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A power point for science education - teacher training

A power point for science education - teacher training

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  • Objectives for the unit Slide 1.1 • To focus on the processes of monitoring and departmental evaluation and to plan for their effective implementation • To show how effective and manageable monitoring underpins improvements in the quality of science teaching • To emphasise the need for a fair, rigorous and manageable approach to analysing evidence in order to evaluate progress in your department • To increase confidence in ways to prioritise developments in relation to internal and external targets • To develop a systematic approach to the action-planning process and to reviewing action points
  • Unit 5: Departmental evaluation and forward planning Slide 1.2 for Key Stage 3 science Session 1 Forward planning for monitoring and departmental evaluation Session 2 Making monitoring useful and manageable Session 3 Understanding the departmental evaluation process Session 4 Forward planning
  • Unit 1: Launch of the science strand Slide 1.5 From the objectives for session 2: Making it happen • To consider the DfES five-stage cycle for school improvement • To consider what is expected of heads of science and Key Stage 3 coordinators From the objectives for session 4: Action planning • To consider the principles of good action planning • To explore the writing of SMART targets • To consider how and when school and departmental improvement plans should be reviewed
  • Objectives

Energy ppt Energy ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Key Stage 3 National Strategy Strengthening teaching and learning of energy in Key Stage 3 science
  • Session 1
    • Where are the pupils coming from?
    Slide 1.0
  • Task A Starter activity. Energy: true or false?
    • Individually
    • Answer the questions on handout 1.2. Don’t take too long over each question – your first thoughts will do at this stage.
    • In pairs
    • Discuss your answers with a colleague – concentrate on the questions where your answers are different.
    • Keep your sheet to hand – it will form the basis of plenary tasks during the day.
    • You may wish to add comments or change your mind about some of your answers during the day.
    Slide 1.1
  • Unit outline
    • Session 1 Where are the pupils coming from?
    • Session 2 Where and when to start in Year 7
    • Session 3 Different ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy as a key scientific idea
    • Session 4 Strategies for using the idea of energy in Year 8
    • Session 5 The challenge in Year 9
    Slide 1.3
  • Objectives for the unit
    • To explore some common misconceptions pupils have about energy
    • To consider the teaching and learning of energy in Year 7
    • To outline and discuss two commonly used ways of teaching about energy (teaching models) and explore the terminology associated with each
    • To describe how these two ways of teaching about energy (teaching models) are used in published texts and in Year 9 national test papers
    Slide 1.4a
  • Objectives for the unit
    • To consider how questioning in Year 8 can give pupils opportunities to develop their understanding of energy using the energy transfer teaching model
    • To show how lesson objectives can be refined to make the teaching of energy explicit in Year 8
    • To describe how conservation of energy can be used as an accounting system during energy transfers
    • To provide one possible teaching strategy to develop pupils’ understanding of conservation of energy
    Slide 1.4b
  • Objective for session 1
    • To explore some common misconceptions pupils have about energy
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • have identified some common misconceptions pupils have about energy
    • recognise that topics taught during Key Stage 2 underpin the key scientific idea of energy at Key Stage 3
    • understand the importance of building on pupils’ prior knowledge and understanding about energy
    Slide 1.5
  • Pupils’ ideas about energy
    • Energy is not part of the programme of study for Key Stage 2
    • but it would be incorrect to assume that Year 7 pupils have
    • no ideas about energy.
    • Pupils have ideas drawn from:
    • everyday experience – for example,
    • ‘ when I play football I use up all my energy’;
    • the teaching and learning of related topics – for example,
    • ‘ I get my energy from my dinner’ or ‘plants get their energy from the Sun’.
    Slide 1.6
  • Task B Pupils’ ideas about energy
    • • Use handout 1.8.
    • • Look at the pupils’ statements:
    • – For each statement, consider whether it illustrates a lack of precision in the terminology used, an underlying misconception about the scientific ideas or both.
    • – For the statements containing misconceptions, speculate about how the pupil may have arrived at these views.
    Slide 1.7
  • Task C Prior teaching related to energy
    • • Look at handout 1.10, pages 1 and 2.
    • • Suggest how each of the Key Stage 2 objectives is related to the teaching of energy in Key Stage 3.
    Slide 1.9
  • How teaching at Key Stage 2 underpins the key scientific idea of energy at Key Stage 3 Slide 1.11 6A Interdependence and adaptation 6G Changing circuits 6F How we see things 6E Forces in action 6D Reversible and irreversible changes 5A Keeping healthy 5F Changing sounds 5D Changing state
  • The links between Key Stages 2 and 3 Slide 1.12 6A Interdependence and adaptation 6G Changing circuits 6F How we see things 6E Forces in action 6D Reversible and irreversible changes 5A Keeping healthy 5F Changing sounds 5D Changing state Use a simple model of energy transfer in situations including food chains and webs and electric circuits Explain the importance and uses of stores of energy including food and fuels
  • Plenary for session 1
    • Objective for session 1
    • To explore some common misconceptions pupils have about energy
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • have identified some common misconceptions pupils have about energy
    • recognise that topics taught during Key Stage 2 underpin the key scientific idea of energy at Key Stage 3
    • understand the importance of building on pupils’ prior knowledge and understanding about energy
    Slide 1.13
  • Session 2
    • Where and when to start in Year 7
    Slide 2.0
  • Objective for session 2
    • To consider the teaching and learning of energy in Year 7
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • have identified familiar contexts in Year 7 that offer opportunities to introduce the key scientific idea of energy
    • have considered the starting point for their own teaching of energy in Year 7
    • be able to use the Year 7 yearly teaching objectives to help plan for progression in teaching the key scientific idea of energy
    Slide 2.1
  • Progression in the yearly teaching objectives for energy Slide 2.3 6A Interdependence and adaptation 6G Changing circuits 6F How we see things 6E Forces in action 6D Reversible and irreversible changes 5A Keeping healthy 5F Changing sounds 5D Changing state Use a simple model of energy transfer in situations including food chains and webs and electric circuits Explain the importance and uses of stores of energy including food and fuels
  • The importance of context
    • Energy is a challenging abstract idea.
    • Introducing energy through familiar contexts will help pupils develop their ideas about energy.
    • Unfamiliar contexts are very challenging.
    Slide 2.5 Energy Familiar contexts , such as living things, torches, toys powered by cells etc. Unfamiliar contexts , such as hydroelectric dams, chemical change, respiration etc.
  • Food as an energy resource
    • Energy stored in food is a good starting point
    • in Year 7 because it:
    • relates to pupils’ everyday experiences;
    • builds on prior learning from Key Stage 2;
    • links energy with stores of energy and physical activity;
    • provides an opportunity to address pupils’ common misconception that food is energy or, conversely, that energy is ‘stuff’.
    Slide 2.7
  • Task D The energy content of food
    • Look at the labels on handout 2.9.
    • Burn each of the four types of food, or watch the demonstration or video clip.
    • Match the label to the food.
    • Explain your choice – which piece of information on the label helped you decide?
    Slide 2.8
  • Task E Comparing the energy content of different foods
    • Use the food labels provided (these are reproduced on handout 2.11).
    • Look at the energy content per 100g of the foods.
    • Attach the labels to a washing line in a way that enables you to compare the amount of energy stored in each.
    • Now look at the mystery foods (the ones with the energy content blanked out) and discuss in your group where you think these foods belong.
    • When you have made your mind up about the mystery foods, collect an answer sheet from your tutor.
    Slide 2.10
  • Task F An introduction to energy conservation as an accounting system
    • Look at handout 2.13, page 1, and answer the questions on page 2.
    Slide 2.12
  • A ‘good enough’ teaching model for energy transfer in the context of eating food Slide 2.14 Energy stored in food Person Surroundings eating activity
  • Task G Opportunities to teach about energy in Year 7
    • Look at the Year 7 yearly teaching objectives for energy on page 30 of the Framework for teaching science: Years 7, 8 and 9 .
    • For each statement in the Year 7 yearly teaching objectives, identify an activity from the QCA units that could be used to teach pupils about this aspect of energy.
    • Record the units and activities you identify on handout 2.16.
    • Consider the implications for the order in which these topics are taught in Year 7.
    Slide 2.15
  • Plenary for session 2
    • Objective for session 2
    • To consider the teaching and learning of energy in Year 7
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • have identified familiar contexts in Year 7 that offer opportunities to introduce the key scientific idea of energy
    • have considered the starting point for their own teaching of energy in Year 7
    • be able to use the Year 7 yearly teaching objectives to help plan for progression in teaching the key scientific idea of energy
    Slide 2.17
  • Session 3
    • Different ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy as a key scientific idea
    Slide 3.0
  • Objectives for session 3
    • Objectives for session 3
    • To outline and discuss two commonly used ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy and explore the terminology associated with each
    • To describe how these two ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy are used in published texts and the Year 9 national test papers
    Slide 3.1a
  • Outcomes for session 3
    • By the end of the session participants should:
    • have improved their understanding of two common teaching models for energy – these are transformation of energy and energy transfer
    • feel confident about using the correct terminology associated with energy transfer
    • recognise some of the problems associated with the use of terminology in published materials and have some strategies to overcome these
    Slide 3.1b
  • Task H Talking about energy
    • Look at each of the cards provided.
    • Select the statement on each card that best matches the explanation you would use with your pupils.
    • Record your answers on handout 3.4.
    Slide 3.2
  • Ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy
    • The preferred teaching model selected by science departments usually determines the terminology used to describe events and phenomena in relation to energy.
    • A Answers mainly As – you are confident using the transformation of energy teaching model.
    • B Answers mainly Bs – you are confident using the energy transfer teaching model.
    • C Answers mainly Cs – you are using a hybrid of the energy transfer and transformation of energy teaching models.
    Slide 3.5
  • Alternative models for teaching energy at Key Stage 3
    • Transformation of energy
    • According to this model, energy takes on different forms, for example chemical, heat, light, etc. Energy is transformed or changed from one form or type to another when a change occurs.
    • Typical use of language:
    • ‘ The chemical energy in the battery is transformed into electrical
    • energy in the wires and then to light and heat energy in the bulb.’
    • ‘ The light energy from the Sun is changed into chemical energy
    • in the leaf.’
    • ‘ Chemical energy in the reaction is changed into light and heat .’
    • ‘ The chemical energy in the weightlifter’s muscles is changed into
    • kinetic energy when the bar is being lifted and is changed into
    • potential energy at the top of the lift.’
    Slide 3.6
  • Alternative models for teaching energy at Key Stage 3
    • Energy transfer
    • In this model the energy is located in one place, and when something happens energy is transferred from that place to another by a process.
    • Typical use of language:
    • ‘ The energy in the battery is transferred to the bulb by electricity and
    • then from the bulb to the surroundings by light. Some energy is
    • transferred to the surroundings by heating.’
    • ‘ Energy from the Sun is transferred to the leaf cells by light.’
    • ‘ Energy is transferred from the reacting chemicals to the
    • surroundings by heating and light.’
    • ‘ A weightlifter transfers energy from his muscles to the bar by lifting
    • (moving) his arms.’
    Slide 3.7
  • Alternative ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy at Key Stage 3 Slide 3.8 Energy transformation Energy transfer Chemical Cell Electrical Electric current Bulb Light Heat Surroundings Light Heating
  • Terminology used when teaching energy in Key Stage 3
    • Transformation Transfer
    • heat heating
    • light light
    • sound sound
    • electrical electric current
    • kinetic stored
    • chemical stored
    • potential (elastic and gravitational) stored
    • nuclear stored
    Slide 3.9
  • Energy transfer as an introduction to energy conservation as an accounting system
    • Energy transfer is a process.
    • Energy can be stored with the potential to be transferred.
    • The amount of stored energy sets limits to what can happen.
    • Energy transfers result from something happening.
    • Energy does not cause things to happen.
    Slide 3.11
  • Task I Analysing published texts
    • Use handout 3.14.
    • Look at the texts and/or photocopies of resources you have brought with you.
    • Consider each of the statements on handout 3.14.
    • You may wish to highlight areas of your texts or photocopies that relate to particular statements on the handout.
    Slide 3.13
  • Slide 3.15
  • Plenary for session 3
    • Objectives for session 3
    • To outline and discuss two commonly used ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy and explore the terminology associated with each
    • To describe how these two ways of teaching (teaching models) about energy are used in published texts and the Year 9 national test papers
    Slide 3.17a
  • Plenary for session 3
    • By the end of the session participants should:
    • have improved their understanding of two common teaching models for energy – these are transformation of energy and energy transfer
    • feel confident about using the correct terminology associated with energy transfer
    • recognise some of the problems associated with the use of terminology in published materials and have some strategies to overcome these
    Slide 3.17b
  • Session 4
    • Strategies for using the idea of energy in Year 8
    Slide 4.0
  • Objectives for session 4
    • To consider how questioning in Year 8 can give pupils opportunities to develop their understanding of energy using the energy transfer teaching model
    • To show how lesson objectives can be refined to make the teaching of energy explicit in Year 8
    Slide 4.1a
  • Outcomes for session 4
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • recognise the importance of asking pupils in Year 8 to explain their observations and findings using the idea of energy transfer
    • be able to modify the learning objectives in Year 8, where appropriate, to raise the level of challenge in the lesson from broadly descriptive to explanatory
    • be able to develop questions and questioning that help pupils use terminology related to energy transfer to explain a range of events and phenomena
    Slide 4.1b
  • Energy in Year 7
    • Year 7 teaching objective – Use a simple model of
    • energy transfer to explain how non-living things
    • can change or move. This requires pupils to have
    • been taught that:
    • energy is stored in many places ready for use;
    • energy does not cause something to happen;
    • energy transfer is a result of something happening;
    • the energy stored sets limits on what can happen.
    Slide 4.2
  • The yearly teaching objectives and progression in energy Slide 4.3 Year 8 Year 7 Use the energy transfer model to explain phenomena in familiar and unfamiliar contexts Heating Light Respiration Sound Ecology Rock cycle Food and digestion Chemical reactions Use a simple model of energy transfer in situations including food chains and webs and electric circuits Explain the importance and uses of stores of energy including food and fuels
  • Recommendations from the 2001 and 2002 Key Stage 3 standards reports for science
    • ‘ Teachers should provide pupils with a variety of familiar and unfamiliar situations, so that they can gain experience in explaining energy transfers in different contexts.’ (2001)
    • ‘ Teachers can help pupils improve performance by emphasising that the key ideas underlying scientific description and explanation which may appear unconnected are linked, e.g. from the “Energy resources”, “Food and digestion”’ and “Using chemistry” units.’ (2002)
    Slide 4.4
  • Task J Modifying the introduction to a unit
    • Look at handout 4.6.
    • Read the introductory session to unit 8K, Light.
    • What would you add to the section ‘Where the unit fits in’?
    Slide 4.5
  • Task K Using questions and/or modifying learning objectives
    • Work on one of the remaining sections of unit 8K, Light.
    • Include questions that will probe pupils’ understanding of energy transfer by light.
    • Make explicit references to teaching about energy transfer in the learning objectives.
    Slide 4.7
  • Task L Using question sheets to extend pupils’ thinking
    • Light forever!
    • Imagine a room in which the ceiling and the walls are made entirely of mirrors.
    • In the middle of the room is a light bulb.
    • The light from the light bulb is reflected between the mirrors.
    Slide 4.10 If you turn the light bulb off, will it stay light in the room? If not, why not? Where does the energy go? Think! Energy transfer.
  • Task L Using question sheets to extend pupils’ thinking
    • Changing waistcoats!
    • Imagine it is a bright, sunny day and you are standing in front of a plane mirror wearing a red waistcoat.
    • What colour waistcoat is your image wearing?
    • A green filter is placed between you and the mirror. What colour does the waistcoat appear in the image? Why?
    • Has the transfer of energy stopped?
    Slide 4.11
  • Video
    • Developing pupils’ understanding of energy through the teaching of light
    Slide 4.12
  • Plenary for session 4
    • Objectives for session 4
    • To consider how questioning in Year 8 can give pupils opportunities to develop their understanding of energy using the energy transfer teaching model
    • To show how lesson objectives can be refined to make the teaching of energy explicit in Year 8
    Slide 4.13a
  • Plenary for session 4
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • recognise the importance of asking pupils in Year 8 to explain their observations and findings using the idea of energy transfer
    • be able to modify the learning objectives in Year 8, where appropriate, to raise the level of challenge in the lesson from broadly descriptive to explanatory
    • be able to develop questions and questioning that help pupils use terminology related to energy transfer to explain a range of events and phenomena
    Slide 4.13b
  • Session 5
    • The challenge in Year 9
    Slide 5.0
  • Objectives for session 5
    • To describe how conservation of energy can be used as an accounting system during energy transfers
    • To provide one possible teaching strategy to develop pupils’ understanding of conservation of energy
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • be able to show pupils how energy conservation can be used as an accounting system in science
    • know how to use the conservation of energy to explain efficiency and dissipation of energy
    • be able to use blocks or tokens with Sankey diagrams to illustrate conservation of energy
    Slide 5.1
  • Progression in Year 9
    • Look at the yearly teaching objectives for energy in Year 9.
    • What are the main teaching points in Year 9?
    Slide 5.2
  • Progression in the yearly teaching objectives for energy Slide 5.3 Year 8 Year 7 Use the energy transfer model to explain phenomena in familiar and unfamiliar contexts Heating Light Respiration Sound Ecology Rock cycle Food and digestion Chemical reactions Use a simple model of energy transfer in situations including food chains and webs and electric circuits Explain the importance and uses of stores of energy including food and fuels Recognise the idea of energy conservation as an accounting system and how this can be applied to energy transfers Apply energy conservation to explain energy dissipation and energy efficiency Year 9
  • Energy – a most abstract idea
    • ‘ There is a certain quantity, which we call energy, that does not change in the manifold changes which nature undergoes. That is a most abstract idea, because it is a mathematical principle; it says that there is a numerical quantity, which does not change when something happens. It is not a description of a mechanism, or anything concrete; it is just a strange fact that we can calculate some number and when we finish watching nature go through her tricks and calculate that number again, it is the same.’
    • Richard Feynman
    Slide 5.5
  • Richard Feynman’s model: Dennis the Menace
    • Read handout 5.7.
    • Richard Feynman
    Slide 5.6
  • Energy transfers in an electric torch electric current light heating heating Cell Filament bulb Energy in surroundings Energy in surroundings Slide 5.8
  • A Sankey diagram showing energy transfers in an electric torch Slide 5.9 Electric current Heating Heating Light Cell Bulb Surroundings Surroundings
  • Using tokens with Sankey diagrams Slide 5.10
  • Task N Helping pupils use the idea of energy conservation as an accounting system
    • Choose one of the energy stories from handout 5.12.
    • Use the squared paper (handout 5.13) and tokens supplied to make a Sankey diagram representing the energy transfers in your chosen story.
    Slide 5.11
  • The usefulness of Sankey diagrams
    • How does using blocks or tokens with Sankey
    • diagrams help pupils to understand:
    • transfer of energy;
    • conservation of energy;
    • dissipation of energy (as energy is transferred it becomes more spread out and less useful);
    • energy efficiency?
    • What are the limitations of using Sankey diagrams
    • in this way?
    Slide 5.15
  • Plenary for session 5
    • Objectives for session 5
    • To describe how conservation of energy can be used as an accounting system during energy transfers
    • To provide one possible teaching strategy to develop pupils’ understanding of conservation of energy
    • By the end of this session participants should:
    • be able to show pupils how energy conservation can be used as an accounting system in science
    • know how to use the conservation of energy to explain efficiency and dissipation of energy
    • be able to use blocks or tokens with Sankey diagrams to illustrate conservation of energy
    Slide 5.16
  • How teaching at Key Stage 2 underpins the key idea of energy at Key Stage 3 Slide 5.17 6A Interdependence and adaptation 6G Changing circuits 6F How we see things 6E Forces in action 6D Reversible and irreversible changes 5A Keeping healthy 5F Changing sounds 5D Changing state Use a simple model of energy transfer in situations including food chains and webs and electric circuits Explain the importance and uses of stores of energy including food and fuels Year 7
  • The importance of context
    • Energy is a challenging abstract idea.
    • Introducing energy through familiar contexts will help pupils develop their ideas about energy.
    • Unfamiliar contexts are very challenging.
    Slide 5.18 Energy Familiar contexts , such as living things, torches, toys powered by cells etc. Unfamiliar contexts , such as hydroelectric dams, chemical change, respiration etc.
  • Alternative energy models for teaching energy at Key Stage 3 Slide 5.19 Energy transformation Energy transfer Chemical Cell Electrical Electric current Bulb Light Heat Surroundings Light Heating
  • Progression in the yearly teaching objectives for energy Slide 5.20 Year 8 Year 7 Use the energy transfer model to explain phenomena in familiar and unfamiliar contexts Heating Light Respiration Sound Ecology Rock cycle Food and digestion Chemical reactions Use a simple model of energy transfer in situations including food chains and webs and electric circuits Explain the importance and uses of stores of energy including food and fuels Year 9
  • Progression in the yearly teaching objectives for energy Slide 5.21 Year 8 Year 7 Use the energy transfer model to explain phenomena in familiar and unfamiliar contexts Heating Light Respiration Sound Ecology Rock cycle Food and digestion Chemical reactions Use a simple model of energy transfer in situations including food chains and webs and electric circuits Explain the importance and uses of stores of energy including food and fuels Recognise the idea of energy conservation as an accounting system and how this can be applied to energy transfers Apply energy conservation to explain energy dissipation and energy efficiency Year 9
  • Energy: true or false?
    • Have you changed any of your views about energy during the day?
    • Think of one thing you will do differently the next time you teach pupils about energy.
    Slide 5.22
  • Where next?
    • Individually
    • Be explicit with pupils about when the idea of energy is being introduced, perhaps by using the energy stored in food as a starting point.
    • Allow time to explain to pupils that there are two teaching models to explain the idea of energy. These are transformation of energy and energy transfer.
    • Be precise about the terminology that is used for the transformation and transfer teaching models. Mixing the two into a hybrid language will probably confuse pupils.
    Slide 5.23a
  • Where next?
    • Individually
    • Recognise that pupils will meet both teaching models in textbooks and end of Key Stage 3 tests.
    • Be more selective when using activities and examples taken from textbooks.
    • Provide opportunities for pupils to develop their understanding of the idea of energy by practising using energy terminology to explain a range of changes, events and phenomena.
    • Identify lessons in which pupils can use the energy transfer teaching model in Year 8.
    Slide 5.23b
  • Where next?
    • Individually
    • Use ideas of energy transfer when teaching light.
    • Generate some questions to use in existing lessons that challenge and extend pupils’ thinking about energy.
    • Modify some existing departmental resources to ensure consistency in the use of appropriate terminology.
    • Discuss with more able pupils the role played by models in science.
    • Use tokens with Sankey diagrams to develop the idea of energy conservation.
    Slide 5.23c
  • Where next?
    • As a department
    • Work with the Key Stage 3 science coordinator to plan for an explicit introduction of the idea of energy to pupils in Year 7.
    • Work with the Key Stage 3 science coordinator to check the progression of energy ideas and the use of models in your scheme of work.
    • Analyse pupils’ responses to internal tests and end of Year 9 tests, and use the Key Stage 3 standards reports for science to pinpoint pupils’ difficulties with the idea of energy and its associated language.
    Slide 5.23d
  • Where next?
    • As a department
    • Develop a progressive teaching programme based on the yearly teaching objectives for energy.
    • Encourage greater consistency in the use of the energy transfer teaching model terminology to promote better understanding of the ideas of energy conservation, dissipation and efficiency.
    • Use the true or false activity and the energy cards in a department meeting to promote discussion of energy ideas and terminology.
    • Help initiate department INSET based on today’s course, perhaps with support from the LEA consultant.
    Slide 5.23e