PISA 2009 Results:Students On Line  Digital technologies    anD Performance       (Volume Vi)
this work is published on the responsibility of the secretary-general of the oecD. the opinionsexpressed and arguments emp...
Forewordone of the ultimate goals of policy makers is to enable citizens to take advantage of a globalised world economy.t...
Foreword    A major overhaul of Poland’s school system helped to dramatically reduce performance variability among schools...
Forewordthese are, of course, not independently conceived and executed policies. they need to be aligned across all aspect...
Table of ContentsExEcutivE summary ..........................................................................................
Table of ConTenTs    ChapTEr 3 naviGation in thE Pisa 2009 diGital rEadinG assEssmEnt .......................................
Table of ConTenTsChapTEr 6 studEnts’ usE of information and communication tEchnoloGiEsand thEir PErformancE in diGital rEa...
Table of ConTenTs     annex a4: Quality assurance for the digital reading assessment ........................................
Table of ConTenTsBoxesBox VI.A               Key features of PISA 2009 ......................................................
Table of ConTenTs     Figure VI.3.1             Illustration of the relationship between number of relevant pages visited ...
Table of ConTenTsFigure VI.5.23 Percentage of students who reported using laptops at school .................................
Table of ConTenTs     table A1a.3     levels of parental education converted into years of schooling ........................
Table of ConTenTstable VI.3.15   IWANTTOHELP Question 4. Summary of student performance .....................................
Table of ConTenTs     table VI.5.6        Percentage of students who reported having access to the Internet at home, by ge...
Students On-line - Digital Technologies and Performance by #OECD
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Students On-line - Digital Technologies and Performance by #OECD

  1. 1. PISA 2009 Results:Students On Line Digital technologies anD Performance (Volume Vi)
  2. 2. this work is published on the responsibility of the secretary-general of the oecD. the opinionsexpressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of theorganisation or of the governments of its member countries. Please cite this publication as: oecD (2011), PISA 2009 Results: Students on Line: Digital Technologies and Performance (Volume VI) http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264112995-enisBn 978-92-64-11291-9 (print)isBn 978-92-64-11299-5 (PDf)the statistical data for israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant israeli authorities. the use of such databy the oecD is without prejudice to the status of the golan heights, east Jerusalem and israeli settlements in the West Bankunder the terms of international law.Photo credits:getty images © ariel skelleygetty images © geostockgetty images © Jack hollingsworthstocklib image Bank © Yuri arcurscorrigenda to oecD publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda.Pisatm, oecD/Pisatm and the Pisa logo are trademaks of the organisation for economic co-operation and Development (oecD).all use of oecD trademarks is prohibited without written permission from the oecD.© oecD 2011You can copy, download or print oecD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from oecD publications, databases and multimediaproducts in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgment of oecD as sourceand copyright owner is given. all requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to rights@oecd.org. requests forpermission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to the copyright clearance center (ccc)at info@copyright.com or the centre français d’exploitation du droit de copie (cfc) at contact@cfcopies.com.
  3. 3. Forewordone of the ultimate goals of policy makers is to enable citizens to take advantage of a globalised world economy.this is leading them to focus on the improvement of education policies, ensuring the quality and sustainabilityof service provision, a more equitable distribution of learning opportunities and stronger incentives for greaterefficiency in schooling.Such policies all hinge on reliable information on how well education systems prepare students for life. mostcountries monitor students’ learning and the performance of schools. But in a global economy, the yardstick forsuccess is no longer improvement by national standards alone, but how education systems perform internationally.the oeCd has taken that challenge up by developing PISA, the Programme for International Student Assessment,which evaluates the quality, equity and efficiency of school systems in some 70 countries that, together, make upnine-tenths of the world economy. PISA represents a commitment by governments to monitor the outcomes ofeducation systems regularly within an internationally agreed framework and it provides a basis for internationalcollaboration in defining and implementing educational policies.the results from the PISA 2009 assessment reveal wide differences in education outcomes, both within and acrosscountries. the education systems that have been able to secure strong and equitable learning outcomes, and tomobilise rapid improvements, show others what is possible to achieve. naturally, GdP per capita influenceseducational success, but this only explains 6% of the differences between average student performance. the other94% reflect the potential for public policy to make a difference. the stunning success of Shanghai-China, whichtops every league table in this assessment by a clear margin, show what can be achieved with moderate economicresources and in a diverse social context. In mathematics, more than a quarter of Shanghai’s 15-year-olds canconceptualise, generalise, and creatively use information based on their own investigations and modelling ofcomplex problem situations. they can apply insight and understanding and develop new approaches and strategiesfor addressing novel situations. In the oeCd area, just 3% of students reach that level of performance.While better educational outcomes are a strong predictor of economic growth, wealth and spending on educationalone are no guarantee for better educational outcomes. overall, PISA shows that an image of a world dividedneatly into rich and well-educated countries and poor and badly-educated countries is out of date.this finding represents both a warning and an opportunity. It is a warning to advanced economies that they cannottake for granted that they will forever have “human capital” superior to that in other parts of the world. At a time ofintensified global competition, they will need to work hard to maintain a knowledge and skill base that keeps upwith changing demands.PISA underlines, in particular, the need for many advanced countries to tackle educational underperformance sothat as many members of their future workforces as possible are equipped with at least the baseline competenciesand skills that enable them to participate in social and economic development. the high social and economic costof poor educational performance in advanced economies risks otherwise to become a significant drag on economicdevelopment. At the same time, the findings show that poor skills are not an inevitable consequence of low nationalincome – an important outcome for countries that need to achieve more with less.But PISA also shows that there is no reason for despair. Countries from a variety of starting points have shown thepotential to raise the quality of educational outcomes substantially. Korea’s average performance was already high in2000, but Korean policy makers were concerned that only a narrow elite achieved levels of excellence in PISA. Withinless than a decade, Korea was able to double the share of students demonstrating excellence in reading literacy. PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI © OECD 2011 3
  4. 4. Foreword A major overhaul of Poland’s school system helped to dramatically reduce performance variability among schools, reduce the share of poorly performing students and raise overall performance by the equivalent of more than half a school year. Germany was jolted into action when PISA 2000 revealed below-average performance and large social disparities in results, and has been able to make progress on both fronts. Israel, Italy and Portugal have moved closer to the oeCd average and Brazil, Chile, mexico and turkey are among the countries with impressive gains from very low levels of performance. But the greatest value of PISA lies in inspiring national efforts to help students to learn better, teachers to teach better, and school systems to become more effective. A closer look at high-performing and rapidly improving education systems shows that these have much in common that transcends differences in their history, culture and economic evolution. First, while most nations declare their commitment to education, the test comes when these commitments are weighed against others. How do they reward teachers compared to the way they pay other highly-skilled workers? How are education credentials weighed against other qualifications when people are being considered for jobs? Would you want your child to be a teacher? How much attention do the media pay to schools and schooling? Which matters more, a community’s standing in the sports leagues or its standing in the student academic achievement league tables? Are parents more likely to encourage their children to study longer and harder or to want them to spend more time with their friends or playing sports? In the most successful education systems, the political and social leaders have persuaded their citizens to make the choices needed to show that they value education more than other things. But placing a high value on education will get a country only so far if the teachers, parents and citizens of that country believe that only some subset of the nation’s children can or need to achieve world class standards. this report shows clearly that education systems built around the belief that students have different pre-ordained professional destinies to be met with different expectations in different school types tend to be fraught with large social disparities. In contrast, the best-performing education systems embrace the diversity in students’ capacities, interests and social background with individualised approaches to learning. Second, high-performing education systems stand out with clear and ambitious standards that are shared across the system, focus on the acquisition of complex, higher order thinking skills, and are aligned with high stakes gateways and instructional systems. In these education systems, everyone knows what is required to get a given qualification, in terms both of the content studied and the level of performance that has to be demonstrated to earn it. Students cannot go on to the next stage of their life – be it work or further education – unless they show that they are qualified to do so. they know what they have to do to realise their dream and they put in the work that is needed to achieve it. third, the quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers and principals, since student learning is ultimately the result of what goes on in classrooms. Corporations, professional partnerships and national governments all know that they have to pay attention to how the pool is established from which they recruit; how they recruit; the kind of initial training their recruits get before they present themselves for employment; how they mentor new recruits and induct them into their service; what kind of continuing education they get; how their compensation is structured; how they reward their best-performers and how they improve the performance of those who are struggling; and how they provide opportunities for the best-performers to acquire more status and responsibility. many of the world’s best-performing education systems have moved from bureaucratic “command and control” environments towards school systems in which the people at the frontline have much more control of the way resources are used, people are deployed, the work is organised and the way in which the work gets done. they provide considerable discretion to school heads and school faculties in determining how resources are allocated, a factor which the report shows to be closely related to school performance when combined with effective accountability systems. And they provide an environment in which teachers work together to frame what they believe to be good practice, conduct field-based research to confirm or disprove the approaches they develop, and then assess their colleagues by the degree to which they use practices proven effective in their classrooms. last but not least, the most impressive outcome of world class education systems is perhaps that they deliver high- quality learning consistently across the entire education system such that every student benefits from excellent learning opportunity. to achieve this, they invest educational resources where they can make the greatest difference, they attract the most talented teachers into the most challenging classrooms, and they establish effective spending choices that prioritise the quality of teachers.4 © OECD 2011 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI
  5. 5. Forewordthese are, of course, not independently conceived and executed policies. they need to be aligned across all aspectsof the system, they need to be coherent over sustained periods of time, and they need to be consistently implemented.the path of reform can be fraught with political and practical obstacles. moving away from administrative andbureaucratic control toward professional norms of control can be counterproductive if a nation does not yet haveteachers and schools with the capacity to implement these policies and practices. Pushing authority down to lowerlevels can be as problematic if there is not agreement on what the students need to know and should be able to do.Recruiting high-quality teachers is not of much use if those who are recruited are so frustrated by what they perceiveto be a mindless system of initial teacher education that they will not participate in it and turn to another profession.thus a county’s success in making these transitions depends greatly on the degree to which it is successful increating and executing plans that, at any given time, produce the maximum coherence in the system.these are daunting challenges and devising effective education policies will become ever more difficult as schoolsneeds to prepare students to deal with more rapid change than ever before, for jobs that have not yet been created,to use technologies that have not yet been invented and to solve economic and social challenges that we do not yetknow will arise. But those school systems that do well today, as well as those that have shown rapid improvement,demonstrate that it can be done. the world is indifferent to tradition and past reputations, unforgiving of frailty andcomplacency and ignorant of custom or practice. Success will go to those individuals and countries that are swiftto adapt, slow to complain and open to change. the task of governments will be to ensure that countries rise to thischallenge. the oeCd will continue to support their efforts. ***the report is the product of a collaborative effort between the countries participating in PISA, the experts andinstitutions working within the framework of the PISA Consortium, and the oeCd Secretariat. this volume ofthe report was drafted by a team led by Juliette mendelovits with guidance from the PISA Reading expert Groupand the oeCd PISA team, led by Andreas Schleicher. Contributing authors were Alla Berezner, John Cresswell,miyako Ikeda, Irwin Kirsch, dominique lafontaine, tom lumley, Christian monseur, Johannes naumann,Soojin Park and Jean-François Rouet. editorial and analytical support were provided by Francesca Borgonovi,michael davidson, maciej Jakubowski, Guillermo montt, oscar Valiente, Sophie Vayssettes, elisabeth Villoutreixand Pablo Zoido of the oeCd PISA team. Further advice was provided by marilyn Achiron, Simone Bloem,marika Boiron, Simon Breakspear, Henry Braun, nihad Bunar, Jude Cosgrove, Aletta Grisay, tim Heemsoth,donald Hirsch, david Kaplan, Henry levin, Barry mcCrae, dara Ramalingam, Wolfgang Schnotz, eduardo Vidal-Abarca and Allan Wigfield. Administrative support was provided by Juliet evans and diana tramontano.the PISA assessment instruments and the data underlying the report were prepared by the PISA Consortium, underthe direction of Raymond Adams at the Australian Council for educational Research (ACeR) and Henk moelandsfrom the dutch national Institute for educational measurement (CIto). the expert group that guided the preparationof the reading assessment framework and instruments was chaired by Irwin Kirsch.the development of the report was steered by the PISA Governing Board, which is chaired by lorna Bertrand(united Kingdom), with Beno Csapo (Hungary), daniel mcGrath (united States) and Ryo Watanabe (Japan) as vicechairs. Annex C of the volumes lists the members of the various PISA bodies, as well as the individual experts andconsultants who have contributed to this report and to PISA in general.Intel Corporation provided a generous financial contribution towards publishing this volume. Angel Gurría OECD Secretary-General PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI © OECD 2011 5
  6. 6. Table of ContentsExEcutivE summary ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................19introduction to Pisa ...................................................................................................................................................................................................23rEadEr’s GuidE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................29ChapTEr 1 contExt of thE Pisa diGital rEadinG assEssmEnt............................................................................................31new technologies for text, new ways of reading................................................................................................................................................... 32 • differences in the readability and usability of text .....................................................................................................................................33 • new features of digital texts.......................................................................................................................................................................................34impact of digital texts on reading literacy.................................................................................................................................................................. 36 • Which aspects of reading are affected by digital text? .............................................................................................................................36some issues for assessing digital reading.....................................................................................................................................................................37conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38ChapTEr 2 studEnt PErformancE in diGital and Print rEadinG .................................................................................39digital reading................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 40 • texts ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 • Cognitive processes .........................................................................................................................................................................................................42 • Situation...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44how the Pisa 2009 reading results are reported.................................................................................................................................................. 44 • How the PISA 2009 digital reading tests were designed, analysed and scaled ......................................................................44What students can do in digital reading ...................................................................................................................................................................... 49 • Students reading the different levels of proficiency on the digital reading scale ...................................................................49 • Average level of proficiency .......................................................................................................................................................................................51 • Gender differences in performance on the digital reading scale ......................................................................................................52Examples of digital reading items from the Pisa 2009 assessment .......................................................................................................... 54 • IWANTTOHELP ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................54 • SmELL........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 • JOb SEArcH ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................66similarities and differences between digital and print reading assessment ........................................................................................71 • Framework characteristics and test construct .................................................................................................................................................71 • test design and operational characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................73a comparison of performance in digital and print reading............................................................................................................................ 74 • Students reaching the different levels of proficiency.................................................................................................................................74 • Average level of proficiency .......................................................................................................................................................................................76 • Gender differences in performance on the digital and print reading scales .............................................................................78a composite scale for digital and print reading ..................................................................................................................................................... 80 • Students reaching the different levels of proficiency on the composite reading scale .......................................................82 • Average level of proficiency .......................................................................................................................................................................................83 • Gender differences in performance on the composite reading scale ............................................................................................85conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 86 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI © OECD 2011 7
  7. 7. Table of ConTenTs ChapTEr 3 naviGation in thE Pisa 2009 diGital rEadinG assEssmEnt .....................................................................89 General patterns in the relationship between navigation and performance in digital and print reading .....................90 • Relevance of pages...........................................................................................................................................................................................................91 • Indicators used to describe navigation ...............................................................................................................................................................91 • distribution of navigation indices at the country level ............................................................................................................................93 • Relationships among navigation, print and digital reading ..................................................................................................................97 • Correlations between navigation and performance ...................................................................................................................................97 • Regression of digital reading performance on print reading and navigation ............................................................................98 • non-linear effects of navigation on digital reading performance ..................................................................................................100 case studies: navigation behaviour of students in selected digital reading tasks .......................................................................102 • tasks analysed in the case studies .......................................................................................................................................................................103 • IWANTTOHELP ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................105 • SmELL.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................113 • JOb SEArcH .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................117 conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................120 ChapTEr 4 rElationshiPs BEtWEEn diGital rEadinG PErformancE and studEnt BackGround, EnGaGEmEnt and rEadinG stratEGiEs ......................................................................................................................................................123 family background ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................124 • Socio-economic background .................................................................................................................................................................................124 • Immigrant status ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................127 • languages spoken at home .....................................................................................................................................................................................127 • Performance differences within and between schools ..........................................................................................................................128 student engagement and attitudes................................................................................................................................................................................128 • engagement in reading and digital reading proficiency.......................................................................................................................129 • do students who enjoy reading read better on line? .............................................................................................................................131 • the association between the diversity of print material students read and digital reading proficiency...............132 • online reading practices ...........................................................................................................................................................................................133 • Gender differences in online reading practices .........................................................................................................................................134 • online reading practices and digital reading proficiency ..................................................................................................................135 reading strategies .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................138 • Awareness of strategies to understand and remember information ..............................................................................................138 • Awareness of effective strategies to summarise information .............................................................................................................138 model for the relationship between reading performance and student background characteristics ............................139 • Parents’ occupation.......................................................................................................................................................................................................139 • Parents’ education..........................................................................................................................................................................................................139 • number of books in the home ..............................................................................................................................................................................139 • Cultural possessions .....................................................................................................................................................................................................139 • Home educational resources..................................................................................................................................................................................139 conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................140 ChapTEr 5 studEnts’ familiarity With information and communication tEchnoloGiEs .......143 students’ access to ict .........................................................................................................................................................................................................144 • the number of students who have never used a computer................................................................................................................144 • Students’ access to a computer and the Internet at home ..................................................................................................................146 • Students’ access to computers and the Internet at school ..................................................................................................................150 how students use technology at school and at home .....................................................................................................................................157 • Students’ use of ICt at home ..................................................................................................................................................................................157 • Students’ use of ICt at school ................................................................................................................................................................................162 students’ attitudes towards and self-confidence in using computers ..................................................................................................167 • Students’ attitudes towards using computers ...............................................................................................................................................167 • Students’ confidence in computer use and technical proficiency ................................................................................................170 conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1758 © OECD 2011 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI
  8. 8. Table of ConTenTsChapTEr 6 studEnts’ usE of information and communication tEchnoloGiEsand thEir PErformancE in diGital rEadinG ......................................................................................................................................177access to and use of computers and performance ...........................................................................................................................................178 • Access to and use of computers at home .......................................................................................................................................................178 • Computer access and use at school...................................................................................................................................................................179different types of computer use and performance ...........................................................................................................................................180 • use of computers at home and performance ..............................................................................................................................................180 • use of computers at school and performance ............................................................................................................................................185relationship between selected computer activities and performance in digital reading, in detail ................................189 • Computer use at home ...............................................................................................................................................................................................189 • Computer use at school .............................................................................................................................................................................................190 • navigation and computer use at home and at school...........................................................................................................................191students’ self-confidence in doing ict tasks .........................................................................................................................................................195 • Students’ self-confidence in using computers and performance....................................................................................................195 • Students’ self-confidence in doing ICt tasks and activities ...............................................................................................................197conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................197ChapTEr 7 somE asPEcts rElatEd to diGital rEadinG ProficiEncy ...........................................................................201variation in student reading performance ..............................................................................................................................................................203socio-economic aspects .......................................................................................................................................................................................................203 • Student socio-economic background ...............................................................................................................................................................203 • mean school socio-economic background...................................................................................................................................................204attitudes towards reading ...................................................................................................................................................................................................204 • enjoyment of reading...................................................................................................................................................................................................204 • diversity of reading materials ................................................................................................................................................................................205use of computers ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................205 • Computer use at home ...............................................................................................................................................................................................205 • Computer use at school .............................................................................................................................................................................................205online reading practices......................................................................................................................................................................................................205 • Searching-information activities ...........................................................................................................................................................................206 • Social activities ................................................................................................................................................................................................................206learning strategies....................................................................................................................................................................................................................206 • Awareness of strategies to understand and remember information ..............................................................................................206 • Awareness of effective strategies to summarise information .............................................................................................................206Gender ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................206variation explained by the model..................................................................................................................................................................................207conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................207Policy imPlications ......................................................................................................................................................................................................209helping students develop effective skills in reading digital texts ...............................................................................................................209addressing underperformance of boys ......................................................................................................................................................................210improving access to ict .......................................................................................................................................................................................................210Enabling effective use of ict in schools....................................................................................................................................................................210rEfErEncEs .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................213annEx a tEchnical BackGround ..............................................................................................................................................................217annex a1a: Construction of digital reading scales and indices from the student, school and ICt questionnaires......218annex a1b: Construction of navigation indices ...................................................................................................................................................228annex a2: the PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools .......................................................233annex a3: Standard errors, significance tests and sub-group comparisons ....................................................................................247 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI © OECD 2011 9
  9. 9. Table of ConTenTs annex a4: Quality assurance for the digital reading assessment ...........................................................................................................249 annex a5: development of the PISA assessment instruments for print and digital reading ................................................251 annex a6: tables showing the relationships between ICt activities and performance in print reading, mathematics and science ........................................................................................................................................................................254 annEx B taBlEs of rEsults ...................................................................................................................................................................................255 annex B1: Results for countries and economies ...............................................................................................................................................256 annex B2: Results for regions within countries..................................................................................................................................................385 annEx C thE dEvEloPmEnt and imPlEmEntation of Pisa – a collaBorativE Effort .........................389 This book has... StatLinks 2 ® A service that delivers Excel files   from the printed page! Look for the StatLinks at the bottom left-hand corner of the tables or graphs in this book. To download the matching Excel® spreadsheet, just type the link into your Internet browser, starting with the http://dx.doi.org prefix. If you’re reading the PDF e-book edition, and your PC is connected to the Internet, simply click on the link. You’ll find StatLinks appearing in more OECD books.10 © OECD 2011 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI
  10. 10. Table of ConTenTsBoxesBox VI.A Key features of PISA 2009 ...................................................................................................................................................................................26Box VI.3.1 example of navigation indices ...........................................................................................................................................................................91Box VI.3.2 How the findings are organised.........................................................................................................................................................................92Box VI.4.1 A cycle of engagement in reading activities, reading strategies and reading performance ......................................................... 129Box VI.4.2 the association between reading engagement, awareness of reading strategies and reading performance .......................... 130Box VI.4.3 Interpreting PISA indices .................................................................................................................................................................................. 130Box VI.4.4 Relationship between online reading, print reading and enjoyment of reading ............................................................................. 137Box VI.5.1 How information on students’ familiarity with ICt was collected ...................................................................................................... 145Box VI.5.2 Indices to analyse frequency of ICt use ...................................................................................................................................................... 157Box VI.6.1 labels for each group of students: Students’ use of computers ............................................................................................................ 180Box VI.6.2 Relationship between ICt activities and performance in print reading, mathematics and science.......................................... 192Box VI.6.3 labels for each group of students: Students’ self-confidence in using computers.......................................................................... 195FiguresFigure VI.A A map of PISA countries and economies .......................................................................................................................................................27Figure VI.1.1 Comparison of print and digital texts ..............................................................................................................................................................33Figure VI.2.1 digital reading tasks by environment ..............................................................................................................................................................40Figure VI.2.2 digital reading tasks by text format ...................................................................................................................................................................41Figure VI.2.3 digital reading tasks by text type ......................................................................................................................................................................41Figure VI.2.4 digital reading tasks by aspect ..........................................................................................................................................................................42Figure VI.2.5 Relationship between text processing and navigation in digital reading tasks ......................................................................................43Figure VI.2.6 digital reading tasks by situation ......................................................................................................................................................................44Figure VI.2.7 Relationship between questions and students on a proficiency scale...................................................................................................45Figure VI.2.8 Summary descriptions for four levels of proficiency in digital reading.................................................................................................46Figure VI.2.9 map of selected digital reading questions in PISA 2009, illustrating the proficiency levels ..........................................................48Figure VI.2.10 How proficient are students in digital reading? ............................................................................................................................................49Figure VI.2.11 Comparing countries’ performance in digital reading................................................................................................................................51Figure VI.2.12 Where countries rank in digital reading performance................................................................................................................................52Figure VI.2.13 Gender differences in digital reading performance.....................................................................................................................................53Figure VI.2.14 How proficient are girls and boys in digital reading? .................................................................................................................................53Figure VI.2.15 distribution of score points in digital and print reading assessments, by text format ......................................................................71Figure VI.2.16 distribution of score points in digital and print reading assessments, by text type...........................................................................72Figure VI.2.17 distribution of score points in digital and print reading assessments, by aspect ...............................................................................73Figure VI.2.18 Similarities and differences between digital and print reading assessments in PISA 2009 .............................................................73Figure VI.2.19 A comparison of performance levels on the digital and print reading scales .....................................................................................75Figure VI.2.20 Percentage of students at each proficiency level on the digital and print reading scales................................................................76Figure VI.2.21 Comparison of mean performance in digital and print reading ..............................................................................................................77Figure VI.2.22 Where countries rank in digital and print reading performance .............................................................................................................78Figure VI.2.23 Comparison of gender gaps in digital and print reading ...........................................................................................................................79Figure VI.2.24 Alignment between the described levels for digital and print reading and composite reading ....................................................80Figure VI.2.25 Summary descriptions for the composite reading scale (digital and print combined) .....................................................................81Figure VI.2.26 How proficient are students on the composite reading scale? ................................................................................................................82Figure VI.2.27 Comparing countries’ performance on the composite reading scale ....................................................................................................84Figure VI.2.28 Where countries rank on the composite reading scale ..............................................................................................................................84Figure VI.2.29 Gender differences on the composite reading scale ...................................................................................................................................85Figure VI.2.30 How proficient are girls and boys on the composite reading scale? .....................................................................................................86 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI © OECD 2011 11
  11. 11. Table of ConTenTs Figure VI.3.1 Illustration of the relationship between number of relevant pages visited and digital reading performance ...........................93 Figure VI.3.2 distribution of the number of pages and visits, aggregated across oeCd countries........................................................................94 Figure VI.3.3 Relationship between the number of relevant pages visited and digital reading performance .....................................................94 Figure VI.3.4 Relationship between the number of visits to relevant pages and digital reading performance ...................................................95 Figure VI.3.5 Relationship between the number of page visits and digital reading performance ..........................................................................95 Figure VI.3.6 Relationship between standard deviation and mean of the number of relevant pages visited......................................................96 Figure VI.3.7 Relationship between standard deviation of the number of relevant pages visited and digital reading performance ...........97 Figure VI.3.8 Relationship between the number of visits to relevant pages (centred) and digital reading performance, oeCd average ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101 Figure VI.3.9 Summary of characteristics of digital reading tasks analysed in this section ................................................................................... 104 Figure VI.3.10 Relevant pages for IWANTTOHELP – Question 4 .................................................................................................................................... 109 Figure VI.3.11 extremes of student behaviour for IWANTTOHELP – Question 4 ....................................................................................................... 112 Figure VI.4.1 Strength of socio-economic gradient and reading performance .......................................................................................................... 126 Figure VI.4.2 Student performance in digital reading and immigrant status .............................................................................................................. 127 Figure VI.4.3 Variation in performance in digital and print reading explained by students’ and schools’ socio-economic backgrounds ..... 128 Figure VI.4.4 Relationship between enjoyment of reading and digital reading performance............................................................................... 131 Figure VI.4.5 Relationship between diversity of reading and digital reading performance ................................................................................... 133 Figure VI.4.6 Index of online searching-information activities, by gender ................................................................................................................. 134 Figure VI.4.7 Index of online social activities, by gender ................................................................................................................................................ 135 Figure VI.4.8 Relationship between online searching-information activities and digital reading performance .............................................. 136 Figure VI.4.9 Relationship between online social activities and digital reading performance ............................................................................. 136 Figure VI.4.10 Single-level model to explain performance in digital and print reading, oeCd average-16...................................................... 139 Figure VI.5.1 Percentage of students who reported that they have never used a computer, by socio-economic background ................... 145 Figure VI.5.2 Percentage of students who reported having a computer at home in PISA 2000 and 2009 ........................................................... 146 Figure VI.5.3 Percentage of students who reported having a computer at home, by socio-economic background ...................................... 146 Figure VI.5.4 Change in the percentage of students who reported having a computer at home between 2000 and 2009, by socio-economic background ..................................................................................................................................................................... 147 Figure VI.5.5 Percentage of students who reported having access to the Internet at home in 2000 and 2009 ................................................... 149 Figure VI.5.6 Percentage of students who reported having access to the Internet at home, by socio-economic background ................... 149 Figure VI.5.7 Change in the percentage of students who reported having access to the Internet at home between 2000 and 2009, by socio-economic background ..................................................................................................................................................................... 150 Figure VI.5.8 Computers-per-student ratio in 2000 and 2009 ........................................................................................................................................ 151 Figure VI.5.9 Percentage of students with access to computers at school .................................................................................................................. 152 Figure VI.5.10 Percentage of students with access to the Internet at school................................................................................................................. 152 Figure VI.5.11 Percentage of students who reported using a computer at home and at school ............................................................................. 153 Figure VI.5.12 Percentage of students who reported using a computer at home and at school, by socio-economic background ............. 154 Figure VI.5.13 Percentage of students who reported using the Internet at home and at school ............................................................................. 155 Figure VI.5.14 Percentage of students in schools where the principal reported shortage or inadequacy of computers for instruction, by socio-economic background ..................................................................................................................................................................... 156 Figure VI.5.15 Percentage of students who reported that they did the following activities at home for leisure at least once a week, oeCd average-28 ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 158 Figure VI.5.16 Index of computer use at home for leisure, by gender and socio-economic background ........................................................... 159 Figure VI.5.17 Percentage of students who reported that they did the following activities at home for schoolwork at least once a week, oeCd average-29 ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 160 Figure VI.5.18 Index of computer use at home for schoolwork-related tasks, by gender and socio-economic background ........................ 161 Figure VI.5.19 Percentage of students who reported that they did the following activities at school at least once a week, oeCd average-29 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 163 Figure VI.5.20 Index of computer use at school, by gender and socio-economic background.............................................................................. 164 Figure VI.5.21 Percentage of students who reported that they use a computer during regular classroom lessons at least some time during a typical week, oeCd average-29 ................................................................................................................................................... 165 Figure VI.5.22 Intensity of computer use during language-of-instruction lessons....................................................................................................... 16612 © OECD 2011 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI
  12. 12. Table of ConTenTsFigure VI.5.23 Percentage of students who reported using laptops at school .............................................................................................................. 167Figure VI.5.24 Percentage of students who reported positive attitudes towards computers, oeCd average-28 ............................................... 168Figure VI.5.25 Index of attitudes towards computers, by gender and socio-economic background .................................................................... 169Figure VI.5.26 Percentage of students who reported being able to do each of the following tasks very well by themselves or with help from someone, oeCd average-29 ........................................................................................................................................ 170Figure VI.5.27 Index of self-confidence in ICt high-level tasks, by gender and socio-economic background ................................................. 171Figure VI.5.28 Percentage of students who reported being able to create a multi-media presentation ............................................................... 172Figure VI.5.29 Percentage of students who reported being able to use a spreadsheet to plot a graph................................................................. 173Figure VI.5.30 Percentage of students who reported being able to do the following tasks very well by themselves or with help from someone, in 2003 and 2009 ................................................................................................................................................................. 174Figure VI.6.1 difference in digital reading scores between students who use a computer at home and those who do not ....................... 178Figure VI.6.2 difference in digital reading scores between students who use a computer at school and those who do not.......................... 180Figure VI.6.3 Computer use at home for leisure, and digital reading performance, oeCd average-15............................................................ 181Figure VI.6.4 Index of computer use at home for leisure, and digital reading performance, by gender, oeCd average-15 ...................... 182Figure VI.6.5a Index of computer use at home for leisure, and digital reading performance, by socio-economic background (Japan) ........ 183Figure VI.6.5b Index of computer use at home for leisure, and digital reading performance, by socio-economic background (Chile) ........ 183Figure VI.6.6 Computer use at home for schoolwork, and digital reading performance, oeCd average-15 .................................................. 184Figure VI.6.7 Computer use at school and digital reading performance, oeCd average-15................................................................................ 186Figure VI.6.8 Index of computer use at school, and digital reading performance, by gender, oeCd average-15 ......................................... 186Figure VI.6.9 Index of computer use at school, and digital reading performance, by socio-economic background (Japan)...................... 187Figure VI.6.10a Intensity of computer use in school lessons, and digital reading performance, oeCd average-15 ......................................... 188Figure VI.6.10b Prevalence of computer use in school lessons, and difference in digital reading performance according to intensity of computer use in school lessons ................................................................................................................................................................. 188Figure VI.6.11 Frequency of computer use at home for leisure and schoolwork, and digital reading performance before and after accounting for print reading performance, oeCd average-15........................................................................................... 190Figure VI.6.12 Frequency of computer use at school, and digital reading performance before and after accounting for print reading performance, oeCd average-15.................................................................................................................................... 191Figure VI.6.A Index of computer use at home for leisure, and performance in print reading, digital reading, mathematics and science, oeCd average-15 ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 192Figure VI.6.B Index of computer use at home for leisure, and performance in print reading, mathematics and science, by gender, oeCd average-15 ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 193Figure VI.6.13a Index of the number of relevant pages visited, by frequency of computer use at home for leisure, oeCd average-15 ......... 194Figure VI.6.13b Index of the number of relevant pages visited, by frequency of computer use at home for schoolwork and computer use at school, oeCd average-15 ....................................................................................................................................... 194Figure VI.6.14 Self-confidence in ICt high-level tasks, and digital reading performance, oeCd average-15 .................................................. 196Figure VI.6.15 Index of self-confidence in ICt high-level tasks, and digital reading performance, by gender, oeCd average-15 ............ 196Figure VI.6.16 Frequency of computer use at home and school, and index of self-confidence in high-level ICt tasks, oeCd average-15 ..... 198Figure VI.7.1 Illustration of the relationship between students’ socio-economic background and student performance ........................... 202Figure VI.7.2 Score point differences in digital reading associated with variables in the multilevel regression models, oeCd average-15 ... 204Figure A1a.1 differences between students who participated in the digital reading assessment and all students, for print and digital reading .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 220Figure VI.A3.1 labels used in a two-way table....................................................................................................................................................................... 247TaBlestable VI.A An overview of performance in digital reading, navigation and computer use .................................................................................21table A1a.1 Performance in digital and print reading for the group of students who participated in the digital reading assessment and all students .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 219table A1a.2 Student socio-economic background (eSCS) for the group of students who participated in the digital reading assessment and all students .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 221 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI © OECD 2011 13
  13. 13. Table of ConTenTs table A1a.3 levels of parental education converted into years of schooling .......................................................................................................... 224 table A1a.4 Rotated component pattern ............................................................................................................................................................................. 225 table A1b.1 Correlations of navigation indices (standardised per test) with digital reading scores (Wles), by country ............................ 229 table A1b.2 Correlations of navigation indices (standardised per test) with print reading scores (Wles), by country ............................... 229 table A1b.3 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of relevant pages visited (standardised per test) ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 230 table A1b.4 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of visits to relevant pages (standardised per test) ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 230 table A1b.5 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of page visits (standardised per test) ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 231 table A1b.6 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of page visits (standardised per test) including a quadratic trend for the number of page visits .......................................................................... 231 table A1b.7 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of visits to relevant pages (standardised per test) including a quadratic trend for the number of relevant page visits ......................................................... 232 table A1b.8 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of relevant pages visited (standardised per test) including a quadratic trend for the number of relevant pages visited ..................................................... 232 table A2.1 PISA target populations and samples (paper-based assessment) .......................................................................................................... 235 table A2.2 exclusions (paper-based assessment) ............................................................................................................................................................ 237 table A2.3 Response rates (paper-based assessment) .................................................................................................................................................... 239 table A2.4a Percentage of students at each grade level ................................................................................................................................................. 242 table A2.4b Percentage of students at each grade level, by gender ............................................................................................................................ 243 table A2.5 Student response rates (digital reading assessment) ................................................................................................................................. 245 table A2.6 School response rates (digital reading assessment) .................................................................................................................................. 246 table A5.1 distribution of items by the dimensions of the PISA framework for the assessment of print reading ...................................... 252 table A5.2 distribution of items by the dimensions of the PISA framework for the assessment of digital reading ................................... 252 table VI.2.1 Percentage of students at each proficiency level on the digital, print and composite reading scales ...................................... 256 table VI.2.2 Percentage of boys at each proficiency level on the digital, print and composite reading scales ............................................. 257 table VI.2.3 Percentage of girls at each proficiency level on the digital, print and composite reading scales .............................................. 258 table VI.2.4 mean score, variation and gender differences in student performance on the digital, print and composite reading scales ....... 259 table VI.3.1 descriptive statistics for the number of relevant pages visited, the number of visits to relevant pages and the number of page visits ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 260 table VI.3.2 Correlations of navigation indices with digital reading scores (Wles)............................................................................................... 261 table VI.3.3 Correlations of navigation indices with print reading scores (Wles).................................................................................................. 261 table VI.3.4 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of relevant pages visited ......... 262 table VI.3.5 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of visits to relevant pages ....... 262 table VI.3.6 Regression of digital reading scores (Wle s) on print reading scores (Wle s) and the number of page visits ....................... 263 table VI.3.7 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of page visits including a quadratic trend for the number of page visits ......................................................................................................................................... 263 table VI.3.8 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of visits to relevant pages including a quadratic trend for the number of visits to relevant pages .............................................................................................. 264 table VI.3.9 Regression of digital reading scores (Wles) on print reading scores (Wles) and the number of relevant pages visited including a quadratic trend for the number of relevant pages visited ................................................................................................ 264 table VI.3.10 IWANTTOHELP Question 1. Summary of student performance ......................................................................................................... 264 table VI.3.11 IWANTTOHELP Question 1. number of pages visited........................................................................................................................... 265 table VI.3.12 IWANTTOHELP Question 1. Students with full credit: digital reading performance, by number of pages visited.............. 265 table VI.3.13 IWANTTOHELP Question 1. Students with full credit: reading performance, by number of page visits ............................... 265 table VI.3.14 IWANTTOHELP Question 2. digital reading performance, by visits to P25 ................................................................................... 26514 © OECD 2011 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI
  14. 14. Table of ConTenTstable VI.3.15 IWANTTOHELP Question 4. Summary of student performance ......................................................................................................... 266table VI.3.16 IWANTTOHELP Question 4. time on task.................................................................................................................................................. 266table VI.3.17 IWANTTOHELP Question 4. Relationship of page visits to digital reading performance............................................................ 266table VI.3.18 IWANTTOHELP Question 4. Variations in time spent on the task and pages visited .................................................................... 266table VI.3.19 IWANTTOHELP Question 4. Student performance according to initial navigation sequences ................................................. 267table VI.3.20 IWANTTOHELP Question 4. number of page visits for students obtaining no credit .................................................................. 267table VI.3.21 SmELL Question 1. Summary of student performance............................................................................................................................ 267table VI.3.22 SmELL Question 1. digital reading performance and time spent on P02......................................................................................... 267table VI.3.23 SmELL Question 1. Students with full credit: number of page visits and time spent on P02...................................................... 268table VI.3.24 SmELL Question 1. digital reading performance, by number of visits to P02 ................................................................................ 268table VI.3.25 SmELL Question 3. Summary of student performance............................................................................................................................ 268table VI.3.26 SmELL Question 3. Visits to pages with information relevant to Smell tasks ................................................................................. 268table VI.3.27 SmELL Question 3. digital reading performance, by visits to relevant pages ................................................................................. 269table VI.3.28 JOb SEArcH Question 2: Summary of student performance ............................................................................................................... 269table VI.3.29 JOb SEArcH Question 2. differences in digital and print reading performance........................................................................... 269table VI.3.30 JOb SEArcH Question 2. digital reading performance, by navigation sequence......................................................................... 269table VI.3.31 JOb SEArcH Question 2. Students with full credit: digital reading performance, by number of visits to P03 .................... 270table VI.3.32 JOb SEArcH Question 2. digital reading performance of students who did and did not visit P03 ........................................ 270table VI.3.33 JOb SEArcH Question 2. digital reading performance, by number of irrelevant page visits ................................................... 270table VI.4.1 Performance groups in reading and socio-economic background ...................................................................................................... 271table VI.4.2 PISA index of economic, social and cultural status and reading performance, by national quarters of this index ............. 273table VI.4.3 Relationship between students’ reading performance and the index of economic, social and cultural status (eSCS)........ 275table VI.4.4 Percentage of students, reading performance and difference in the index of economic, social and cultural status (eSCS), by students’ immigrant background .............................................................................................................................................................. 277table VI.4.5 Percentage of students and reading performance, by language spoken at home ........................................................................... 279table VI.4.6 decomposition of the gradient of the index of economic, social and cultural status (eSCS) into between-school and within-school components ...................................................................................................................................................................... 280table VI.4.7 Students’ enjoyment of reading and digital reading performance ....................................................................................................... 282table VI.4.8 Relationship between enjoyment of reading and digital reading performance, by gender ......................................................... 283table VI.4.9 Students’ diversity of reading materials and digital reading performance ........................................................................................ 284table VI.4.10 Relationship between diversity of reading and digital reading performance, by gender ............................................................. 285table VI.4.11 Students’ level of online searching-information activities and digital reading performance....................................................... 286table VI.4.12 Students’ level of online social activities and digital reading performance...................................................................................... 287table VI.4.13 Relationship between online searching-information activities and digital reading performance, by gender ........................ 288table VI.4.14 Relationship between online social activities and digital reading performance, by gender ....................................................... 288table VI.4.15 Relationship between the index of understanding and remembering and reading proficiency................................................. 289table VI.4.16 Percentage of students with low levels of understanding in different reading proficiency levels .............................................. 291table VI.4.17 Relationship between the index of summarising and reading proficiency ....................................................................................... 292table VI.4.18 Percentage of students with low levels of summarising in different reading proficiency levels ................................................. 294table VI.4.19 Relationship between some student-level aspects and performance in reading............................................................................. 295table VI.4.20 Relationships between online reading practices, enjoyment of reading and diversity of reading............................................. 298table VI.5.1 Percentage of students who reported that they have never used a computer, by gender and socio-economic background ...... 299table VI.5.2 Percentage of students who reported having a computer at home in 2000 and 2009, by gender ............................................ 300table VI.5.3 Percentage of students who reported having a computer at home, by gender and socio-economic background ............... 301table VI.5.4 Percentage of students who reported having a computer at home in 2000 and 2009, by socio-economic background ....... 302table VI.5.5 Percentage of students who reported having access to the Internet at home in 2000 and 2009, by gender.............................. 303 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI © OECD 2011 15
  15. 15. Table of ConTenTs table VI.5.6 Percentage of students who reported having access to the Internet at home, by gender and socio-economic background ...... 304 table VI.5.7 Percentage of students who reported having access to the Internet at home in 2000 and 2009, by socio-economic background ..................................................................................................................................................................... 305 table VI.5.8a Ratio of computers to the number of students in the modal grade of 15-year-olds ....................................................................... 306 table VI.5.8b Ratio of computers to the number of students in school in 2000 and 2009 .................................................................................... 306 table VI.5.9 Percentage of students with access to computers and the Internet at school................................................................................... 307 table VI.5.10a Percentage of students who reported using a computer at home and at school, by socio-economic background .................. 308 table VI.5.10b Percentage of students who reported using a computer at home and at school ................................................................................ 309 table VI.5.11 Percentage of students who reported using the Internet at home and at school ............................................................................. 310 table VI.5.12 Percentage of students in schools whose principals reported shortage or inadequacy of computers for instruction .......... 311 table VI.5.13 Percentage of students who reported that they did the following activity at home for leisure at least once a week........... 312 table VI.5.14 Index of computer use at home for leisure and reading performance ............................................................................................... 313 table VI.5.15 Percentage of students who reported that they did the following activity at home for schoolwork at least once a week ...... 315 table VI.5.16 Index of computer use at home for schoolwork, and reading performance .................................................................................... 316 table VI.5.17 Percentage of students who reported that they did the following activity at school at least once a week ............................. 318 table VI.5.18 Index of computer use at school, and reading performance ................................................................................................................. 319 table VI.5.19 Percentage of students who attend regular lessons, by time spent on using a computer during classroom lessons in a typical school week ................................................................................................................................................................................... 321 table VI.5.20 Percentage of students, by time spent on using a computer during foreign-language lessons in a typical school week ........ 322 table VI.5.21 Percentage of students who reported using laptops at school .............................................................................................................. 323 table VI.5.22 Percentage of students, by their attitudes towards computers .............................................................................................................. 324 table VI.5.23 Index of attitude towards computers and reading performance........................................................................................................... 325 table VI.5.24 Percentage of students, by level of self-confidence in ICt high-level tasks ...................................................................................... 327 table VI.5.25 Index of self-confidence in ICt high-level tasks, and reading performance .................................................................................... 328 table VI.5.26 Percentage of students, by level of self-confidence in creating a multi-media presentation....................................................... 330 table VI.5.27 Percentage of students, by level of self-confidence in using a spreadsheet to plot a graph ........................................................ 331 table VI.5.28 Percentage of students who reported being able to do some ICt high-level tasks in 2003 and 2009, by gender ............... 332 table VI.5.29 Percentage of students who reported being able to do some ICt high-level tasks in 2003 and 2009, by socio-economic background ..................................................................................................................................................................... 335 table VI.6.1 digital reading performance, by access to a computer at home ......................................................................................................... 338 table VI.6.2 digital reading performance, by computer use at home ........................................................................................................................ 338 table VI.6.3 digital reading performance, by access to a computer at school........................................................................................................ 339 table VI.6.4 digital reading performance, by computer use at school ...................................................................................................................... 339 table VI.6.5a digital reading performance, by index of computer use at home for leisure .................................................................................. 340 table VI.6.5b digital reading performance, by computer use at home for playing one-player games ............................................................... 341 table VI.6.5c digital reading performance, by computer use at home for playing collaborative online games ............................................. 341 table VI.6.5d digital reading performance, by computer use at home for sending e-mail.................................................................................... 342 table VI.6.5e digital reading performance, by computer use at home for chatting on line .................................................................................. 342 table VI.6.5f digital reading performance, by computer use at home for browsing the Internet for fun ......................................................... 343 table VI.6.5g digital reading performance, by computer use at home for downloading music, films, games or software from the Internet .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 343 table VI.6.5h digital reading performance, by computer use at home for publishing and maintaining a personal page, weblog or blog ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 344 table VI.6.5i digital reading performance, by computer use at home for participating in online forums, virtual communities or spaces ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 344 table VI.6.6a digital reading performance, by index of computer use at home for schoolwork ......................................................................... 345 table VI.6.6b digital reading performance, by computer use at home for browsing the Internet for schoolwork ......................................... 346 table VI.6.6c digital reading performance, by computer use at home for sending e-mail to communicate with other students about schoolwork ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 34616 © OECD 2011 PISA 2009 ReSultS: StudentS on lIne – Volume VI

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