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3 navigaTion in The pisa 2009 digiTal reading assessmenTthe 150 students (0.7%) awarded full credit who did not visit P03 had a substantially lower level of readingproficiency (532) than those who did consult the advertisement (571), which suggests that guessing played a part intheir responses. Similar differences in the overall level of reading proficiency between those who did and did notvisit P03 were observed among students who received partial credit (509 v. 465) or no credit (434 v. 393).Ineffective navigationA number of students visited multiple pages, but did not find the critical page or pages required to complete thetask. those who engage in apparently undirected exploration are likely to be poor readers, and this notion receivessome support in the data (table VI.3.32). A small number of students (1.5%) who gave no response to the questionvisited at least three different pages, but failed to find P03.Among students who answered the question, whatever level of credit they received, those who visited irrelevantpages showed lower reading proficiency than those who did not (table VI.3.33), consistent with what was describedearlier in this chapter. there is little di