. Refurbishment or ExtensionDE solutions to provide Heat and Power should be fully evaluated in any proposition for Houses,Schools, Hospitals, Office complexes or Factories to be extended or refurbished. what when why how who where
  • 43. Why This section identifies some of the key reasons for considering a decentralised energy solution.• Economics, i.e. Energy savings, penalties, • Company Image charges, taxes, CRC • Security of Supply• Business Opportunity • Increased Demand for Energy• Comply with legislation • Climate Change adaptation what when why how who where
  • 44. How This section suggests some key enablers for decentralised energy schemes and suggests specific business models that others are using in the market place. Business Models Contracts Steps Planning Regulations Grants / Subsidies / Taxwhat when why how who where
  • 45. Planning Small / Micro Wind Solar Anaerobic Digestion Not Requiredwhat when why how who where
  • 46. Planning Small / Micro Wind• Due to legal technicalities the current statutory instrument (SI) does not cover micro wind. Once these issues have been resolved, it is expected that roof mounted and free standing micro wind turbines will be permitted at detached properties that are not in conservation areas.• Further legislation is expected later this year.• Until then, you must consult with your local authority regarding planning permission. ‹ return to planning what when why how who where
  • 47. Planning Solar• Solar PV and solar thermal (roof mounted):• Permitted unless. o Panels when installed protrude more then 200mm. o They would be placed on the principal elevation facing onto or visible from the highway in buildings in Conservation Areas and World Heritage Sites.• Solar PV and solar thermal (stand alone):• Permitted unless: o More than 4 metres in height. o Installed less than 5 metres away from any boundary. o Above a maximum area of array of 9m2. o Situated within any part of the curtilage of the dwelling house or would be visible from the highway in Conservations Areas and World Heritage Sites. ‹ return to planning what when why how who where
  • 48. Planning Anaerobic DigestionAs with any industrial facility, anaerobic digestion plants are subject to a number of regulations and administrative procedures designed to protect the environment and human health. Depending on the circumstances of the individual plant, these might include:• Planning Permission,• Waste Regulations,• Animal By-Products Regulations (ABP) Regulations,• Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) and• OFGEM accreditation. ‹ return to planning what when why how who where
  • 49. Planning Not Required• Permitted development rights.• In England, changes to permitted development rights for renewable technologies introduced on 6th April 2008 have lifted the requirements for planning permission for most domestic microgeneration technologies.• The General Permitted Development Order (GPDO) grants rights to carry out certain limited forms of development on the home, without the need to apply for planning permission.• Biomass boilers and stoves, and CHP:• Permitted unless: o Flue exceeds 1m above the roof height. o Installed on the principal elevation and visible from a road in buildings in Conservation Areas and World Heritage Sites.• Ground source heat pumps - Permitted.• Water source heat pumps - Permitted. ‹ return to planning what when why how who where
  • 50. RegulationsRenewables Obligation (“RO”)Various Renewables Obligation Orders have been enacted since the original RenewablesObligation Order was introduced in April 2002. In brief the RO was set up by Government toencourage the development of new renewables generation projects in the UK through a marketsupport mechanism. The RO requires licensed suppliers to provide an increasing percentage oftheir electricity supplies to customers from qualifying renewable sources and this obligation runsuntil 2027 although proposed legislation if passed will extend this period to 2037. The RO as asupport mechanism differs from the feed-in tariff which is used in Germany and Spain to encouragedevelopment of new renewables projects.Energy Act 2008This Act includes provisions strengthening the RO as well as enabling the Government to introducea tailor-made scheme to support (via feed-in tariffs) low carbon generation of electricity in projectsup to 5MW; it also enables a new Renewable Heat Tariff to be introduced to provide a financialsupport mechanism for renewable heat which has so far been lacking in the UK and its absencehas proved a disincentive for the development of renewable heat projects in the UK.[see the website- www.decc.gov.uk for more on this Act]. next › what when why how who where
  • 51. Regulations 2Planning and Energy Act 2008This Act enables local planning authorities to include in their development plans requirements fora proportion of the energy used in developments in their area to be from renewable sources; tobe low carbon energy from local sources; and for developments in their area to comply withenergy efficiency standards exceeding the building regulation requirements.Planning Act 2008This Act also affects energy developments and how they will be treated within the planningregime. [see the website- www.berr.gov.uk for more on this Act].Electricity Act 1989This Act sets out the licensing regime for the electricity industry and is important in relation to anyDE project development as regards the electricity aspects, most notably the distribution andsupply aspects of any such project. next › what when why how who where
  • 52. Regulations 3The Electricity (Class Exemptions from the Requirement for a Licence) Order2001 (as amended)These Orders provide exemptions, in specified circumstances, from the requirement to hold licencesfor generation, distribution and/or supply of electricity which would otherwise be required under theElectricity Act 1989 (as amended). This area has been subject to a large amount of work over recentyears mainly through the Distributed Energy Working Group but a legal case which was decided lastsummer by the European Court of Justice (the Citiworks AG case) has put into doubt the validity ofsuch exemptions which affect third party suppliers’ ability to use networks to supply end customers.The ramifications of this case are still being considered by the UK Government to see if the Orders willremain valid following this decision.Other Relevant Government Policy DocumentsRegional Spatial StrategyLocal Government Act of 1999Code For Sustainable HomesSupplement to Planning Policy Statement (PPS) 1 on Planning and Climate ChangeEnergy White PaperLocal Government White Paper what when why how who where
  • 53. Grants / Subsidies / Tax• It is recommended that, in the very early stages of considering a decentralised energy scheme, suitable grants, subsidies, tax advantages etc are explored.• Some of the technologies described in this guide are new and are supported in order to make them comparable to their well-established competitor technologies.• Fiscal incentives of this nature could be related to: o Location – certain regions may attract regeneration funding e.g. Objective 1 funding from EU. o Technology – some new technologies are subsidised or supported e.g. Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP). o Who you are – some benefits relate to specific industries, sizes or organisation or, for example, the public sector. o Local – in addition to regional approaches above (location), there may be specific individual scheme grants that may be available e.g. from Regional Development Agency (RDA).• A comprehensive list is not provided in this guide, due to its complexity and relatively fast-moving nature but you may find some of the following resources useful....... what when why how who where
  • 54. Business Models Energy Performance Contractwhat when why how who where
  • 55. Implementation of Decentralised Energy Generation – The Energy Performance ContractModel: Energy Performance Contract between ESCO and Energy UserConcept: ESCO designs, pays for, operates and maintains the optimum mix of energy efficiency anddecentralised energy generation systems. The ESCO guarantees a level of performance increasebased on the difference between the pre and post implementation performance levels.Key Advantages: All1)End user can retain its capital for its core costs: Energybusiness purpose rather than energy Equip. Studies savingsgeneration assets O&M Energy2)Operational and performance risk not consumptiontaken by end user3)Operational and Maintenance resourcesnot required from end user Before During After4)Non finance benefits such as internal and Contract Contract Contractexternal marketing what when why how who where
  • 56. ContractsIntroductionIn relation to any DE project there will be a requirement for a number of contracts and agreements tobe put in place.Given that there are an almost infinite number of variations in the type of DE projects which can beset up, this section deals with contracts and agreements which are commonly used in such projects.Alongside the contracts there will be a number of regulatory requirements which will need to be metby any DE project developer or sponsor and these will be dealt with in the section of this Guideentitled “Regulations”.SPECIFIC CONTRACTS FOR GENERIC DE PROJECTS1 Land Contracts and allied rights etc1.1 It will almost always be the case that the land on which the DE plant and infrastructure isto be placed will need to be leased or licensed to the DE project sponsor or developer and/oroperator. Much will depend on who owns the land and whether this is in public or private hands. Atthe very least a DE project developer should be looking for rights over the relevant land which areexclusive rights and which will last for at least the duration of the DE project plus a further period tocover any works etc which will need to be carried out after the end of operation of the DE project. next › what when why how who where
  • 57. Contracts 21.2 The typical documents which would be put in place in relation to privately-owned landwould include either a lease or some form of licence agreement between the freeholder(s) of the land(and there may of course be instances where the land affected by the project is owned by more thanone entity) and the project company/sponsor. It is also usual for relevant easements to be soughtfrom landowners where infrastructure is to pass over, under or through their land. Finally, it isessential to ensure that rights of access are also obtained to enable access to land during bothconstruction and the operational period of the DE project.1.3 In relation to public land there may in addition be arrangements and rights relating to landset out in the Concession Agreement entered into between the DE project company and the publicentity as well as the entry into of specific leases/licence agreements with such entity.1.4 It is particularly important for DE project developers to ensure that they have acquired therelevant land rights to all land required for the purposes of the project where the project is being toany great extent project financed as the financing entities will require these aspects of the project tobe watertight and to cover the full duration of the project’s life. next › what when why how who where
  • 58. Contracts 32 Construction Contracts2.1 Much here will depend on the model chosen for the DE project. Many such projects willinvolve the setting up of a special purpose vehicle (“SPV”) which will enter into various contracts withcontractors for different aspects of the project. A classic case is the letting by the SPV of a Designand Build Contract where tenders will be sought from suitable companies to put together either themain plant for the project or the main plant and allied infrastructure.2.2 In some cases, particularly where the project sponsor is a public sector entity, theConcession Contract will include an obligation on the sponsor to carry out the entire project and todeliver to the public sector entity specific services (which will generally be the delivery of heat andpower to designated buildings at agreed cost levels). In these cases there will be a further series ofcontracts and sub-contracts between the project sponsor and third parties for the design andconstruction of the relevant plant and infrastructure.3 Supply Contracts3.1 One of the main drivers behind DE projects is the provision of cheaper, often sustainable andmore reliable energy supplies to customers who are connected to the local DE networks for both heatand power. For this to work there need to be in place contracts for the supply of these services tosuch customers which enables the SPV or DE project company to charge for such supplies andhence derive income for the DE project. Therefore standard form supply contracts for both electricityand heat supply will need to be prepared. next › what when why how who where
  • 59. Contracts 44. Other ContractsVarious other contracts will need to be prepared depending again on the structure of the projectchosen at the outset. Operation and Maintenance contracts may need to be let in relation both to theplant and the allied infrastructure if the SPV or project company does not have the skills in-house tocarry out this work. Meter reading and billing arrangements may need to be outsourced as well by theSPV requiring contracts to be entered into with these entities. Finally, contracts will need to beentered into with external suppliers for electricity and heat supplies for periods when the on-site plantis either out of commission for routine maintenance or where there is an unexpected outage of theplant which affects the supply of electricity and/or heat. what when why how who where
  • 60. Steps Success in the implementation of decentralised energy schemes is no more difficult that doing the basic steps in the right order and making the right decisions at the right time. The town-level example of Gussing exemplifies the step by step process.1. Consider what you want to achieve by implementing a scheme. This could also be described as ‘defining the objectives’ for the project. Objectives could include; securing or sustaining local employment, security of supply, mitigating future energy price rises, consume local waste locally, achieving competitive advantage, regulatory compliance etc.2. Identify both the local context and local resources. The ultimate solution should ‘fit’ into the locality in terms of scale, desire to have it there, local fuels and organisations. Consider which companies or buildings, commercial or residential, could use or benefit from energy that the scheme produces or could produce resources for the scheme. Consider wider than your individual site to identify other supply or demand factors and to benefit from economies of scale.3. What are the appropriate technology types and manufacturers? Having established 1.  and 2. above, what type of solution(s) are most suitable? Which ones can you eliminate? Focusing on a smaller technology type and, within it, which specific equipment will save time and be easier to communicate. what when why how who where
  • 61. Who This section identifies the groups of people that you will need to deliver a decentralised energy scheme. It describes their role in the process. It also provides names of specific organisations, from the BCSD-UK membership, who are engaged in this activity. Funders Technology Providers Legal AdvisorsCustomers Design Engineers Energy Companies what when why how who where
  • 62. Funders• As the name suggests, funders pay for part or all of the scheme and will recover costs by: o Retailing downstream energy o Lowering their energy consumption or cost o Regulatory compliance and avoiding penalties and fines o Other charges e.g. local taxes etc• Different funders invest for different motives. Some may be on the project day to day, be a remote ‘investor’ or be a customer. what when why how who where
  • 63. Technology Providers• There will always be technology at the heart of a DE scheme. Therefore, there is always a need for a technology provider.• Some technologies (and their manufacturers) are established and some may be newer, providing often superior performance but without the established customer base.• Technology providers may or may not take performance risk on the technology – that is take the risk on whether the equipment works, as stated. It is important to ensure that the goals of the technology provider’s are aligned to that of the overall scheme to improve chances of success.• It is suggested, as per HOW, within the STEPS section, that the specific technology for the scheme is considered as the third step after objectives and resources have been covered. This will ensure that companies are engaged, offering the right technology rather than the promotion of a technology that may not be suitable.• Technology providers, following the point above, should be engaged early in the scheme so that the equipment is suitable to the required function. what when why how who where
  • 64. Legal AdvisorsIn relation to all projects which focus on the whole area of “decentralised energy” (“DE”) there will be a requirement for a thorough understanding of both the regulatory and legal frameworks under which such projects will be developed. This [section] will look at some of the key areas which will be encountered on a journey to a positive outcome in developing a project in the DE arena from a regulatory and legal perspective and will detail some of the success stories with projects which have succeeded. These examples will include certain Energy Service Company schemes (“ESCOs”) which have been set up and which are currently active in the UK.It will therefore be necessary to enlist the assistance of consultants and/or lawyers who are familiar with the regulatory and legal framework which covers decentralised energy and who have experience in advising on the relatively complex structures which will need to be put in place for a successful project including the raft of agreements and other documentation which will be necessary for the project to reach a satisfactory conclusion.From experience it is often beneficial to engage consultants in the early stages of any DE project and particularly in relation to ESCO structures and the contractual framework which will need to be considered and then put in place to enable these schemes to function properly.See also under Contracts within how what when why how who where
  • 65. CustomersStand alone users of substantial energy and/or heat e.g.HospitalsSchoolsOffice complexesIndustrial applicationsConcentrations of Energy Users e.g. • Housing associations • Industrial estates • CommunitiesRemote sites without grid access e.g. • Farms • Water pumping and extraction what when why how who where
  • 66. Design Engineers• There will always be technology at the heart of a DE scheme. Therefore, there is always a need for a technology provider.• Some technologies (and their manufacturers) are established and some may be newer, providing often superior performance but without the established customer base.• Technology providers may or may not take performance risk on the technology – that is take the risk on whether the equipment works, as stated. It is important to ensure that the goals of the technology provider’s are aligned to that of the overall scheme to improve chances of success.• It is suggested, as per HOW, within the STEPS section, that the specific technology for the scheme is considered as the third step after objectives and resources have been covered. This will ensure that companies are engaged, offering the right technology rather than the promotion of a technology that may not be suitable.• Technology providers, following the point above, should be engaged early in the scheme so that the equipment is suitable to the required function. what when why how who where
  • 67. Energy Companies• Energy companies are intrinsic to schemes of this nature. They may have a ‘renewable obligation’ which drives them to generate electricity from renewable sources and certainly have an interest and knowhow in selling the resultant energy to large and residential customers. If an energy company is a generator, they will be used to funding, building and owning operating assets.• An energy company may seek to be the sole or part owner of an ESCo and may seek to engage in the scheme from start to finish.• Energy companies have the systems and people to retail to customers for the energy (including heat). This would include; billing, customer service, credit management etc.• However, energy companies are unlikely to have all the skills required to deliver a DE project end to end. They will need support from others at different stages, especially the early ones.• A limited role for an energy company may just be to buy the energy that comes from the scheme in a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) or similar. what when why how who where
  • 68. Where This section contains links to sources of further information. BCSD-UK Contributory Organisations Guidelines / Regulations Further Informationwhat when why how who where
  • 69. BCSD-UK• BCSD-UK : www.bcsd-uk.co.uk• BCSD-UK Midlands branch: www.mebconline.com• BCSD-UK Yorkshire & Humber branch: www.bcsd-uk.co.uk/Regions/YorkshireandHumberside/tabid/145/Default.aspx• BCSD-UK Scotland branch: www.bcsd-uk.co.uk/Regions/Scotland/tabid/110/Default.aspx• World Business Council www.wbcsd.org what when why how who where
  • 70. Contributory Organisations• www.arup.com• http://www.bcha.co.uk• www.eonenergy.com/sustainable• www.lafarge-cement-uk.co.uk• www.newworldsolar.co.uk• www.selfenergy.co.uk• www.wspenvironmental.com• www.yorkshire-forward.com what when why how who where
  • 71. Further Information• www.berr.gov.uk/energy• www.bwea.com – The British Wind Energy Association• www.bre.co.uk – Building Research Establishment• www.carbontrust.co.uk• www.chpa.co.uk – Combined Heat & Power Association• www.decc.gov.uk – Department of Energy & Climate Change• www.energysavingtrust.org.uk• www.fuelcellstoday.com• www.gasification.org• www.greenfinch.co.uk• www.lep.org.uk – London Energy Partnership• www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk• www.r-e-a.net – Renewable Energy Association• www.tcpa.org.uk – The Town & Country Planning Association• www.wolseley.co.uk what when why how who where
  • 72. Guidelines / RegulationsRelevant Government Policy Documents• Regional Spatial Strategy• Local Government Act of 1999• Code For Sustainable Homes• Supplement to Planning Policy Statement (PPS) 1 on Planning and Climate Change• Energy White Paper• Local Government White Paper what when why how who where
  • 73. Case Studies Combined Technologies Combined Heat & PowerBiomass Heating Small Scale Wind Small Scale Hydro Solar Water Heating Solar Photovoltaic Fuel Cells Güssing Eco Village Anaerobic Digestion Energy from Landfill Gas ESCoswhat when why how who where
  • 74. CS Combined Heat & Power Combined Heat & Power Tipton Learning Skills Centre Office block with workshop requiring electricity to offset high usage from workshop heating and power tool usage. Two CHP units offsetting grid supplied electricity and heat output powering wet radiator based central heating system. Heat is further utilised with Absorption chillers, where heat creates chemical reaction to produce chilled water for a chilled water air conditioning system.what when why how who where
  • 75. CS - Biomass BiomassType of Building: IndustrialLocation: Sintra (near Lisbon)Type of Technology: Gas reciprocating engineSize (kWe): 800kWInvestment required (€): 1.100.000 €Investment by Self Energy: 85%Projected annual savings in kWh: 7GWh (increase in gas) and 5GWh (electrical savings)Projected annual savings in €: 350.000Type of Building: HotelLocation: AlgarveType of Technology: Biomass boilerSize (kWth): 300kWInvestment required (€): 120.000 €Investment by Self Energy:  75%Projected annual savings in kWh: Approx 1,6 GWhthProjected annual savings in €: 180.000 what when why how who where
  • 76. CS – Small Scale Wind Small Scale Wind Sandwich Technology School Situated on the south coast and has good access to the prevailing wind (South West). A 5kW turbine on a 15m tower will generate 9MWh over the course of a year, saving 6 tonnes of CO2 . Encraft Warwick Wind Trials The report contains case studies of 26 varied sites, enabling customers to examine in depth how a small wind turbine might work for them, and helping inform choices between competing micropower technologies so that you can select the optimum configuration for your site. Read more at www.warwickwindtrials.org.ukwhat when why how who where
  • 77. CS - Small Scale Hydro Small Scale HydroSmall-scale hydroelectric scheme - Garbhaig, ScotlandOperated by Garbhaig Hydro Power Ltd, the small-scale hydroelectric site is within a National Scenic Area,adjoining Loch Garbhaig in Slattadale Forest, south of Lake Maree, Rosshire, Scotland. The water sourceis natural water storage at Loch Garbhaig, enhanced by a 2-metre weir at the loch’s mouth. From there, itis supplied through 1,400 metres of buried pipeline to the 1,000-kilowatt Newmills Hydro Pelton Turbine,driving a synchronous generator of the same rating.The scheme feeds into the power grid via a 415-volt to 33-kilovolt transformer. By December 1994, it hadsupplied 9 gigawatt hours to the grid – sufficient electricity to meet the average needs of 750 homes. Whencompared with the equivalent output from a fossil-fuelled power station, the scheme has saved 2,200tonnes of carbon dioxide, 130 tonnes of sulphur dioxide and 15 tonnes of nitrous oxide gases.Highland Regional Planning Authorities, Scottish Natural Heritage, the Forestry Commission and theHighland River Purification Board were all involved in planning consultations. Tree screening was used atthe turbine house and transformer yard, mounding was used to hide the access road, and local stone wasused for the intake structure and access road. Local opinion is supportive – access to a site of naturalbeauty improved without disturbing the attractiveness of the area. Fishing is unaffected and the loch ismore accessible for fishermen.An electricity purchase contract, including a premium for renewable energy, was awarded in July 1991.This enhanced its financial viability and revitalised the original project. Original construction work cost£555,000, with a further £600,000 invested in 1992/93. what when why how who where
  • 78. CS – Solar Water Heating Solar Water HeatingGreets Green Partnerships Sustainable Warmth project,SandwellIn 2008 New World Solar installed 75 Solar thermal hot water systems on behalf ofSandwell warmzone, Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council.Residents have managed to reduce their water heating costs by up to 45 per centby converting to solar power. what when why how who where
  • 79. CS – Solar PV Solar Photovoltaic E.ON UK headquarters in Coventry Currently has one of the largest combined solar arrays in the UK. 84 Schuco premium PV panels installed on a façade kit is providing supplementary power to the building while offsetting 6 tonnes of CO2 through electricity reduction alone.what when why how who where
  • 80. CS – Fuel Cells Fuel CellsA hydrogen fuel cell system powered house in Lye in the WestMidlandsBlack Country Housing Group (BCHG), in partnership with the University of Birminghamlaunched the hydrogen fuel cell system which is powering the homes electricity, water andcentral heating.The fuel cell unit is housed in a shed in the back garden of one of their newly-built homes inStocking Street – a quiet residential cul-de-sac.The £2 million project has been jointly funded by regional development agency AdvantageWest Midlands and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.This installation uses the natural gas infrastructure. The gas is converted into hydrogen bya reformer and the hydrogen is then used in the fuel cell.Hydrogen produces no carbon emissions unlike coal or gas and is much more efficient inoperation. In the future, a hydrogen infrastructure – hydrogen piped to individual buildingsand residences – will make this type of technology ideal for domestic use. next › what when why how who where
  • 81. CS – Fuel Cells 2 Fuel Cells 2The University of Birmingham is leading the research project to learn more abouthydrogen and fuel cells in a domestic context. By remotely monitoring the equipment atthe house, researchers can find out more about the hydrogen fuel cell system, itsefficiency, performance, operation, and durability.A supply chain in the West Midlands is also being established to allow small companies tomanufacture components for the growing market in this new technology.The new fuel cell is a Baxi Innotech unit that generates 1.5kW of electricity and provides3kW of heat suitable for domestic heating and hot water that is transferred to a 600-litrewater tank heat store next to the fuel cell.The heat is circulated through conventional radiators and to the hot water cylinder in thehouse, while the electricity generated by the fuel cell powers the house.If the house needs less electricity the extra generated is exported to the National Grid. Ifthe house needs more electricity, the additional amount required is imported from thegrid. what when why how who where
  • 82. CS – Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic Digestion Project funded by AWM and by Defra under the New Technologies Demonstration Programme, investigating processes to divert biodegradable municipal waste from landfill. Partnership between Greenfinch and South Shropshire District Council, a collection authority covering 19,000 rural & market-town households. Biowaste digester recycles 5000tpa of sources agregated kitchen & garden waste into pasteurised biofertiliser for local agriculture. Biogas is used to produce electricity & heat. For more information visit www.greenfinch.co.ukwhat when why how who where
  • 83. CS – Energy from Landfill Gas Energy from Landfill GasLandfill site - Greengairs, ScotlandOpened in 1990, Greengairs landfill site is the largest contained landfill site in Scotland. Itcurrently handles 750,000 tonnes of waste a year. Around 55 per cent of this is domesticwaste, 30 per cent is commercial or industrial waste, and the remainder is inert waste.Methane is produced as the biodegradable waste within the landfill site breaks down. This iscollected and used as the fuel source for the site’s power station. The power station alsoexports 3.8 megawatts of power to Scottish Power’s electricity network. This is due to increaseby about 2 megawatts as the plant develops.The gas collection system is designed to take the maximum amount of gas from the waste,reducing the risk of gas migration from the site and any problems with landfill gas odours in thelocal village. Three thousand cubic metres of gas per hour is taken from over 60 operationalgas collection wells drilled into the waste in fully filled areas of the landfill. These wells areconnected to the site’s gas flare compound by over 6,000 metres of underground pipework.The collection system controls the emission of gas from the site, and maximises the quality andvolume of gas to be used as fuel for the generators.The landfill gas system at Greengairs works 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, with projectedavailability of 90 per cent. About £2.5 million has been invested in the gas collection systemand the power station. what when why how who where
  • 84. CS – Combined Tech 1 Combined Technologies next ›what when why how who where
  • 85. CS – Combined Tech 2 Combined Technologies 2what when why how who where
  • 86. CS - Gussing Güssing, South-east AustriaGüssing is a model of decentralised, regionalised economy as well as energy.Peter Vadasz became Mayor of Güssing only 3 years after the Iron Curtain was lifted. He wantedto turn Güssing’s economic situation around. Being a small town on the borders, it did not retainits younger generation or financial economy.The first decision was to build a number of demonstration energy plants in the town and in theregion: – bio-diesel, biomass district heating from wood fuel supplying Güssing town and then in2001 the biomass-steam gasification plant in Güssing built on all new technology.The second step was to do research work on these plants in connection with the University ofVienna. This self sufficiency in energy also benefited the region’s economy.In the town of Güssing this has meant 50 new companies, more than 1,000 new jobs, and totalincreased sales volume of 13m Euro/year.In the district of Güssing the actual added value with 45% self sufficient use of renewableenergies is 18m Euro/year and 37m Euro Potential added value with 100% self sufficient use ofrenewable energies.An “eco tourist” business has been developed which now sees 1600 visitors per week eager tolearn and this contributes directly to the local economy.Güssing has the first photovoltaic panel manufacturing plant in Austria.All public buildings in Güssing are connected to the district heating system. what when why how who where
  • 87. CS – Eco Village Summerfield Eco VillageLargest renewable technology retrofit project in the UKThe Summerfield Eco Village project evolved when local residents became concernedabout their rising fuel bills and desire to tackle climate change a local level. BetweenFebruary 2007 to March 2008, solar panels, super insulation, energy efficient heating andlighting were fitted completely free of charge to 329 owner occupier homes to help reducefuel poverty for people on low incomes. It is estimated that the eco installations will deliver60% of each household’s hot water per annum and significantly reduce fuel bills. Theproject also created a number of employment opportunities for local residents.Eco office & six eco homesPart of Summerfield church hall has been transformed into an eco office, which is now alsoa community facility for local people and 6 houses in multiple occupation have beenconverted from flats into much needed large family eco show homes, demonstrating whatcan be achieved when modernising older Victorian Homes. The first of the deconversionsachieved an Eco Homes ‘excellent’ rating and the subsequent 5 homes have achievedcode 3 and code 4 of the Code for Sustainable Homes. what when why how who where
  • 88. CS – Eco Village 2 Summerfield Eco Village 2Local schoolsThe project also opened up the opportunity to work with children from six local primaryschools as part of the City Council’s Housing Education Initiative, helping them to developan Eco website, Eco radio station and energy advice DVDs.More details are at www.eco-radio.co.uk and www.tntnews.co.uk.Family Housing Association (Birmingham) Ltd www.family-housing.co.uk what when why how who where