The New Female Consumer by Advertising Age: THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM. Still targeting ‘Supermom’? For younger generations of mothers, having it all doesn’t mean doing it all. A white paper by
The New Female Consumer by Advertising Age: THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM. Still targeting ‘Supermom’? For younger generations of mothers, having it all doesn’t mean doing it all. A white paper by Advertising Age (November 2009).
WHITE PAPER SPONSORED BYTHE NEW FEMALE CONSUMER: WOMEN THEN AND NOW WHEN THEY WED WHEN THEY STARTED HAVING KIDSTHE RISE 30 30 Years old Years old 25.9 25.0 25 25 21.4 20.3 20 20 15 15OF THE 10 10 5 5 0 0 1960 2008 1970 2006REAL HOW MANY WENT ON TO COLLEGE HOW MANY WORKED AFTER HIGH SCHOOL 100% 100% 80 80 66.1% 59.5% 60 60 37.9% 40 40 37.0% 20 20MOM 0 0 1960 2006 1960 2008 HOW MUCH THEY MADE HOW MUCH THEY MADE FOR EVERY (IN THOUSANDS)* DOLLAR MEN MADE $25 $1.00 20 0.80 77.1¢ $20,867 60.7¢ 15 0.60Still targeting ‘Supermom’? For 10 $1,261 0.40younger generations of mothers, ($8,023 in 2008 dollars) 0.20having it all doesn’t mean doing it all 5 By MARISSA MILEY and ANN MACK 0 0.00 email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org 1960 2008 1960 2008 *Median for all women, not just those in the labor force. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, National Center for Health Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
WHITE PAPER 2 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOMTABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT This Advertising Age and JWT white paper explores what multiple generations ofABSTRACT 2 American women want when it comes to family, work and life in the 21st centu- ry, decades after the women’s liberation movement. It focuses in depth onINTRODUCTION 2 Generation X (ages 30 to 44) and millennial (ages 18 to 29) mothers and how they differ from their older counterparts. It also examines how marketers can andTHE REAL WOMAN 4 should improve communications that target this demographic. This paper is based on a quantitative study of 870 men and women 18 and older conducted July 7-14,THE REAL MOM 6 2009, using SONAR, JWT’s proprietary online research tool. (All data have been weighted to 2007 census estimates across gender, age and household income.) It isTHE NEW PRAGMATISM 12 also the cumulative work of interviews with more than a dozen marketers and experts, as well as qualitative research conducted with women around the countryWHAT REAL MOMS WANT 14 via the video-based community ExpoTV. EVERY DOLLAR COUNTS 14 FAMILY COMES FIRST 15 PERMISSION TO BE IMPERFECT MORE THAN JUST A MOM 16 17 INTRODUCTION In 1968, Philip Morris introduced a new product line to the market: Virginia Slims,HOW REAL MOMS SHOP 18 the slender “cigarette for women only.” To promote the line, Philip Morris built on the energy of second-wave feminism and cleverly co-opted much of the move-WHAT GETS REAL MOMS’ ATTENTION 20 ment’s language. The result: “You’ve come a long way, baby,” a powerful and long- lasting advertising campaign that juxtaposed photographic images of the inhibited,APPENDIX 23 unhappy women of yesteryear with the liberated, empowered women of the day. More than 40 years later, American women have come an even longer way. They are highly educated in greater numbers than ever before; they are working profes- sionals climbing the ranks; they are the privileged product of generations of womenMEET A MOM who have fought for equality in and outside the home. Yet as much as they have ANGELA 13 changed, in many ways they are the same. Today’s woman is still the designated JANE 14 HEATHER 15 chief operating officer of the home. As this Advertising Age and JWT white paper will explore in depth, women with children still handle the bulk of the household and child-care responsibilities, the so-called “second shift”—whether they are working full time, staying at home or something in between. Even younger women consider marriage and parenthood more important than men their age.Date published: The fact is, no matter how progressive they are, women are up against some-Nov. 16, 2009 thing that just won’t budge: biology. Motherhood will always distinguish most women from men and put them at the center of home and family life. While that’s not necessarily a bad thing, many mothers, especially working mothers, are time- crunched and stressed, putting in long hours at work and at home. Much can be said about the need for corporate change—a move away from the traditional 9-to-5 and toward flex time and telecommuting, an embrace of family leave for mothers and fathers—but that is not the business of this paper, which MORE ON ADAGE.COM focuses on how marketers can change their strategies to more effectively commu- nicate with these women. “The New Female Consumer: This paper is based on a quantitative study of 870 men and women conducted in The Rise of the Real Mom” is one in a series of white papers July 2009 using SONAR, JWT’s proprietary online research tool. (All data have published by Advertising Age. been weighted to 2007 census estimates across gender, age and household income.) To see other Ad Age white It is also based on interviews with more than a dozen marketers and experts about papers and obtain additional the study’s results, as well as qualitative research conducted with women around copies of this white paper, go the country via the video-based community ExpoTV. It explores what women want to AdAge.com/whitepapers when it comes to family, work and life in the 21st century—decades after the
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 3women’s liberation movement. And it focuses in depth on Generation Xand millennial mothers and how they differ from their older counterparts. CHARTS Increasingly, Gen Xers (ages 30 to 44) and millennials (ages 18 to 29)are not beholden to perfection. Having seen their predecessors exhaust CHART 1: IMPORTANCE OF CAREER 4themselves trying to achieve an elusive ideal—the corner office, 2.5 well-groomed children at home and Julia Child’s command of the kitchen— CHART 2: PRIORITIES FORthese younger mothers realize that “having it all” does not require doing WOMEN BY AGE 5it all. CHART 3: PRIORITIES FOR While a decade ago mothers aspired to be “Supermom,” today’s moth- MEN BY AGE 5ers aim to be pragmatic, efficient and rooted in reality. They want to bereal moms. (That lowercase is intentional; these women don’t need fancy CHART 4: MILLENNIAL PRIORITIES 6titles.) Perhaps more importantly, they want to be real women, with inter-ests that include and extend beyond their roles as caretakers, providers CHART 5: HOUSEHOLD AND CHILD-CARE RESPONSIBILITIES 7and nurturers. In this way, real moms look to subvert the so-called “mommy trap,” CHART 6: HOUSEHOLDwhere a mother has to choose whether to forfeit a career to care for the RESPONSIBILITIES 8kids or plow ahead at work and hand over the stroller reins to the nanny.Real moms understand that tradeoffs are implicit in motherhood; they CHART 7: CHILD-CAREjust don’t see things as black and white. RESPONSIBILITIES 9 Real moms still have unmet needs—as women and mothers. Boston CHART 8: STRESS LEVELS 10Consulting Group estimates that women control $4.3 trillion of the $5.9trillion in U.S. consumer spending, or 73% of household spending. To CHART 9: PURCHASING INFLUENCES 16reach this demographic, marketers need not just to communicate that thegoods and services they offer are practical and convenient; they also need CHART 10: CLOTHING PURCHASES 17to make real moms feel confident and in charge. Marketers should CHART 11: AUTO PURCHASES 18empower these female consumers to delegate to others (spouses, children,brands) so they can have more time to be who they want to be—at home, CHART 12: TRAVEL PURCHASES 19at work and on their own. And marketers have to use new ways to reacha population that rarely has time to sit down to read or watch or enjoy CHART 13: ENTERTAINMENTsomething without simultaneously doing something else. PURCHASES 23 CHART 14: PERSONAL-CARE PURCHASES 23 CHART 15: APPLIANCE PURCHASES 24 CHART 16: HOME-FURNISHING PURCHASES 25 CHART 17: FOOD/BEVERAGE Real moms look to subvert the PURCHASES 26 so-called “mommy trap,” where a CHART 18: ELECTRONICS PURCHASES 26 mother has to choose whether to CHART 19: TECHNOLOGY PURCHASES 27 forfeit a career to care for the kids or plow ahead at work and hand over the stroller reins to the nanny.
WHITE PAPER 4 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOMTHE REAL WOMAN CHART 1: IMPORTANCE OF CAREER How men and women responded to questions about workThe American woman has come a long way since the 1960s,when second-wave feminists began charting new territory. MEN (N=452) WOMEN (N=418)She is no longer defined solely by her husband (as Mrs. Please tell us how important each of the following is to you right now,John Doe) or her domestic role (housewife). Schools and at this point in your life.companies alike have opened their doors to her. She works,she parents, she leads, she chooses. 57 Back in 1982, Rena Bartos, then senior VP at J. Walter Having a career isThompson, captured this woman, albeit in a nascent stage, ”very important” 36in her book “The Moving Target.” She called theAmerican woman’s metamorphosis a “quiet revolution” 0% 20 40 60 80that was bound to have lasting implications for career,family, society and more. “Women have moved from MEN (N=277) WOMEN (N=228)defining themselves in terms of derived status,” Ms. How much do you agree or disagree (among those who are employed)?Bartos said in her book. “They are moving towards want-ing a sense of personal identity beyond those privatedomestic roles.” I consider what I do for 63 Certainly since 1982 women have ventured beyond a living “a career” 48their domestic roles. They have made enormous strideswhen it comes to attaining high levels of education. Whilethe same can be said of men, the positive trajectory forwomen has been much more pronounced. According to I work for my own personal 56the most recent “Condition of Education” report pub- and professional fulﬁllment 50lished by the National Center for Education Statistics, partof the U.S. Department of Education, women earned amajority of higher-education degrees in the 2006-2007academic year: 62.2% of associate degrees, 57.4% of bach- My work is very linked to 51elor’s degrees, 60.6% of master’s degrees and 50.1% of my sense of who I am 47doctoral degrees. They are thriving in professional pro-grams, such as medicine and law, that historically were 0% 20 40 60 80dominated by men. Women are also entering the work force in highernumbers than ever before, and with higher education lev-els, they are commanding higher salaries. In 2008, women and girls 16 and older accounted for46.7% of the U.S. labor force, according to the Bureau ofLabor Statistics, and both parents were employed in 62%of the 24.6 million families made up of a married couple Between 1990 and 2006,with children under 18. The increase in women in thelabor force has been magnified during the recession, when women’s median incomethe unemployment rate has been higher for men than for grew 32.9% to $20,014,women, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Between 1990 and 2006, women’s median income grew while men’s grew only32.9% to $20,014, while men’s grew only 6.3% to 6.3% to $32,265.$32,265, according to census data from Catalyst, a non-profit organization committed to expanding businessopportunities for women. Yet another sign of women’s achievement: The num-ber of working women who regard what they do for a liv-ing as a career (rather than “just a job”) has grown con-siderably in the past 30 years. In 1971, 29% of workingwomen considered what they did a career, while 71% said Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 5what they did was just a job, according to a Yankelovich CHART 2: PRIORITIES FOR WOMEN BY AGEMonitor analysis referenced in Ms.Bartos’ book. By 1980 Percentage who said each of the following is “very important” atthe numbers had changed: 39% of women considered this point in their liveswhat they did a career; 61% said what they did was just ajob. The survey conducted for this paper found that now CAREER EDUCATION PARENTHOOD MARRIAGE/RELATIONSHIPS48% of women consider what they do a career, while 70% 65 6343% said it’s just a job. But in the wake of all this social progress, there are 64 60many signs that point to stagnancy in the movement 54 60 59toward gender equality. Just consider the numbers of 54female U.S. senators (17 of 100), House members (76 of 50435) and state governors (6 of 50). Or the 3% of Fortune 48500 CEOs this year who are women and the 15.7% of 41 40Fortune 500 corporate-officer positions held by women in 342008, when women held 50.8% of management, profes-sional and related occupations, according to Bureau of 30Labor Statistics data reported by Catalyst. Our survey found that women today are more career- 22 18 20oriented than they were decades ago, but they are stillless likely than men to prioritize having a career, and 10 16working women are less likely than men to consider 10what they do a career (see chart 1, page 4). Workingwomen are also less likely to work for personal and pro- 5 0fessional fulfillment. (The one exception: Women 30 to Women 18-29 Women 30-44 Women 45-59 Women 60+44 said work is very linked to who they are. That may be (N=74) (N=112) (N=166) (N=66)because women in that age group who are working are inthe heart of their career development or have risen tomiddle-management positions or higher.) While women, especially younger women, are opti- CHART 3: PRIORITIES FOR MEN BY AGEmistic overall about professional opportunities, on bal- Percentage who said each of the following is “very important” atance they are pessimistic about equal pay. Rightfully so: this point in their livesWhile women are working more, there is still enormous CAREER EDUCATION PARENTHOOD MARRIAGE/RELATIONSHIPSpay inequality. In 2008, women and girls 15 and olderwho worked full time, year-round received 77.1% of the 70%median annual earnings their male counterparts did, 61 60according to the U.S. Census Bureau. (In 1960, the per- 60 59centage was 60.7%.) 53 55 One year out of college, women who work full time 50already earn only 80% as much as their male peers earn, 50 45according to a 2007 report published by the AAUW (for- 44 42merly the American Association of University Women), 40a nonprofit organization that promotes education andequity for women and girls. What’s more, 10 years out of 28 30 31college, that earnings ratio drops to 69%. Therefore it’sno surprise that women still feel there are barriers to 24overcome. 20 Why do these stark inequities persist in 2009? Perhaps 14men hold more executive positions than women, or they 13work longer hours, or they simply have pursued more 10 11demanding—and therefore lucrative—careers. Maybewomen opt out of the work force or choose fields that don’t 0pay as well. But according to the AAUW study, the pay Men 18-29 Men 30-44 Men 45-59 Men 60+ (continued on page 6) (N=66) (N=93) (N=178) (N=115) Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
WHITE PAPER 6 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOMratio does not reach 100% even when accounting for dif- CHART 4: MILLENNIAL PRIORITIESferences in working hours, occupation, parenthood and Percentage who said each of the following is “very important” atother factors. There is still discrimination. Maybe it’s not this point in their livesovert, but it’s there. MEN 18-29 (N=66) WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) Some may theorize that this discrimination is deeplyrooted; responsibilities on the home front continue to hold Having ﬁnancial 90women back from taking advantage of professional oppor- independence 94tunities and fully devoting themselves to their careers. Taking care of 89Women do not have the same career trajectory as men do, myself (”me time”) 90either because they opt out, prioritize family over work ortake time off to have children, which can handicap them in 91the long run. Having a career 86 We found that women 30 and older, even those in thework force, tend to value marriage and parenthood over Feeling attractive to 80career and education (see chart 2, page 5). Even millennial the opposite sex 85women—who consider career and education more impor-tant at this point in their lives—place much more importance Being married/in 61 a committedon being in a committed relationship, owning a home and relationship 82being a parent than men their age (see chart 4). Only men 30 to 44 prioritize parenthood as much as Expanding 80women (see chart 3, page 5). While women’s interest in par- your education 82enthood rises from the 18-to-29 age group to the 30-to-44age group and then declines slightly as they age further, men 79 Seeing the worldpeak at 30 to 44 and dramatically de-prioritize parenting as 80they age.“For men, it’s like, I’ve done my job, I’ve gone to the 44baseball games, I’ve paid for your college education; now Owning a home 76you’re on your own,” said Miriam Muléy, founder of the85% Niche, a consulting firm dedicated to helping business- 43 Being a parentes grow market share among women across ethnic, racial and 70socioeconomic lines. “[Women] are nurturers; we are there.” One-third of survey respondents said if a parent needs to Owning your 44stay at home with the children, it should be the mother. And own business 30while 55% said it should be the parent who earns the lower 0% 20 40 60 80 100salary, in many cases that would still mean the mother.THE REAL MOMIn this paper, for lack of better descriptors and in a desire to “For men, it’s like,use familiar terms that connect with readers, we refer to I’ve done my job,mothers who earn wages—more specifically, those who work I’ve gone to thefull or part time, in or outside the home, on a contract or free- baseball games, I’velance basis—as “working mothers” and those who do not as paid for your“stay-at-home mothers.” By using these terms we do notmean to imply that working mothers do not spend significant college education;time at home or that stay-at-home mothers do not work in now you’re on yourtheir roles. These are merely functional labels by which we own.”can identify, group and better understand two different sets of MIRIAM MULÉYwomen with children under 18. In today’s fast-paced and always-connected world, bothsets of mothers parent and often run the household 24 hoursa day. They are the emotional and operational cores of fami-ly life. “In the end, both working and stay-at-home moms Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 7 CHART 5: HOUSEHOLD AND CHILD-CARE RESPONSIBILITIESWho is primarily responsible for each task 100% STAY-AT-HOME MOMS Taking care of child(ren) when sick ALL MOMS 90 Scheduling or handling doctor visits for child(ren) Cooking Grocery Doing the laundry shopping 80 Doing the dishes Dusting Cleaning the bathroom Planning 70 Making lunches for child(ren) Mopping birthday the floor parties/STAY-AT-HOME MOMS (N=65) Mean Getting child(ren) ready for school other events Vacuuming 60 for child(ren) Putting child(ren) to bed Paying bills/ 50 Driving child(ren) to school Disciplining managing finances Driving child(ren) Helping child(ren) to child(ren) 40 with extracurricular activities homework Doing yard work other 30 than mowing the lawn Taking out the garbage 20 10 Mowing the lawn DADS/SOMEONE ELSE WORKING MOMS 0 0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 WORKING MOMS (N=88)have the pedal to the metal all the time,” said Earl Wilcox, a birthday parties and other events for their children, and han-qualitative researcher who focuses on ethnographic work dling doctor appointments for their children—much moreand founder of Plannerzone in Philadelphia. “There are only so than their male counterparts. (Interestingly, according to24 hours, and both are more than overwhelmed with our survey, men with spouses or partners who do not workresponsibilities.” are more apt to share child-care responsibilities.) While working mothers are less likely than stay-at-home mothers SO MUCH FOR ‘MR. MOM’ to help the kids get ready for school in the morning, the for-Despite the perception that “Mr. Mom” is on the rise, our mer are more inclined to help with homework, perhapsresearch shows that traditional gender roles still exist among because they are more likely to have children who are oldmarried and cohabiting parents. Mothers in those relation- enough to get ready on their own (see chart 7, page 9).ships assume the bulk of household and child-care responsi- Figures from the American Time Use Survey, sponsoredbilities regardless of whether they work or not (see chart 5). by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and conducted by the Mothers in our survey, both working and stay-at-home, Census Bureau, reinforce many of our findings.Among full-tend to do “inside” or “wet” jobs such as cleaning the bath- time workers with children under 18, married mothers areroom and doing the laundry; fathers tend to do “outside” or more apt than married fathers to spend time—and more of“dry” jobs such as mowing the lawn and taking out the it—doing household chores and caring for their children.garbage (see chart 6, page 8). The only shared tasks: paying The survey, which was based on interviews with aboutbills/managing finances and grocery shopping. This tradi- 17,000 Americans from 2003 to 2006, revealed that on aver-tional breakdown of household chores exists for couples who age the mothers spent almost one more hour a day doingcohabit and married couples without children, too, although household chores than the fathers (2.0 hours vs. 1.2 hours)the second shared task is vacuuming; women tend to do the and almost a half-hour more caring for their children (1.2grocery shopping. hours vs. 0.8 hours). The fathers, meanwhile, spent one addi- Both working and stay-at-home mothers are responsible tional hour at work per day. (It’s difficult to determinefor taking care of their children when they’re sick, planning (continued on page 8) Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
WHITE PAPER 8 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM CHART 6: HOUSEHOLD RESPONSIBILITIESWho is primarily responsible for each task 80% DADS BOTH 70 Doing yard work other Taking out the garbage than mowing the lawn Paying bills/managing financesDADS WHO ARE MARRIED/COHABITING (N=106) 60 Mowing the lawn 50 Grocery shopping Mean 40 Doing the dishes Vacuuming 30 Cleaning the bathroom Cooking Doing the laundry 20 Mopping the floor Dusting 10 SOMEONE ELSE/NOT APPLICABLE MOMS 0 0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 MOMS WHO ARE MARRIED/COHABITING (N=125)whether or not women would spend more time at work if American Time Use Survey data from 2003 to 2004, twothey did not shoulder the bulk of the child-care and house- University of Maryland sociologists found that single moth-hold responsibilities.) ers with children under 13 put in 83% to 90% of the child- rearing time their married counterparts did. “We were sur- DIFFERENT DEMOGRAPHICS prised that these women managed to pull it off so well, oftenOur findings are based on self-reported data, so there could working long hours with little help, yet devoting up to 90%be cases where survey participants over- or underestimated of the time to their children that married women do,” saidtheir involvement in certain activities. Additionally, while Sarah Kendig, the principal researcher, just before the studyour sample size has been weighted to census data across age, was published in December 2008.gender and household income, it has not been weighted Demographic differences aside, there are clear universals:across race, ethnicity or geography, and its focus skews With longer to-do lists than ever before, many moms findtoward those who are married. (Two-thirds of family groups themselves time-starved, stressed and unhappy. In somewith children under 18 in 2007 were headed by married cou- ways, the second wave of feminism has wrought not onlyples, according to the Census Bureau.) opportunities but also increased challenges, complexity and If anything, however, our findings likely would be more unmet expectations.pronounced for black, Hispanic or single moms. Ms. Muléy Martine Reardon, exec VP-marketing at Macy’s, said ofof 85% Niche said when it comes to household and child- the retailer’s 25- to 49-year-old female target:“Ten years agocare responsibilities, women of color—especially those new she was probably at home. Now she is a working mom. She’sto the U.S. who come from cultures with traditional gender juggling many, many balls. She may still be home, but she’sroles—play a “much more confined, traditional role.” working from home.” As for single mothers, while they may receive some sup- On balance, working and stay-at-home mothers reportedport, they still bear much of the burden when it comes to far more stress than working fathers in our survey, andhousehold and child-care responsibilities. In analyzing the working moms reported the highest levels of stress (see Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 9 CHART 7: CHILD-CARE RESPONSIBILITIESWho is primarily responsible for each task 100% STAY-AT-HOME MOMS ALL MOMS Taking care of child(ren) when sick 90 Scheduling or handling doctor visits for child(ren) 80 Planning birthday parties/ Getting child(ren) other events for child(ren) 70 ready for schoolSTAY-AT-HOME MOMS (N=65) Making lunches for child(ren) Mean 60 Putting child(ren) to bed Helping child(ren) Disciplining with homework 50 Driving child(ren) to school child(ren) Driving 40 child(ren) to extracurricular 30 activities 20 10 DADS/SOMEONE ELSE WORKING MOMS 0 0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 WORKING MOMS (N=88)chart 8, page 10). Working mothers attribute roughly 49% dren and have them at a younger age than non-Hispanicof their daily stress to their professional lives and 51% to Caucasian women, she said. That suggests that the stresstheir personal lives, whereas working fathers attribute levels of women of color are “off the charts,” Ms. Muléyroughly 62% of their daily stress to the former and 38% to said. She said not just home life but work life may be morethe latter. stressful for women of color because “we’re trying to The near-even split between work life and personal life as break the glass ceiling in terms of implicit and explicitsources of stress for working mothers indicates that these behavior directed at women of color.”women do not find much reprieve at home. In fact, three- For single mothers, add financial stress to the equation.quarters said they feel that they have to sacrifice personal Half of single-mother households in 2007 had incomes lesstime for a clean and organized home. than $25,000, while only 8% were in the $75,000-plus Again, these figures are likely to be even more pro- bracket, according to a report by market-research companynounced among black, Hispanic and single moms. Mintel. Just 4% of single-mom households earned“Multitasking for women of color is at a much higher level $100,000 or more in 2007 compared with a third of couplesthan the mainstream market,” Ms. Muléy said, “because with children. And according to data from the Bureau ofmore women of color are working and [have] children at Labor Statistics for September 2009, women with familieshome.” In her 2009 book, “The 85% Niche: The Power of without a spouse present are more than one and a halfWomen of All Colors—Latina, Black and Asian,” Ms. times as likely as married men to be unemployed.Muléy references census data to back her claim: “Married All this sacrifice and stress has taken a toll on today’sAfrican-American mothers with children under age 18 have mothers—and on women in general. Economists from thehigher rates of work-force participation than other married Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania recent-mothers—82% compared with 55% of white moms, 66% ly examined the happiness of American women and con-of Asian moms and 62% of Hispanic moms.” cluded that women are less happy today than they were 35 What’s more, women of color tend to have more chil- (continued on page 10) Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
WHITE PAPER 10 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM years ago, both “absolutely and relative to men.” In the CHART 8: STRESS LEVELS 1970s that gender gap was reversed; women typically Net percentage of people who reported a high level of daily stress* reported higher subjective well-being than men did. In their National Bureau of Economic Research working Working dads with 1 kids under 18 (N=99) paper, “The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness,” pub- lished in May 2009, economists Betsey Stevenson and Non-working moms with 14 Justin Wolfers posit that the women’s movement may, iron- kids under 18 (N=66) ically, have brought about much of this unhappiness. “The Working moms with increased opportunity to succeed in many dimensions may 17 kids under 18 (N=88) have led to an increased likelihood of believing that one’s life is not measuring up,” Ms. Stevenson and Mr. Wolfers said. Women with no kids -12 “Or women may simply find the complexity and increased (N=206) pressure in their modern lives to have come at the cost of Women (N=418) -4 happiness.” Responding to the Wharton economists’ findings, New Men (N=452) -13 York Times op-ed columnist Ross Douthat said: “Feminists and traditionalists should be able to agree ... that the struc- Total (N=870) -9 tures of American society don’t make enough allowances for the particular challenges of motherhood. We can squabble -20 -15 -10 -5 0% 5 10 15 20 forever about the choices that mothers ought to make, but *Calculated by subtracting the percentage who reported stress levels of 1 to 3 from the percentage who reported stress levels of 8 to 10 on a scale of 1 to 10, where 1 means no stress at the difficult work-parenthood juggle is here to stay.” all and 10 means extremely high stress. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey 77 pr em iu m br12 magazine b an ra n d s + de 175 sp d ecial w i n te eb re s t si pub te lica s tio nsMeredith brands provide women with information andinspiration to create a rich and meaningful life byfocusing on the core passions of family, home and self.Online or o ine, we connect with her across multiple m ing gramplatforms—delivering quality, trusted content whenever, d p rowherever and however she wants it. Let Meredith help d banyou engage 75 million women at every touch point. b ro a + t ed ca n di sy Source: MRI Spring 2009 (including Publisher’s estimate for SIPs)
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 11 Indeed, the juggle has been around since women firststarted working outside the home. Mr. Wilcox, the ethnogra-pher, said he believes that modern life has enhanced people’sindividual and collective opportunities. But, he said, withthose opportunities comes complexity. “Because [a mother] is at the center of the family, she per- “Women lovesonally touches the added complexity of each member,” Mr. opportunity. And so youWilcox said in an e-mail. “Her life becomes even more com-plicated by each family member’s opportunities/complexi- start to expand yourselfty.” And in a world of limited resources, he said, compromis- into all the possibilities,es must be made for and among the family—and those com-promises ultimately contribute to mothers’ unhappiness. which is both wonderful Gina Garrubbo, exec VP at BlogHer, the women’s blog- and horrible.”ging network, put that concept in more accessible terms:“Women love opportunity,” she said in a roundtable discus-sion we hosted at JWT’s New York offices in July. “And soyou start to expand yourself into all the possibilities, whichis both wonderful and horrible, because it’s not clear-cut.”There is no right or wrong choice—and yet every choice hasits opportunity cost. (continued on page 12) h judy e c t wit conn ys to ite wa inﬁn n at i ona lm edi ab ran ds
WHITE PAPER 12 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOMTHE NEW PRAGMATISMWhat’s different today is that women—millennials in par- “Women realize thatticular—are becoming more accepting of those opportuni- there’s no such thingty costs. With the publication of books such as “Good- as being good atEnough Mother,” “Even June Cleaver Would Forget the everything, soJuice Box,” “The Mommy Myth” and “Perfect Madness,”the second half of this decade has brought a backlash they’re going toagainst the mythical Supermom—that hyperactive Type-A focus on doing wellpersonality who whips up perfect cookies and perfect chil- in the moment thatdren—and an embrace of the likable, more relatable real they’re in.”mom, who doesn’t obsess over the little things. Spilled ALIZA FREUDmilk? No problem. As we near the next decade, this shift from striving forperfection to settling for pragmatism promises to continuefor women—especially as more millennials become moth-ers—and the philosophy is expanding to areas beyond par-enting. We asked our survey participants whether theybelieve that “having it all” when it comes to family andcareer is subjective, and nearly two-thirds of women saidthey do. Nearly half of women we surveyed said findingbalance between family and career is “a joke” for workingwomen. Today’s women understand that life is a series oftradeoffs both big and small: Having a job means less freetime to spend with children but more income and autono-my; getting takeout for dinner means less control overingredients but more convenience. Increasingly, women are showing signs that they are notaspiring to perfection in any arena of their lives. “There isno such thing as being perfect,” said Aliza Freud, founderand CEO of SheSpeaks, a New York-based word-of-mouthnetwork for women. “Women realize that there’s no suchthing as being good at everything, so they’re going to focuson doing well in the moment that they’re in. If I’m work- NOBODY’S PERFECT: A number of parenting booksing, then I’m working. If I’m with my kids, then I’m with in the past five years have rejected the concept of an ideal mother.my kids.” Ms. Freud said she believes that a great deal of this seachange has come from millennial women. Throughresearch in her community of women, Ms. Freud has foundthat millennials are less conflicted than, for example,Generation X. “Gen Xers were raised at a time where theirparents might have instilled in them that they can do any-thing they want to do,” Ms. Freud said. Oftentimes that “She has witnessedmeant being either the perfect career woman or the perfect her parents having,mom or both at the same time. Now those women are con- in theory, genderflicted about the choices they have made. If they chose to equality. But actuallystay at home, they think about what they gave up at work, her mother wasand if they pursued a career, they think about what they aremissing at home. “[Millennials] grew up with seeing a lot hustling and doingof moms working, being outside the home a lot, and decid- two jobs.”ed, ‘Hey, this isn’t what I want,’” Ms. Freud said. “So theymay be at peace more with their not working or working.” GLORIA FELDT Gloria Feldt, an activist, author, and former CEO and
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 13president of Planned Parenthood, put this millennial phe-nomenon into context: “She has witnessed her parents Meet a momhaving, in theory, gender equality. But actually her mother We asked video-based community ExpoTV to help uswas hustling and doing two jobs.” And trying to succeed at understand how moms shop for groceries. We receivedboth. video entries from women all across the country who Laura Vanderkam, a Manhattan-based journalist and let us peek into their grocery bags—and their lives.author of the forthcoming book “168 Hours,” has analyzedhow Americans spend a week (i.e., 168 hours) and identi-fied ways in which they can do so more efficiently. She hasfound that pragmatism is growing among a certain set ofmothers, women she refers to as “core-competencymoms.” Rather than skimp on time with their children—amidall their responsibilities, 45% of working mothers indicat-ed to us that they don’t get enough time to spend with theirchildren—these moms are going to cut themselves slack innon-core-competency areas, Ms. Vanderkam said. “Ifsomething has to go,” she said at the July roundtable, “it’sgoing to be the housework. It’s going to be the errands. It’sgoing to be the ‘me’ time. It’s going to be a little bit of sleep.It’s going to be television.” ANGELA Ms. Vanderkam has carefully studied the American Dayton, OhioTime Use Survey, which found that married mothers who Age: 29worked full time spent, on average, less time on household Relationship status: Marriedchores (2 hours vs. 3.6 hours), leisure activities such as Children: 2-year-oldsocializing or exercising (2.9 hours vs. 4.2 hours) and sleep- Employment: Works full-time as a budget analysting (8.18 hours vs. 8.77 hours) than their stay-at-homecounterparts did. However, the time they spent interacting Angela is an efficient shopper, and the designatedwith their children did not vary as much: Working moth- shopper for her family. At the end of the workday, sheers spent an average of 0.04 hours reading to or with their values a good deal for her money and time. She shopschildren and 0.19 playing or doing hobbies with them, weekly or biweekly, mostly for items she knows hercompared with 0.09 hours reading and 0.52 hours playing family needs.for stay-at-home mothers. While she does buy some branded items, she’s not Catalyst refers to this as “work-life effectiveness,” as particularly brand loyal. “I buy the Walmart-brand fruit.opposed to work-life balance. The view at the nonprofit is They come in the nice, little, convenient containers,”that the word balance inherently connotes accommodation she said. “I buy Walmart because it’s cheaper and Ibetween work and life, whereas what is really needed is think it tastes just as good as the regular brand name.”organization. “Balance means different things at differenttimes of the day, at different times in your life,” said JanCombopiano, VP-chief knowledge officer at Catalyst. “It’shard to use that term.” The idea behind work-life effective-ness, she said, “is that you as an individual have choicesabout what you have to do now.” And perhaps most impor- “If something has totantly, what you choose to do is “not a one-size-fits-all.” go, it’s going to be This movement toward work-life effectiveness recog- the housework. It’snizes that women’s lives are multidimensional. Nuance can going to be thecome from all corners, whether it’s a woman’s upbringing, errands. It’s going tostage in life or socioeconomic status, among other things. MICHAEL FALCOMany of the experts interviewed for this paper stressed be the ‘me’ time. It’sthat point. “Moms are a pretty broad bucket,” said going to be a little bitSheSpeaks founder Ms. Freud. “It’s about how a woman of sleep.”defines herself at any given moment in time.” LAURA VANDERKAM (continued on page 14)
WHITE PAPER 14 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM Ms. Freud and some others said the way mothers definethemselves is directly correlated to the dependency of chil- Meet a momdren on them. “When she has young children, becausethose children have such needs, her primary definition ofherself is Mom,” Ms. Freud said. “But as her children growand become less dependent, it’s not just about being Mom.” Real moms want to be embraced for all of who they are.“Smart businesses recognize that cookie-cutter approachesdon’t work,” Ms. Combopiano said. Ms. Garrubbo said she has witnessed similar sentimentin the BlogHer community. “There’s this sort of backlashand anger that women have to marketers,” she said. “Whatthey’re saying: ‘Don’t tell us what we think; don’t tell uswho we are.’” JANEWHAT REAL MOMS WANT Tampa, Fla.Real moms come to the table with different life experi- Age: 34ences, attitudes and demographics, and they want mar- Relationship status: Marriedketers to understand and embrace those differences. The Children: 2-year-old and 4-year-oldreal mom wants products and services that not only reflect Employment: Stays at homeher unique reality but also help make it better. She is look-ing for solutions that will help her manage the complexi- Jane shops for groceries every Wednesday night withties of her life, lessen her stress and workload, and give her her husband and two children. The family makes anmore time to focus on what’s really important. She wants outing of it, getting dinner at McDonald’s along the way.to be a good mom and COO of the household but also have She selects what to buy based on her grocery store’san identity outside that. And while she may be embracing circular. She considers price before convenience, buyingher perfectly imperfect self—as a mother and beyond—she whatever is on sale, especially if it’s “buy one, get onewants brands to catch up. In plainer terms, she wants prod- free.” “That’s pretty much how we shop is the buy-one-ucts and services that provide value to her and her fami- get-one sales,” she said.ly—and that give her permission to be imperfect and rec-ognize her identity outside of being a mom. EVERY DOLLAR COUNTSMoney has always been a source of stress for families, and “There’s this sort of backlashthe current economic climate has only heightened thatstress. So it comes as no surprise that, as the COO of the and anger that women have tofamily, today’s mom is trying to manage that stress by marketers. What they’re saying:playing the price and value game. In the qualitative research Ad Age and JWT did with ‘Don’t tell us what we think;ExpoTV, we asked women to share with us on film their don’t tell us who we are.’”most recent grocery-store purchases. They repeatedly saidthey had bought certain products based on sales, couponsor store circulars. Often they bought generic productsbecause they were cheaper and/or “just as good” as thebranded versions. “I bought the Walmart-brand productbecause it was the cheapest one and I think that their stufftastes just as good as the name brand,” said Angela, a full-time working mother from Ohio, referring to her mostrecent shopping trip. Others said they had waited for sales to stock up onitems they needed, such as laundry detergent and toilet
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 15paper. “I buy it in bulk, I buy it on sale, I comparison shop,”said Jocelyn, a small-business owner from North Carolina. Meet a momDanielle, a married mother of two and high-school scienceteacher from New Jersey, said she shops using grocery-store circulars and maximizes her store’s “bonus bucks”system. Ms. Reardon said she has seen similar patterns atMacy’s. “[Mom] is definitely still looking for style, butshe also wants value,” she said. “And value doesn’t nec-essarily mean price.” Both Ms. Reardon and KathyO’Brien, U.S. marketing director for Unilever’s Dove,emphasized that product quality plays a role too. “Momshave just become more and more savvy,” Ms. O’Briensaid. “They weigh price with the benefits of products.” That’s something women said in our research withExpoTV as well in explaining why they bought brandeditems with coupons or in bulk, or purchased their pro- HEATHERduce at one store and their dry goods at another. Right Vicksburg, Mich.now, amid the recession, price is especially important. Age: 35And this behavior has expanded to income brackets that Relationship status:Marriednever before would have considered such savings meth- Children: 3-year-old and 6-year-oldods, said Mr. Wilcox, who collaborates with ExpoTV on Employment: Stays at home but sells embroidered goodsits ethnographic practice. on Etsy.com As Betsy O’Rourke, senior VP-marketing at RoyalCaribbean International, put it: Today, for everybody, Heather dislikes grocery shopping, so she prefers to shop“cheap is chic.” The cruise-line brand is highlighting every three or four weeks. She is the primary shopper.budget-friendly family vacations to resonate with Mom. She plans for all of the meals, so she makes food purchases based on her family’s needs. Heather shops in FAMILY COMES FIRST two different stores: one local store for produce and“We’re all time-deprived,” Ms. O’Rourke said. “We live Walmart for everything else because of its low prices.in a society where we are very busy people, whether When she shops, she’s armed with coupons, seeking towe’re working moms or non-working moms.” A vaca- get the best deals. She is not brand loyal. “Just got the storetion can be one of the rare occasions when the entire brand because it was the cheapest,” she said. “It all tastesfamily gets together for a long and uninterrupted period pretty much the same.”of time, she said. “From a mom point of view, that On grocery-shopping nights, she picks up convenientresponsibility to create a family connection is even more items for dinner that don’t require her to cook. When weimportant. There’s a lot riding on it.” met Heather, she had picked up rotisserie chicken for her Ms. O’Rourke said Royal Caribbean tries to partner family for $4.48.with moms on convenience, rather than pander to theirevery whim and fancy. “We want to make it easy for youto have a great time, and on your budget that’s avail-able,” she said. Royal Caribbean aims to provide a “hassle-free” “Moms have just becomeproduct—appealing to time-crunched moms. Ms.O’Rourke said the company knows that a mother wants more and more savvy. Theyto feel taken care of once on board. “We want to make weigh price with the benefitssure that you’re the hero, that when your family comeson our ship, it’s going to be a great experience for all of of products.”them,” she said. “And that you, mom, who has done allthe planning and scheduling, get to enjoy that vacation.”Ms. O’Rourke said the goal is to empower moms torelax: “Give me permission to do things that I don’t oth- (continued on page 16)
WHITE PAPER 16 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM CHART 9: PURCHASING INFLUENCESWho women said has the most influence on what they buy (N=418) SPOUSE/PARTNER OTHER/NOT APPLICABLE MYSELF Personal care 8 25 67 Clothing 9 27 64 Books 7 30 63 Cosmetics 5 34 61 Jewelry 13 29 58 Food/beverage 31 24 45 Entertainment 29 28 43 Home furnishings 32 25 43 Financial products 36 22 42 Technology 34 26 40 Appliances 38 25 37 Travel 39 26 35 Electronics 45 21 34 Cars and trucks 46 23 31 Restaurants 42 29 29 0% 20 40 60 80 100erwise get the chance to do.” salad dressings. She said she tends to buy healthful items Increasingly, taking care of the family means provid- she reads about in magazines or hears about from friends,ing more-holistic, healthful food. “You’re seeing a strong such as green tea and blueberries.consumer trend towards healthy food,” said Hy Nguyen, Carol Anne from Minnesota, a married stay-at-homebrand manager at Unilever’s Skippy peanut-butter mother of two, buys a lot of fruit, yogurt and eggs for herbrand. “Basically, there’s nothing more important to family. “They are healthy,” she said, again and again. Amom than taking care of her kids and nurturing her number of other women said they had bought 100-caloriekids.” packs, whole-wheat bread and so on “because they were Skippy was the first national brand to introduce no- healthy.”need-to-stir natural peanut butter, something it sensedwould be in increasing demand. Indeed, sales of Skippy PERMISSION TO BE IMPERFECTNatural were up 145% to $20.1 million in the 52 weeks As the movement toward pragmatism continues, realended Sept. 6, according to Information Resources, Inc., moms will come to embrace brands that give them per-the Chicago-based market-research firm. And mothers mission to be imperfect without feeling guilty. Thatare the primary shoppers for Skippy. “Moms are con- could mean a number of things for marketers, but chiefstantly trying to find things that their kids are going to among them is providing women the tools to let go ofeat,” Mr. Nguyen said, and they want items that are good the inclination to do it all and simply delegate some offor their kids too. those non-core-competency responsibilities—whether That was evident among the women in our research it’s to a spouse, a child or a brand.with ExpoTV. Women across the country went out of In a series on core-competency moms for thetheir way to buy products they knew—or thought—were Huffington Post, Ms. Vanderkam talks about delegatinghealthy. “We are trying to eat more healthy,” said Angie the dishes to Dixie. “Dixie disposable dishes can befrom North Carolina, a married stay-at-home mother of tossed after meals, eliminating the need to rinse plates,three, explaining why she had bought Newman’s Own stick them in the dishwasher or scrub them by hand,” Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 17 CHART 10: CLOTHING PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 3% 1% 4% 6% 5% 9% 5% 10% 3% 7% 6% 43% 8% 7% 32% 14% 6% 69% 68% 76% 7% 9% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 2% 2% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 5% 4% 4% 8% 4% 12% 6% 39% 40% 10% 49% 46% 44% 48% 21% 41% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115)Ms. Vanderkam writes, describing a TV ad she saw for MORE THAN JUST A MOMthe brand. “The less time the TV mom has to spend Dove’s core consumer is in her 30s and often married withwashing dishes, she reports, the more time she can spend children, Ms. O’Brien said, and now more than ever shewith her kids.” The ad gives moms permission to ditch wants to be communicated with in totality—not as some-doing the dishes to achieve a higher good: spending body’s mom. Ms. O’Brien said today’s mothers are incor-quality time with their children. porating more of their single lives into their post-children A recent TV spot from Best Buy does not empower lives. “They still see themselves as individuals, and theymoms in that way. In “Annie,” a frumpy-looking moth- don’t want to be seen as Mom,” she said, clarifying: “Theyer stands on a football field before a packed stadium of want that to be part of their persona, not all of who theyBest Buy employees, looking to buy the best computer are.”for her teenage daughter. “I don’t know anything about Frito-Lay has started thinking along those lines as well.computers,” she begins. “And my daughter is going to It created its women’s portfolio last year after discoveringcollege so she needs one. Can you help me?” The Best that women were doing the bulk of the shopping for saltyBuy crew begins to shout out advice. “I don’t want to get snacks for their families but were not buying many saltyher something that she thinks is totally lame,” the mom snacks for themselves—despite their high levels of stressadds. and the depressing impact of the recession, which one Lame? How about the fact that this poor mother, with might think would make them more apt to snack. As partbags under her eyes, is alone shopping for her adult of its initiative, Frito-Lay came up with “permissible indul-daughter—and the expectation is that that’s a good gences”—products that could bring a woman satisfactionthing? While the spot does portray the mother as imper- without any accompanying guilt.fect, it would have been better to give her permission to “She recognizes the need to take time for herself to be abow out of this responsibility, leaving the decision up to better wife, friend, spouse, mother, worker,” said Marissathe more-tech-savvy daughter. Best Buy declined to Jarratt, brand manager for the women’s portfolio. “Whatcomment on the ad. (continued on page 18) Note: Numbers are rounded; pie charts may not add up to 100%. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
WHITE PAPER 18 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM CHART 11: AUTO PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 2% 3% 3% 2% 5% 5% 3% 5% 7% 8% 5% 2% 31% 12% 27% 3% 4% 30% 35% 26% 29% 52% 55% 45% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 3% 2% 1% 4% 7% 14% 10% 4% 12% 6% 4% 34% 5% 10% 41% 48% 50% 17% 31% 30% 21% 10% 30% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115)we’re trying to do is be a part of her life in those moments.” impossible. Census data are reported by household unit, The women’s portfolio includes the Baked products, not individual, so spending by the 50% of women who are100-calorie packs of other Frito-Lay products and recently married householders is grouped with their households’launched SmartFood, a hybrid sweet and salty popcorn overall spending.snack with ingredients such as added calcium and fiber. The “The key point about women’s buying power is thatproducts are lower in fat and calories than sibling products women have income,” said Catalyst’s Ms. Combopiano.such as regular Doritos and Cheetos and packaged in more- “Women spend [on] more than just clothing and food.subdued matte colors. “She’s looking for a product to start They spend money on cars, consumer electronics [and] big-a conversation with her, not yelling at her,” Ms. Jarratt said. ticket items” (see chart 9, page 16).“Our other products were screaming out like a teenage Boston Consulting Group, which conducted a multi-boy.” country study of women in 2008, estimates that women Frito-Lay provided women with equivalent bite-size control $4.3 trillion of the $5.9 trillion in U.S. consumer“permissible indulgences” in the entertainment realm by spending, or 73% of household spending. Yet, in SheSpeaksalso building a website with short, animated webisodes, at research, 90% of women say advertisers don’t advertise toawomansworld.com. them, Ms. Freud said. Today’s time-pressed mom is a more focused shopper than her predecessors. “She only has a couple of minutes where she’s running in, so she’s trying to get everythingHOW REAL MOMS SHOP that she needs,” Skippy’s Mr. Nguyen said. Frito-Lay hasWomen may be the primary shoppers, but according to a acknowledged that tendency by placing the products in its2009 report by Catalyst, women’s buying power is difficult women’s portfolio at the ends of grocery-store aisles, so ato measure. While experts such as Ms. Muléy of the 85% busy mom can find them quickly and easily.Niche assert that women make 85% of all purchasing deci- “She doesn’t have the time she had before. What shesions (hence the name of her company), Catalyst noted that wants is an easy experience, and she wants us to be morebacking that number with census data is difficult, if not accommodating,” said Macy’s Ms. Reardon, adding that Note: Numbers are rounded; pie charts may not add up to 100%. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 19 CHART 12: TRAVEL PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 2% 6% 9% 7% 9% 5% 6% 6% 3% 8% 12% 32% 4% 35% 5% 34% 37% 7% 2% 13% 42% 45% 41% 27% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 1% 8% 7% 10% 2% 11% 11% 6% 4% 30% 3% 5% 4% 28% 6% 32% 6% 39% 18% 48% 46% 53% 19% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115)women are shopping closer to the time when they need also a changing definition of family. Who is driving theclothing, instead of planning months or seasons in advance, car? It’s not necessarily Mom buying the car or Dad buy-as they did a few years ago. Not surprisingly, they are turn- ing the car; it’s the family buying a fleet.” A family mighting to the internet to make purchases. In the free moments want one small car for shorter distances or the work com-after they put the kids to bed, for example, they’ll hop mute and a large one for carpool and vacations.online and visit highly targeted female and/or social-net-working websites to check out the latest trends or deals. MORE SELF-RELIANT Women are still the primary shoppers for their families While Ms. O’Rourke at Royal Caribbean estimated thatat Macy’s, Ms. Reardon said, though men are beginning to 80% of all trips are planned and booked by women, ulti-do some of the shopping for themselves. Our survey found mately travel is a joint decision. “What we surmise is thatthat men over 30 still tend to consult their spouses or part- she spends the time, she gathers the information,” Ms.ners for clothing advice (see chart 10, page 17). O’Rourke said. “Then she shares the information with her When it comes to big-ticket items such as cars and partner, and then they make the joint decision.” Our find-trucks, we found that many women over 30 rely on their ings confirm that (see chart 12). Illustrating the complica-spouse or partner to make a decision (see chart 11, page 18). tions of measuring female buying power, Ms. O’RourkeBut men also consult their spouse or partner. The car pur- added: “Who actually puts the credit card down, I don’tchase is an increasingly collaborative, family-oriented know.”process, said Sheryl Connelly, global trends and futuring Interestingly, our data show that as women age, theymanager at Ford. become more self-reliant for certain purchases, especially For the past five years, Ms. Connelly has been responsi- entertainment, personal care, clothing, appliances, homeble for identifying and tracking non-automotive trends furnishings and food/beverage items (see appendix, pagethat might affect the way people purchase and use vehicles. 23). Lauren Zalaznick, president of NBC Universal’s“We talk a lot about the influence children have on house- women and lifestyle entertainment networks, said thathold decision-making purchases,” she said, adding that par- does not surprise her. “Women get more comfortable overents dote more on their children than ever before. “There’s (continued on page 20) Note: Numbers are rounded; pie charts may not add up to 100%. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
WHITE PAPER 20 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM the course of their lifetime making decisions,” she said, deficit will only grow. adding with a laugh, “as they get older, more confident or Content creators, understanding that these women do more satisfied or more bored.” more than one thing at a time, are turning what could be a negative (a distraction) into a positive (an immersive experience). By layering a multitude of media into enter- tainment, they are creating content designed for simulta- WHAT GETS REAL MOMS’ ATTENTION neous consumption and engagement. Mr. Cardinale said It’s not enough to understand that women are the princi- Bravo, for example, actually encourages viewers to multi- pal shoppers, that women have the “power of the purse,” task while watching shows—that is, to text, e-mail or read Ms. Zalaznick said. “It’s that [marketers] need customized blogs about Bravo content or play around on the network’s ways of reaching these women.” website. “We’d rather have them looking at [our] screen “It [used to be] a lot easier to understand [women] and than making a sandwich,” he said. speak to them all at once,” said Tony Cardinale, senior VP- Mr. Cardinale said while these developments are excit- research and strategic insights for Bravo, Oxygen and ing for him as a researcher, they can be challenging for a Women@NBCU. “What we have now are silos with dif- marketer. “It’s especially different with younger women,” ferent outlooks, different psychographics.” he said. “You sort of have to wrangle them in small groups The multitasking tendencies of today’s moms extend to together if you have a message for them.” their media consumption, and as a result it’s getting close With mothers—both those who work and those who to impossible to grab their truly undivided attention. As stay at home—a chief task is to present them with relevant more millennials—digital natives and multitasking content that fits into their lives. “The truism is that it does- machines that they are—become mothers, that attention n’t matter if they’re coming home at 7:05 p.m. or starting + mobile + database + l media hispasocia n ic + hea lthc a re ma rke tin g c u s to m p ublish ing + web desi gn a nd d evel opm ent Meredith is a leading provider of integrated marketing programs delivering compelling content across traditional and new media channels. We leverage our award-winning expertise in word-of-mouth, online and direct marketing to build deep, meaningful connections with consumers. Let Meredith help you strengthen and nourish your relationships with women in ways you’ve never imagined.
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 21to cook dinner at 5:45 p.m.,” said Ms. Zalaznick of NBCU’s nected with her friends and “whose life is about fun.” “Thewomen and lifestyle entertainment networks. “Their difference between Oxygen and Bravo is less about what Iminds say, ‘Please don’t waste my time; please respect see on paper when I see their age but more about life stage,me.’” For NBCU, part of being respectful and relevant is values and mindset,” he said.creating network programming that is relatable and enter- Increasingly, real moms are augmenting their mediataining and part of it is embracing viewers’ lifestyles. diets with content from their peers. Whether it’s in person Ms. Zalaznick spearheaded the launch of or on blogs and sites such as Facebook and Twitter, momsWomen@NBCU last summer to enable advertisers to are big on communicating with other moms—not justreach women across a number of NBC Universal proper- about parenthood but about politics, literature, health andties. Since then the company has done multimillion-dol- more. Women in the BlogHer community are educatedlar deals with Walmart, Kodak and General Mills and and tech-savvy, and many of them are taking time awaysecured a cross-network deal with American Express. from the work force to raise young children. “They wantWomen@NBCU claims to reach 95% of American women to be heard, they want to be acknowledged,” Ms. Garrubbothrough the Oxygen, Bravo and iVillage properties, as well said. “The one thing women say is, ‘I get to be all of who Ias NBC’s “Today” and shows like it. am at this group. I don’t have to just be a wife, I don’t have Each property has its own target psychographic. Mr. to just be the mom.’”Cardinale said Bravo, for example, appeals to “upscale, cos- For Macy’s, it’s about bringing content to womenmopolitan” women in their 30s and 40s with successful where they are spending time. Online, that means reach-careers who “like watching people with concerns in their ing out on women’s websites and social-networking sites;lives that are similar to theirs.” Oxygen, by contrast, goes offline, it’s about hosting the Macy’s Thanksgiving Dayfor the 20- or 30-something woman who is closely con- (continued on page 22) ith alex o con nect w ways t direct ting marke ted gra i nte ith ed mer
WHITE PAPER 22 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOMParade or Glamorama, the store’s fashion-show fundrais- its third wave, the Dove campaign works to give motherser. Through these channels women can spend time with tools to spread the self-esteem message. Not only hastheir family and friends and connect with the brand. Ms. Dove’s Ms. O’Brien seen women respond positively toReardon said cause-related marketing has been a particu- the “Campaign for Real Beauty,” she said, she has alsolarly successful initiative for Macy’s, which works with the seen women wanting to become a part of it. Why? It’sAmerican Heart Association and Feeding America, among part of their reality.other charities. “A lot of people say they listen to women,” said Women are “very likely to be loyal to companies that NBCU’s Ms. Zalaznick. “Very few people actually do.”do good work,” said Connie Fontaine, manager of brand One thing is clear, she said: “What’s important is don’tcontent and alliances at Ford, citing research from cause- try to move your [customer] segment to places theyrelated-marketing agency Cone. According to the 2008 don’t want to go. Don’t say that ‘Now that half of you areCone Cause Evolution Study, 85% of Americans have a graduating from [Harvard Business School], we’re goingmore positive image of a product or company when it sup- to market to you like a man.’” Nor should companiesports a cause they care about, and 79% said they would be market to women as if they were June Cleaver, justlikely to switch from one brand to an equivalent brand if it because they bear the majority of household and child-was associated with a good cause. care responsibilities. Ford has been a national sponsor of the Susan G. Back in 1982, JWT’s Ms. Bartos predicted that women’sKomen Race for the Cure for the past 15 years and helped social progress—and quest for identity—would be araise more than $100 million for the breast-cancer organ- “never ending saga.” She closed her book with a fewization to date. At first Ford’s involvement was not con- telling lines from Gretchen Cryer, a singer of the era:nected to the car company’s marketing efforts. “But thenwe found that consumers were expecting it,” Ms. Fontaine “Twice I was a mother,said. “It’s become something over the past few years that Once I was a wife,we have integrated the product story into our marketing.” Tore off the labels,Today, the so-called “Warriors in Pink” program has par- Now all that’s left is life.”ticularly resonated with women, in branded entertainmenton Lifetime’s “Army Wives” and online, where women can It’s that leftover “life” that marketers—and womencontribute to a virtual quilt. themselves—are still figuring out today. Meanwhile, Dove continues to see women respond Catalyst’s Ms. Combopiano said she is optimistic thatpositively to its “Campaign for Real Beauty.” Dove traditional gender roles will change within a generation,kicked off the campaign in 2004, catalyzing a national as men assume more responsibilities at home.conversation around what it means to be beautiful as a “I think the women’s movement has changed men aswoman. The concept: Real beauty comes in all shapes, profoundly as it has changed women,” BlogHer’s Ms.sizes and colors. While the campaign has grown beyond Garrubbo said. “They, too, want balance. … They want,its social message—the advertising now incorporates when they have children, to be able to engage with them.much more information about the science behind the They want to be able to take off if they need to for a kid’sproduct—the brand continues to focus on building self- illness or something like that.”esteem, for girls and young women in particular. Now in Until then, it’s all about the real mom.
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 23APPENDIX CHART 13: ENTERTAINMENT PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 1% 2% 9% 4% 8% 10% 13% 6% 7% 38% 8% 8% 36% 3% 26% 6% 2% 51% 44% 24% 34% 30% 2% 26% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 6% 5% 5% 8% 9% 7% 7% 7% 11% 9% 6% 25% 43% 34% 15% 4% 40% 4% 9% 9% 35% 50% 18% 33% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115) CHART 14: PERSONAL-CARE PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 3% 1% 2% 2% 5% 3% 4% 4% 5% 19% 11% 4% 6% 6% 12% 12% 49% 22% 5% 66% 74% 79% 8% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 2% 1% 2% 3% 1% 2% 9% 5% 5% 5% 6% 4% 5% 6% 18% 42% 52% 57% 52% 35% 37% 12% 39% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115) Note: Numbers are rounded; pie charts may not add up to 100%. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
WHITE PAPER 24 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM CHART 15: APPLIANCE PURCHASES Who has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 3% 3% 1% 1% 3% 6% 3% 5% 5% 5% 1% 9% 6% 30% 30% 5% 13% 42% 45% 36% 47% 34% 24% 45% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 5% 3% 5% 4% 2% 17% 7% 9% 27% 6% 25% 3% 36% 41% 17% 46% 59% 19% 54% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115) Note: Numbers are rounded; pie charts may not add up to 100%. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey marketin g solutionsMeredith knows women. Whether sampling new productsat one of our 50+ annual events, watching an originalwebisode, or redeeming an o er at a local retailer,we motivate women to take action. Let Meredith helpyou engage consumers with custom programs thatdeliver measurable results.
SPONSORED BY THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM 25 CHART 16: HOME-FURNISHING PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 2% 1% 2% 3% 7% 4% 4% 4% 8% 4%4% 3% 9% 32% 15% 6% 38% 49% 50% 32% 38% 28% 19% 39% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 4% 2% 17% 4%5% 5% 4% 6% 8% 26% 26% 4% 33% 41% 19% 53% 60% 18% 56% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115) Note: Numbers are rounded; pie charts may not add up to 100%. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey an i wi th l ct o nne s to c g way agin eng v i ce s t ser n and distribution + creative and prin p ro ductio eo vid re t a i l p ro m o tions + experientia l m a r ke t i n g rese ghts arch + consumer insi
WHITE PAPER 26 THE RISE OF THE REAL MOM CHART 17: FOOD/BEVERAGE PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 3% 1% 2% 7% 3% 9% 5% 7% 7% 10% 7% 3% 6% 10% 39% 41% 18% 49% 52% 32% 28% 36% 25% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 2% 1% 3% 3% 4% 9% 6% 6% 5% 4% 3% 4% 7% 8% 33% 34% 42% 47% 18% 43% 53% 12% 49% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115) CHART 18: ELECTRONICS PURCHASESWho has the most influence MYSELF SPOUSE/PARTNER PARENT FRIENDS OTHER FAMILY NOT APPLICABLE 1% 3% 4%4% 2% 1% 5% 5% 13% 3% 9% 8% 3% 9% 28% 32% 5% 36% 38% 14% 49% 42% 36% 52% WOMEN 18-29 (N=74) WOMEN 30-44 (N=112) WOMEN 45-59 (N=166) WOMEN 60+ (N=66) 3% 1% 9% 6% 6% 9% 9% 6% 9% 35% 5% 4% 42% 17% 8% 22% 51% 53% 8% 27% 20% 13% 9% 28% MEN 18-29 (N=66) MEN 30-44 (N=93) MEN 45-59 (N=178) MEN 60+ (N=115) Note: Numbers are rounded; pie charts may not add up to 100%. Source: Advertising Age and JWT survey
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