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Digital Transformation - A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations by CapGemini and MIT
 

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Digital Transformation - A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations by CapGemini and MIT

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Digital Transformation - A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations by CapGemini and MIT Digital Transformation - A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organizations by CapGemini and MIT Document Transcript

  • MITSloan MANAGEMENTDIGITAL TRANSFORMATION: A ROADMAPFOR BILLION-DOLLAR ORGANIZATIONSFINDINGS FROM PHASE 1 OF THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATIONSTUDY CONDUCTED BY THE MIT CENTER FOR DIGITALBUSINESS AND CAPGEMINI CONSULTING
  • Contents2 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • 1 The Study 062 Common pressures; different results 08••Common pressures to begin digital transformation••Different digital transformation speeds and different results Case Study: Finding new opportunities for digital transformation across a hospitality company Case Study: Digital transformation in India3 The shape of digital transformation 16••Transforming customer experience••Transforming operational processes••Transforming business models••Digital capabilities Case Study: Digital transformation in an international banking group Case Study: Moving from separate to integrated digital initiatives in an apparel manufacturer4 Digital technology usage 285 Challenges on the road to transformation 34••Initiation challenges••Execution challenges••Governance challenges Case Study: Evolving as a value chain orchestrator in mortgages Case Study: Digital transformation in an international airport6 How can you make your digital journey successful? 46••Envision the digital future for your firm••Invest in digital initiatives and skills••Lead the change from the top Case Study: Driving digital transformation across a global media company7 What is digital transformation maturity? 58••The What and the How••Digital Maturity Matrix••How to assess your digital maturity Case Study: Capitalizing on digital opportunities for a business directory8 Conclusion 65 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 3
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY4 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Digital transformation (DT) – the use of technology to radically that new technologies provide. Major digitalimprove performance or reach of enterprises – is becoming transformation initiatives are centered on re-envisioninga hot topic for companies across the globe. Executives in customer experience, operational processes andall industries are using digital advances such as analytics, business models. Companies are changing howmobility, social media and smart embedded devices – and functions work, redefining how functions interact, andimproving their use of traditional technologies such as ERP even evolving the boundaries of the firm.– to change customer relationships, internal processes, andvalue propositions. Other executives, seeing how fast digital • Successful DT does not happen bottom up. It must betechnology disrupted media industries in the past decade, driven from the top.know they need to pay attention to changes in their industriesnow. • Focus on the “how” more than the “what.” The most successful transformations we have seen focus as muchHow can senior executives successfully lead digital transformation? (or more) on how to drive change as on the detailedWhile many experts urge companies to get started on the digital content of the change. A compelling transformativetransformation journey, few tell how to do it. In this report we vision, with related engagement, governance and KPIsshare the findings from a global study of how 157 executives in will allow people throughout the enterprise to identify50 large traditional companies are managing – and benefiting new “whats” to meet or extend the vision.from – digital transformation. We will describe the elements ofsuccessful digital transformation and show how to assess your • Successful DT comes not from creating a newfirm’s digital maturity. organization, but from reshaping the organization to take advantage of valuable existing strategic assets in newOur research shows that, although large traditional firms ways.are truly different from digital entrants, many are startingto transform their businesses successfully through digital • Companies can do much more to gain value fromtechnology. Specifically, investments they have already made, even as they envision radically new ways of working. • Companies face common pressures from customers, employees and competitors to begin or speed up their Despite the hype around innovative digital technologies, most digital transformation. However they are transforming at companies still have a long way to go in their digital transformation different paces with different results. journeys. Leadership is essential. Whether using new or traditional technologies, the key to digital transformation • Successful digital transformation comes not from is re-envisioning and driving change in how the company implementing new technologies but from transforming operates. That’s a management and people challenge, not just your organization to take advantage of the possibilities a technology one. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 5
  • 1 THE STUDY6 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Many popular stories of digital – and benefiting from – Digital transformation involve digital start- Transformation. We are working to ups or high-tech firms such as understand how digital technology is Amazon, Apple, or Google. Executives changing the business of large leading in traditional companies often find firms. these examples hollow. Big traditional companies, with decades of history Phase 1 of this multi-year study is an and legacy, are simply different from exploratory investigation involving these newer digital entrants. Other 157 executive-level interviews in stories focus on exciting initiatives 50 companies in 15 countries (see by traditional companies, but are Figure 1). These companies are large, anecdotal and do not show how those with typically $1 billion or more in companies implemented the change. annual sales. We conducted in-depth These examples may be good triggers interviews to qualitatively explore the for other companies to take action, but nature of the digital transformation they give no advice on how or whether phenomenon with real executives in to do so. real companies. To provide balanced perspectives, approximately half of With that in mind, MIT Center for the interviewees are business leaders Digital Business and Capgemini such as CEOs, line of business Consulting set out investigate the ways managers, marketing heads, or in which large traditional companies COOs, while the other half are IT and around the world are managing technology leaders.Figure 1: Interviews cover a broad range of countries and industries Transport Retail & Energy, Utilities Americas Food services and Chemical & Canada Telecom, Media, and Entertainment 12% 30% 6% 12% Services 20% 54% 22% 16% 8% 12% 8% Europe Asia Pacifi c Pharmaceuticals Manufacturing Government Financial & Medical & distribution Services © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 7
  • 2 COMMON PRESSURES; DIFFERENT RESULTS8 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • 2.1 Common pressures to Customers, too, are becoming more begin digital transformation demanding. An airport executive described an “ever-rising tide of The executives we interviewed customer expectations” for service and report feeling pressure to transform convenience. For a manufacturer/ from forces inside and outside the retailer, “People’s expectations have company. Figure 2 shows that most changed. They want to be more in charge. executives expressed at least moderate They expect that we know them more... pressure to change. Employees are their online behavior is developing asking why they cannot collaborate expectations and behaviors that they apply with coworkers the way they can in other contexts as well.” with friends. One executive quoted younger employees as saying “Come Nearly every executive (72 percent) on. I know the company’s more than cited competitive pressures to change. 100 years old, but our IT capabilities This relates closely to increases in the don’t have to match the age of the pace of business. Respondents rated company.” Other employees are the current pace of business relativeExecutives rated incorporating their personal practices to five years ago as 5.6 on a scale from into their work lives without waitingthe pace of business for corporate practices to catch up. 1=very much slower to 7=very much faster. Most indicated the pace willcompared to five According to one CIO, “Officially iPads continue to increase, leading to further are prohibited by our policies. Yet 50years ago as percent of our employees are using them pressure to transform their businesses. While several executives indicated5.6 out of 7* at work.” this was “the new normal” for their*Scale: 1=very much slower than 5 yearsago, 7=very much faster than 5 years ago Figure 2: Pressures for change* High Medium 72% 70% M M 32% H H M H Customers Competitors Employees * Percentage of companies experiencing moderate or high pressure to transform from customers, competition, or employees as mentioned by their executives. Some firms mentioned more than one pressure. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 9
  • industries, others expressed concern or other technology-enabled changes, that the acceleration would not be but obtained only basic levels of value sustainable. from the investments. They can obtain much more value by continuing the Executives on average rated their effort – envisioning new capabilities and innovation culture at only 4.2 on a process changes to reap larger returns 7-point scale. Although few companies from their foundational investments. strive to be as high as seven on the Manufacturers’ ERP systems have scale, none of the executives felt their improved process efficiency and are innovation culture was as strong as it providing better financial data for should be. strategic decisions, but companies have not yet retrained buyers in how to use Some executives expressed other, less the information in negotiating with common, pressures. Globalization suppliers. Retailers and other service is a driver for seven firms. These firms are gathering detailed information companies have a strategic need on buyer behavior, but lack the analytics to expand globally or are facing capabilities to truly understand the pressures to generate information and power of the data. A hospitality process synergies across their global company is conducting experiments enterprises. Executives in three firms in mobile marketing in two different mentioned M&A as a pressure to business units, and building digitally- transform. enhanced customer service apps inExecutives rated another, but is not conducting a unified 2.2 Different digital digital transformation of the customertheir innovation transformation speeds and experience.culture as 4.2 on a different results These companies are gaining some7-point scale. A few companies in our study are using value from transforming parts of their digital technologies, old and new, to truly businesses, but are only part of the way transform their businesses. However, toward achieving the potential of digital these companies are in the minority. transformation. Still others have not yet begun their digital transformation Despite internal and external pressures, journeys. very few businesses are gaining the full value of technologically-enabled change, In the following sections, we will even with technologies they already describe how firms are digitally own. Many companies we interviewed transforming, the challenges they are took on the significant effort and facing, and the levers executives can use expense of implementing ERP, CRM to drive digital transformation.10 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Case StudyHOTELCO: FINDING NEW OPPORTUNITIESFOR DIGITAL TRANSFORMATIONACROSS THE ENTERPRISEH otelCo is one of the world’s ten largest hospitality companies. The firm constantly strives to improve operational efficiencies and customer service both within and across properties. The firm’s loyalty program is the centerpiece of the company’s approach to understanding, serving, and selling to customers. HotelCo executives, who have always believed in the power of technology to improve processes andincrease customer intimacy, see further opportunity for digital transformation.Opportunities exist not only in new technologies such as social media andmobile, but also in the firm’s more traditional areas like transactional IT andanalytics. HotelCo is actively pursuing digital transformation in many areas andis working to innovate further. Because HotelCo experiences organizational andIT challenges common to many large global enterprises, it seeks to take a rational,well-defined approach to its digital transformation initiatives wherever possible.HotelCo has created opportunities for digital transformation in three areas: onlinepresence, mobile customer engagement, and internal operational processes.Online: HotelCo continually evolves its online presence. It has integrated thewebsite presence of all its properties on a common platform, enabling marketingacross properties within a market. It also added new capabilities. For example,property managers using the firm’s corporate digital marketing tools can controltheir property content, e.g., events, independently of other properties, while nothaving to build and maintain their own online capabilities. Further extendingonline capabilities, HotelCo has begun to implement social media and mobilemarketing capabilities. Employees actively monitor social media for negativeinformation and can respond. However, organizational questions remain abouthow to improve the response capability as volumes continue to grow: “Whohandles it? Marketing? Product support? Customer support?”In addition, HotelCo is integrating social media information onto its websites.The website allows user comments on select pages, and the firm is working toextend comments to additional pages. HotelCo is also incorporating third-partysocial media onto the site. For example, tripadvisor.com ratings feed directly intoproperty web pages, despite the initial hesitation of some property managers.“First off, this conversation is happening and most of the customers are nowsavvy enough they’re going to tripadvisor anyway. Let’s bring the content rightto our site, positive or negative. Customers see that and they say ‘OK, well this © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 11
  • is an honest assessment from people like myself….” The marketing people have found that such content is much more compelling than internally generated information. Mobile: Realizing that most customers now carry cell phones, HotelCo has made mobile a key part of its marketing strategy. The company offers multiple smartphone apps and is making preparations for a future in which more people access sites via mobile than from a personal computer. HotelCo actively engages in mobile marketing. The company realizes the customer intimacy it can achieve through mobile because customers react to messages almost instantly. SMS and WAP sites are a core part of mobile marketing because of their ubiquity. The different properties are in charge of their own mobile marketing messages, but the messages are delivered through a unified corporate-level system. The company is also experimenting with location-based services. Innovation activities that initially focused on embedded devices and RFID have been facilitated by mobile phones. For example, customers arriving at some properties can receive mobile coupons for restaurants, shows, and other services in the hotel. Customers can also receive personalized service and information from digital displays located around the properties using phones or their loyalty cards. While mobile and location-based services show promise, they have challenges. The firm is trying to balance a tradeoff between the capabilities of location-based devices and their potential intrusiveness. For example, when building a digital customer service display, HotelCo opted to ask customers to place their loyalty cards on the device rather than have the device automatically read who they are. Additional challenges are technological and organizational. The firm wants to “support experimentation by all parties, but also clearly delineate their roles and scopes.” For example, multiple groups conducting mobile experiments meet regularly to coordinate activities. And the company is starting to examine how it coordinates its use of vendors so that knowledge is not fragmented across multiple digital transformation initiatives. Internal operations: HotelCo is investigating how to incorporate emerging technologies into internal processes. Compared with the device-agnostic policy for customers, HotelCo aims to use standard devices for internal processes and to make them available only to those employees who need mobile capability for their jobs. The firm is trying to take the same measured process to implementing social media in internal processes as it does in other areas. One obstacle stems from security and cost: free platforms are not seen as secure, and the firm wants to be careful about investing large amounts of money to in license a secure platform for an uncertain goal. Another challenge is organizational: who would own the internal collaboration process? Until there is a clear internal owner and a12 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • well-defined purpose, the firm is taking a slow approach to widespread internaluse of social media instead of targeted efforts.The firm is midway through a set of initiatives aimed at rationalizing processesacross the enterprise. When complete, HotelCo will have a set of shared servicesthat are available to all properties, but which can be tailored by properties fortheir own use, much as the online platform is today. IT, while a significantenabler of the firm’s capabilities, remains a challenge as the company changes.For example, the loyalty database is not optimized for multi-channel interactions,making it difficult to integrate information that arrives from, or is sent via,multiple media. Another challenge is integrating information and processes fromacquired companies into the firm’s core IT backbone.At HotelCo, analytics is “something we do a ton of.” Executives are proud ofthe firm’s ability to understand drivers of customer and operational metrics.HotelCo is now investigating how to move analytics capability further out to theedges of the company. However, executives expressed the desire to make goodchoices about where to apply analytics. Analytics is “absolutely a different wayof thinking… we don’t need every role to do it, but we definitely want the skillsin certain places. “ For example, analytics may enable the firm’s customer-facingemployees to further personalize the customer experience, but executives areaiming to do it in a way that doesn’t disempower those workers. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 13
  • Case Study ASIAN PAINTS: DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION IN INDIA A sian Paints, India’s leading manufacturer of coatings, has digitally transformed its business step by step. The firm has been able to maintain fast growth and globalize while increasing efficiency and reducing its impact on the environment. In the early 2000s, as part of an effort to reduce debt and increase internal efficiencies, the firm implemented an enterprise-wide ERP and advanced Supply Chain Management system. This helped to create an enterprise-wide platform that was the basis for further improvements in sales and customer processes. The change also liberated working capital that helped fund acquisitions in emerging markets. Asian Paints gained further efficiencies by linking subcontractors and suppliers on a B2B portal. In 2003, the firm invested in a CRM system. In 2010, Asian Paints centralized its order taking process into a single corporate call center. This change helped the company further improve operational efficiencies and sustain its growth. In customer-facing processes, the move entailed much more than just creating the call center. Retailers were encouraged to place orders through the call center, where they could receive a more consistent service level than they could through the firm’s 100 local depots. Centralized data also enabled delivery of products to large institutional customer job sites, giving the company a capability that competitors could not provide. The biggest change resulting from centralizing order taking was in the way salespeople interacted with retailers. Liberated from routine order collection, the sales team could focus on building stronger relationships. To enable a more meaningful dialogue between the sales team and each retailer, the company provided salespeople with vital customer data in the field using mobile devices. A rollout of tablet devices, which is currently underway, will further mobile-enable the sales staff. Asian Paints’ digital transformation also extended to internal production processes. High growth in paint demand creates the need to set up new manufacturing plants every three years. Given the scale and size of these plants, the firm has begun to focus on creating highly automated plants. Automation has led to greater scalability, better quality and stronger safety and environmental protections. The new plants are fully integrated from an information management perspective. Data from shop floor control systems and automated warehouses are linked seamlessly to the ERP. This has helped to further sustain the firm’s operational efficiencies.14 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • In India, Asian Paints has begun to sell services (such as a painted wall) instead ofproducts (a can of paint). The services strategy has benefits beyond new revenues.Selling services helps to ensure that high-end products are applied properly,thereby improving customer satisfaction. Services also help the firm to get closerto the end-consumer, understand core consumer choices, and launch high-end texture finishes. Additionally, having a contractor in a client’s house yieldsinformation that marketing staff can use to understand both customer preferencesand potential demand. Gaining better knowledge of end-customer preferences is ahigh priority for the company, since its business model – operating largely throughretailers – means that customer involvement has been traditionally very low.The relationship between IT and business executives has traditionally been verystrong. The IT team consists of business graduates with a deep understandingof the underlying business processes. They act as internal process consultants.Governance is centralized and top down, with a strong executive-levelunderstanding about the importance of standardization and coordination.Although business executives suggest many digital investments, IT executivesoriginate others such as the firm’s new analytics initiative.Corporate growth and new technology demands have increased the challenges ofdigital governance. The firm is in the first year of a new portfolio planning process.“We have enjoyed great equity with the business because we have delivered solutions. Butseeing so many projects coming at us, we felt that now we need to establish processes tomatch expectations and resources whilst taking on innovative projects,” says Mr. ManishChoksi, CIO and Chief of Strategy.Asian Paints’ investment in strong IT capabilities, combined with organizationaland process changes intended to leverage those investments, will serve as afoundation upon which the organization can continuously envision and implementnew forms of digital transformation. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 15
  • 3 THE SHAPE OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION16 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • The companies interviewed are moving are changing. These nine elements forward with digital transformation form a set of building blocks for digital at varying paces and experiencing transformation. Currently, no company varying levels of success. Some are in our sample has fully transformed transforming many parts of their all nine elements. Rather, executives organizations while others are still are selecting among these building doing only the basics. Others are blocks to move forward in the manner encountering organizational issues or that they believe is right for their other challenges that prevent them organizations. The tenth element– from transforming successfully. digital capabilities – is an essential enabler for transformations in all areas. Analysis of the interviews shows clear patterns. Executives are digitally In this section, we explore how transforming three key areas of their companies in our study are enterprises: customer experience, implementing each transformational operational processes and business building block. Subsequent sections models (see Figure 3). Within each examine adoption of four key of the three pillars, different elements technologies and then commonFigure 3: Building blocks of the digital transformation Customer Operational Business Experience Process Model Customer understanding Process digitization Digitally-modified business • Analytics-based segmentation • Performance improvement • Product/service augmentation • Socially-informed knowledge • New features • Transitioning physical to digital • Digital wrappers Top line growth Worker enablement New digital business • Digitally-enhanced selling • Working anywhere anytime • Digital products • Predictive marketing • Broader and faster communication • Reshaping organizational boundaries • Streamlined customer processes • Community knowledge sharing Customer touch points Performance management Digital globalization • Customer service • Operational transparency • Enterprise Integration - • Cross-channel coherence • Data-driven decision-making • Redistribution decision authority • Self service • Shared digital services • Unified Data & Processes • Business & IT Integration • Analytics Capability Digital capabilities • Solution Delivery © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 17
  • challenges that interfere with digital educational digital tools aimed at transformation. The paper concludes helping clients invest more safely. with a set of key levers senior These tools, while not selling the firm’s executives can use to successfully products directly, aligned closely with transform their organizations. the firm’s reputation for conservatism and safety. 3.1 Transforming customer experience Companies are also building new online communities to advise and build loyalty with clients in medical, Customer understanding real estate or financial services products. Others are building products Companies are starting to take that improve branding in lifestyle advantage of previous investment communities. A consumer sports in systems to gain an in-depth equipment manufacturer enables understanding of specific geographies individuals to publish their sport and market segments. performance to communities and stay connected with other customers who Other firms are exploring social have similar interests. media to understand customer satisfiers and dis-satisfiers. A Many firms are building analytics mortgage executive noted “We capability to understand customers in launched a non-profit real estate more detail. Some insurance firms, for community to help our customers. As example, are improving their portfolios an unplanned benefit this helps us to and cost structures through analytics- understand them better. We launched based underwriting and pricing. Other special products, such as a special loan companies are conducting analytics- offering for divorced people, following based experiments to drive customer several customer questions.” behavior. In one case, a restaurant firm is actively conducting experiments In addition, companies are learning to in pricing and promotion across a set promote their brands more effectively of franchised stores. The experiment through digital media: dynamically adjusts product prices in response to demand, weather, • A medical device firm is launching inventory levels, and proximity to a social media campaign to promote closing time. a radically new class of products in an online community of medical specialists. Executives expect Top-line growth awareness to grow in weeks rather Companies are using technology than years. to enhance in-person sales conversations. Financial services • A media company has teamed with firms are using tablet-based product manufacturers for social presentations instead of paper-based media-based brand enhancement slide decks to make sales pitches. tied to in-person events. Some are going beyond. Insurance firms are introducing mobile tools • After the 2009 economic downturn, to help sales people and customers a financial firm built a set of engage in analytics-based planning.18 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • A medical device salesforce is processes through a digital plug-replacing in-person interactions with in. A retailer automatically loadsdigital interactions. When visiting a customer’s last online shoppinga doctor’s office, a salesperson list into its e-commerce site. Thisleaves an iPad with video and other streamlines the shopping process,information on new products. The allowing customers extra time toaim is to get the doctor’s attention look at other products. Customersand gain a 10 minute conversation can then decide whether to use homewhen the salesperson returns to delivery or a drive-through serviceretrieve the iPad. with a specific pick-up time. A mortgage company also developed anBetter understanding helps firms integrated multi-channel experienceto transform the sales experience. to help investors set their realisticCompanies are integrating customer expectations quickly. Then, processespurchasing data to provide more can cross-sell or up-sell products.personalized sales and customerservice or even to offer customized Customer touch pointsproduct packages. One executivecommented “Analytics help us to segment Customer service can be enhancedour clients and to connect SME offerings significantly by digital initiatives. Fastand clients in a predictive way.” A and transparent problem resolutionhospitality firm engaged in location- builds trust for customers. A bankbased marketing uses analytics to established a twitter account to answersend personalized mobile coupons client complaints quickly, helpingto customers as they near a facility customers avoid going physically toand can track uptake in real time. A a branch. This digital initiative alsomortgage firm is setting up a CRM leveraged an expert community,strategy to link customers to local real allowing crowd sourcing with severalestate references. This system proposes employees and other customers.new offers in real time via the internet. Companies with multiple channels toOther firms are using concept stores the customer are experiencing pressureas flagships for their digital selling to provide an integrated experience.innovations. A mortgage company A hospitality executive commented “Ioffers investors an integrated process think consumers still respond in the samecombining real estate and bank way, but consumers are now looking in soservices with external services, and many different places that’s it’s now hardshowcases the overall process in a to get that message across efficiently.”concept megastore. A bank created Many firms, especially in retail anda concept store in a major city to financial services, are making stronginnovate customer relationships and inroads in integrated multichanneloffer a different experience. Customers activity. However, multichannelcould connect their experiences in services require envisioning andconcept stores to social community implementing change across customerinitiatives like Facebook. experience and internal operational processes. Many retailers now offerSome firms try to make the life of home shopping with the option tothe customer easier, simplifying their receive products by mail or in a store. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 19
  • However, problems remain as, Process digitization for example, one retail executive described customers being angry that Companies historically have used customer service representatives in automation to make processes more a store could not access online order efficient and scalable. ERP for example history. has enabled significant efficiency and quality gains in core transactional, Some firms are moving beyond simple financial, and supply chain processes. multi-channel models to enable new An insurance firm has created a central forms of digital strategy. A mortgage digital platform for core claim processes company, for example, is offering and deployed the model across several B2C offerings in one channel to countries. Employee self-service systems, complement its existing B2B offerings especially in areas like HR, are also in another. It supplements the becoming widespread. multichannel experience through a new type of storefront. Some firms are going beyond simple automation to gain additional benefits. Several companies are offering self- Automation can enable companies to service via digital tools. These tools refocus their people on more strategic allow the customer to save time, while tasks. A manufacturer has begun to saving the company money. Classic centralize the HR function, allowing mobile apps allow bank customers to economies of scale through self-service access account information or media while freeing HR people to “focus on customers to have electronic rather enlarging manager skills, rather than counting than paper subscriptions. Many firms days off.” A specialty materials company are now offering customer apps to has automated many R&D processes. enhance customer touch points. In Automation allows researchers to focus a hospitality firm, smart phone apps on innovation and creativity rather than are linked to the customer’s profile, repetitive efforts. It also creates streams enabling integration across SMS, of data that can be useful in later data apps, and social media efforts. A mining efforts. media company offers apps with geo- localization and augmented reality to New technologies are extending this trend help customers find interesting places of gaining benefits beyond efficiency. A to visit and provide special offers via paint manufacturer has created fully- vouchers and e-couponing. automated plants that significantly reduce labor requirements, improve product 3.2 Transforming quality and enhance environmental, operational processes health, and safety performance. An apparel company has moved to digital Although transformed customer design processes when collaborating with experiences are the most visible – and manufacturing partners. Going digital arguably the most exciting – aspects eliminates most need to ship physical of transformation, firms are also prototypes back and forth, reducing the realizing very strong benefits from product development lifecycle by 30 transforming internal processes. percent. It allows the firm to be much more agile, changing designs quickly in response to market changes.20 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Worker enablement they are in the office, sit near people with whom they are temporarilyOnce-novel technologies such as collaborating. Meanwhile, the firm’smobile e-mail, collaboration tools, collaboration and networking toolsand video conferencing have now allow employees to talk with anyonebecome the norm in many companies. in the company from whereverEmployees routinely collaborate they are sitting. This is setting thewith people whom they have never stage for further changes related tomet in person, in regions they have globalization.never visited. Mobile devices allowemployees to stay connected with the In a broader sense, digitaloffice at all hours and to work from transformation replaces limited one-home when not able to be in the office. way vertical communication withIndividual level work has, in essence, broad communication channels thatbeen virtualized – separating the work are both vertical and horizontal. CxOsprocess from the location of the work. can engage in 2-way communication quickly at scale. Employees canSome companies are starting to collaborate in ways that wereexamine new possibilities for previously not possible. The toolsvirtualizing individual work processes. that virtualize individual work,A financial services firm rearranged while implemented for cost reasons,its headquarters so that nobody had have become powerful enablers foran assigned desk, even the CEO. knowledge sharing. Salespeople andEmployees now work from home front line employees, for example, areone or two days per week and, when beginning to benefit from collaborative Figure 4: Digital transformation creates a virtuous cycle of knowledge sharing dge sharin owle g Kn CxOs Communication at scale Virtualization of work Remote working, Collaborative tools, Knowledge platforms, Cloud Computing Internal Crowdsourcing Employees Kn owl edge sharing © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 21
  • tools in which they can identify 3.3 Transforming business experts and get questions answered in models real time. They are also increasingly gaining access to a single global view Digitally-modified businesses of the company’s interactions with a customer. A media executive said: “We’ve realized that if we don’t transform the Performance management way we do business, we’re going to die. It’s not about changing the way we do Performance transparency was technology but changing the way we do a key highlight mentioned by business.” It is finding ways to augment several executives. Executives in physical with digital offerings and most companies say they are more to use digital to share content across informed when making decisions. organizational silos. A grocery firm is Transactional systems give executives staying true to its traditional business, deeper insights into products, regions, but using digital to transform a new and customers, allowing decisions growth business. “After two years, to be made on real data and not our e-commerce platform is bringing us on assumptions. “Instead of simply 20 percent of our new clients and our revising last year’s plan, we can use data traditional clients are consuming 13 to make better decisions about how we percent more on average.” prioritize.” This is happening in both internal processes and customer- Other firms are building digital or facing processes. The level of detail service wrappers around traditional is also increasing, allowing managers products. A national post office is to compare status across sites or creating a free digital mailbox attached reallocate product manufacturing to each physical mail address that capacity in ways they could not do companies can use as a substitute for a before. It is also prompting additional person’s physical mailbox. A business data gathering and integration as credit firm is developing a digital managers start to see the value of business for some credit products that being better informed. requires less involvement than their traditional high-touch offerings. Beyond being better informed, digital transformation is actually New digital businesses changing the process of strategic decision-making. Top executives in Companies are introducing a medical device manufacturer used digital products that complement the company’s existing collaboration traditional products. A sports apparel tools to extend strategic planning manufacturer started selling GPS and sessions from 12 people to more than other digital devices that can track 300 of the firm’s top managers. This and report on a customer’s workout. enabled better input into the process Other companies are changing and better uptake of the vision after business models by reshaping decisions were made. their boundaries through digital. A mortgage company is moving from being a link in the value chain to22 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • being a global assembler of investment 3.4 Digital capabilitiesproducts. An airport authority isaiming to become the owner of a Digital capabilities cut across all threetraveler’s end to end process. It will pillars. They are a fundamental buildingenable for travelers an integrated block for transformation in customermultichannel experience including experience, operational processes, andinformation on airplane traffic and business models. Although CIOs andreservations, duty-free shopping existing IT departments are leadingpromotions and other benefits. digital initiatives across companies, they hire extra skills or implementDigital globalization separate units to coordinate digital transformation.Firms are increasingly transformingfrom multi-national to truly global Unified Data and Processesoperations. Digital technologycoupled with integrated information The most fundamental technologyis allowing firms to gain global need for digital transformation is asynergies while remaining locally digital platform of integrated data andresponsive. They are, in the words processes. Large successful companiesof many executives, “becoming more often operate in silos, each with theircentralized and decentralized at the same own systems, data definitions, andtime.” These companies benefit from business processes. Generating aglobal shared services for finance, common view of customers or productsHR, and even core capabilities like can be very difficult. Without themanufacturing and design. Global common view, advanced approachesshared services promote efficiency and to customer engagement or processreduce risk. They even promote global optimization cannot occur.flexibility. One manufacturer can shiftproduction around the globe with The difficulty of operating without aonly a few days’ notice in response to platform becomes greater as companiesinterruptions or excess demand. engage in multi-channel operations. Many companies, for example, cannotFor local managers, the pain of link customers’ activity in stores orcentralization is balanced by bank branches to their activity on theefficiency benefits and ability to web or mobile. An executive in onefocus on more strategic activities. company, echoing statements by manyLocal managers, empowered to others, said “data integration is the biggestmake decisions autonomously, also challenge in setting up our digital services:gain a broader view of the business self-services, web-strategy and runningthrough centralized data. They have partnerships.”the freedom to tailor business to theirlocal needs, but the responsibility Unified data and process is one reasonto act in the interests of the larger that web-based companies are ableenterprise. Globalization also entails to gain advantage through analyticsa different approach to policy: “fewer and personalization much moremandates from headquarters, but more readily than traditional firms. For manyguidelines.” traditional companies, the first step in preparing for digital transformation © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 23
  • Figure 5: Digital platform implementation* Single integrated No platform digital platform 39% 47% 14% Multiple digital platforms * Percentage of companies in each digital platform state among the 50 interviewed for the study to invest – sometimes heavily – in but not to emerging digital technologies integrating data and processes across and practices. Mobile and social media, the enterprise. In this respect, firms that for example, often require iterative have already implemented ERP and CRM approaches to learn about what will work systems are a step ahead of others. in the market or workplace. They also use technology that is not commonly available Unified platforms can also help in enterprises. Analytics activities to manage the centralization/ often require specific knowledge and decentralization challenge in temperaments that typical IT developers globalization. Hospitality firm properties do not possess. can use centralized platforms to deliver locally-customized information while Some IT departments have established not having to support the technology. special units to build emerging A media company common technology technology skills and methods. Others platform allows the firm to share content have innovation units to identify how new at worldwide level, offering media content technologies and practices might change developed in one part of the world to the business. Still others look outside the be used easily in other markets and firm for help. 78 percent of the companies publishing formats. interviewed hire vendors to address large projects or those that require advanced Solution delivery technologies. Vendor partners can be very effective, but some executives expressed Companies also need the capabilities concern about over-reliance on vendors. to modify their processes or build new A hospitality executive firm said that methods onto the data and process knowledge of key emerging technologies platform. Solution delivery requires is spread across silos of external vendors, effective methods and strong skills. Most making integration difficult. Several IT departments have solid development executives described knowledge gaps methods in place. However, those that existed after they ended a vendor methods are often geared to well-defined relationship. requirements and mature technologies24 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Analytics capabilities trying to conduct digital transformation. These companies often have issuesInformation management and analytics common to those that do not govern ITwere highlighted as major goals by well, namely complex IT architectures,executives across industries. Several firms unintegrated data, and processes that areechoed the statement of an executive not well-enabled through technology.who stated “It’s time to harvest the data andturn it into insights.” Combining integrated In contrast, companies with a solid IT/data with powerful analysis tools is seen business relationship are in a solidas a way to gain strategic advantage over position to begin digital transformation.competitors. A bank executive stated: “IT has been brought closer to business during the last fiveCompanies are engaging in analytics years. It is very important to success becauseat varying levels of intensity. Some are many of the important transformationsjust beginning to make better use of in our business enabled by technology.”the data available from transactional With trust and shared understanding,systems. They are making more-informed IT executives can help businessand better decisions and reacting more executives meet their goals, and businessquickly to changes in their operations. executives listen when IT people suggestCompanies with integrated data are able innovations. Where strong relationshipsto engage in more powerful analytics exist, executives on both sides of thestrategies. An Insurance company is able relationship are willing to be flexible into do predictive sales, helping salespeople creating new governance mechanisms orto target products that a specific type of digital units without feeling threatened.customer is likely to buy. A hospitalitycompany and a restaurant firm are In most firms, digital transformationusing analytics to target promotions is being led by CIOs. Where theand conduct pricing experiments. A relationship is strong, this approach canmedia company is using web analytics be very effective. At a manufacturer,to provide real-time KPIs to customers the CIO is also head of strategy. He ledin order to demonstrate the added-value aggressive investments in technologyof the firm’s products. Several insurance that generated tremendous benefits forfirms are using analytics to underwrite the firm (see case study). The CIO of apolicies, enabling better pricing and global services firm also manages thereshaping the firms’ risk portfolios. firm’s e-commerce operations and itsHowever, all executives also mentioned innovation activities. Other companiesthat building analytics capability was place responsibility for digital in anotherdifficult, requiring skills and culture unit or executive who works closely withchange in addition to investments in the CIO. An apparel firm established ainformation technology. new digital division that works closely with the existing IT department. ABusiness and IT integration business directory company hired a second CIO to focus on transformation-Digital Transformation, more than related activities, working in concert withother business changes, requires strong the CIO who focused on keeping theintegration between technology and firms’ existing platform functional.business executives. Companies witha history of strained IT and businessrelationships are handicapped when © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 25
  • Case Study BNP PARIBAS: DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION IN AN INTERNATIONAL BANKING GROUP I nternational banking group BNP Paribas grew rapidly in the past decade by acquiring banks in several countries. The firm is now aiming to solidify its international position, aligning processes at global scale. The group strategy is defined around three key points: internationalization, process rationalization and maintaining trust with the customer. Crisis, regulation and technology adoption by customers and employees are pushing BNP Paribas to consider digital transformation. Executives envision digital as a way to reshape boundaries, focus on profitable business areas and streamline middle and back office processes, but BNP Paribas is only part-way through its transformation journey. The first step of the transformation has focused on reach: creating a multichannel strategy that includes the web as well as emerging technologies such as mobile and social media. BNP Paribas is today in a transition phase to reach the second step of the transformation: integrating transactions across channels and building a conversation with clients via an external CRM and analytics-based tools. BNP Paribas is currently developing a new digital platform leveraging the firms various distribution assets into multichannel processes and tools. To improve customer experience, the firm launched multiple initiatives. Mobile apps provide a substitute to using the internet website. The firm increased customer touch points via social media, providing customer service on twitter and advertising on Facebook. In 2010, BNP Paribas launched a new branch model. This Concept Store will help develop new ways of interacting and selling products to the customer via new technologies and self-service areas. The firm’s next step is to start a conversation with customers on social media. This will require building social-customer knowledge, via an external CRM, and increasing analytics capability. In 2011, BNP Paribas launched new mobile bank services in partnership with a telecom operator. This was more than a simple website substitution. It was a switch from traditional business model to a digital one, with a different cost and revenue structure. From an operational process point of view, BNP Paribas is still at the beginning of its transformation journey. The firm is focusing on security improvements and cloud solutions, which executives see as key differentiators in the industry. The objective of process rationalization will be to have end-to-end digitized processes in an integrated platform, which could generate international economies of scale. A group digital committee sponsored by general management elaborates the group digital strategy and encourages digital best practice sharing. BNP Paribas’ next digital objectives are to move into mobility, reach the next level of customer intimacy and develop a strong analytics strategy. Challenges on this road are to strengthen digital coordination at the group level and to balance digital and physical in the front-office perspective26 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Case StudyMOVING FROM SEPARATE TOINTEGRATED DIGITAL INITIATIVES IN ANAPPAREL MANUFACTURERA n apparel company has built its successful business by combining good products with compelling branding and a set of high-profile celebrity relationships. Its entrepreneurial spirit has led to growth in product silos. The firm spent the past ten years improving internal processes and its connections to manufacturing partners. The firm’s entry into digital occurred in three successful but disconnected areas. In customer experience, the firmdeveloped a customized products offering. Customers can go online or work with anadvisor in a store to configure products in exactly the color schemes they wish, andthen receive the products by mail. This process modified existing customer-facingand manufacturing capabilities to deliver a new customer experience. Separately,the company made forays into social media. It built communities around differentcategories of product, allowing customers to communicate with the company andeach other via Facebook and Twitter. It also launched a few digital products meantto augment the lifestyle needs of customers, such as GPS devices for athletes.In internal operations, the product design area moved from paper-based designprocesses to a fully digital process. Although some designers initially experiencedtrouble in the transition, the process has yielded important benefits. Shippingdigital designs instead of physical prototypes between headquater and suppliers hascut the product development cycle time by months. It also allows the company toadjust designs much more easily in response to manufacturing issues or changesin customer demand. In addition, the firm can use digital designs to promote newproducts to retailers differently, gaining attention and orders much earlier andmaking retailer promotion easier than was possible with a physical design process.The company has recently recognized the need to begin coordinating its digitalefforts. It has created a digital division to deliver all digital efforts for the firm.This included recruiting key senior executives with experience in differentaspects of digital business management, and building an innovation unit chargedwith identifying new customer and process approaches that cut across the firm’straditional silos. The digital division does more than enable and capture synergiesbetween initiatives. It also opens up new possibilities for taking the firm from aproduct-focused to a customer-centric approach. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 27
  • 4 DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY USAGE28 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • The interviews asked how four digital Customer-experience applications oftechnologies – analytics, mobile, social media are more common thansocial media, and embedded devices internal uses, reflecting awareness of– are being used in the enterprise. the fact that consumers are rapidlyAll of the executives we interviewed adopting these technologies, andwere aware of these technologies, well as some skepticism about howalthough few considered themselves effective they will be for internalexperts. Most could describe how the collaboration. Analytics, too, is morecompany used the technology, or how common in customer experienceit might or might not be important in applications, reflecting organizations’the future. increasing efforts to target marketing activities and personalize customerFigure 6 shows how often firms experience better than in the past.in the study used each digital Mobile is used widely in bothtechnology to improve customer domains.experience and operationalprocesses. Analytics, Mobile and Embedded devices are still anSocial Media are widespread in these emerging technology. Less than one-large organizations, despite their fourth of companies are using theserelative newness to most industries. Figure 6: Applications of digital technology in customer experience and operational process Customer experience Operational process 72% 66% 66% 62% 62% 52% 24% 14% Analytics Mobile Social Media Embedded Devices Note: Percentage of firms using digital technologies in their customer experience and operational processes. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 29
  • devices. Most executives commented with a different technology and that they did not yet see applications process. Blackberries and iphones for the technologies. In the case of substitute for PCs in both internal RFID, they mentioned the cost of the operations (email) and customer RFID tags or the difficulty of using experience (web access). Many them in busy, machine-filled spaces. employees use both methods Many executives did express interest depending on their needs at a point in using embedded devices in the in time. Analytics, in the form of future. basic business intelligence tools and detailed reporting, substitutes Companies varied greatly in the ways for similar information sources they used the four technologies. We available through other methods. identified three levels of usage: Substitution is useful when it improves performance over, or is • Substitution is using new more convenient than, traditional technology as an alternative or methods. replacement for substantially the same function that the • Extension is significantly improving enterprise already performed performance or functionality of Figure 7: Applications of digital technologies in the enterprises we studied Customer experience Operational process • Predictive promotion • Insurance underwriting transformation • Location-based marketing • Remote-control mining operations Breakthrough • Social-lead generation • Social-enabled product development • Smart-grid devices • Automated factories • Deeper customer segmentation • Production / supply-chain optimization • M-Commerce • Mobile sales force enhancements Extension • Pharmaceutical / medical device firm • Internal collaboration communities physician communities • Consolidated status monitoring for • Phones as payment devices medical devices • Basic reporting or BI • Basic reporting or BI • Simple apps • Working anytime, anywhere, any device Substitution • Facebook pages and ads • Employee blogging, internal Facebook • Cards replace passwords • Building access control30 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • a process through technology. analytics to engage in location-based A power company and a paint marketing with its customers. company provide full information to field workers on mobile devices, Figure 7 shows examples of how eliminating the need for workers companies are using the four digital to spend time in the office at the technologies. Figures 8 and 9 show start and end of shifts. A pharma the extent to which each is being company’s social media physician used to improve customer experience community enables the company to or internal operations. The most learn about issues and opportunities common usage of each technology by allowing doctors to talk with one is in substitution -- Mobile email another. replaces desktop email, Facebook pages and ads substitute for web.• Breakthrough is fundamentally However, companies are making redefining a process or function inroads in each technology. Roughly through technology. A paint 30 percent of firms are engaging in company uses a combination of extension or transformation with embedded devices and analytics to Mobile, Social, or Analytics. Although create fully-automated factories that usage of embedded devices lags the deliver higher efficiency, quality other technologies, some companies and environmental protections are already extending or transforming than manually-tended factories. their processes through these devices. A hospitality firm uses predictive Figure 8: Use of digital technologies to transform operational processes 2% 8% 14% 18% 28% 4% 16% 40% 36% 4% 22% 6% Analytics Mobile Social Embedded Media Devices Substitution Extension Breakthrough Note: Chart plots extent of transformation each firm is attaining in operational processes using a particular technology. Many companies had multiple applications of a technology. For each firm, only the most transformative usage is counted. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 31
  • Figure 9: Use of digital technologies to transform customer experience 4% 18% 14% 22% 4% 18% 20% 36% 12% 36% 28% 8% Analytics Mobile Social Embedded Media Devices Substitution Extension Breakthrough Note: Chart plots extent of transformation each firm is attaining in customer experience using a particular digital technology. Many companies had multiple applications of a technology. For each firm, only the most transformative usage is counted. The interviews show an interesting for customer-facing applications. trend toward identifying transformative opportunities that • An apparel company aims to combine multiple technologies with integrate its social and web-based new management practices. marketing approaches with its digital product design capabilities • Remote-control mining equipment and embedded devices in products and automated paint factories to be more responsive to emerging include both mobile and analytics consumer preferences. technologies to improve production significantly. • Concept stores combine multiple technologies to test or deliver a new • Mobile phones are increasingly buying experience. becoming seen as embedded devices32 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • These types of multi-technologysolution are signs of a maturingapproach to digital transformation inenterprises. Executives are beginningto envision possibilities that crossorganizational and technologicalsilos – letting the possibilities drivetechnology and organization ratherthan the reverse. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 33
  • 5 CHALLENGES ON THE ROAD TO TRANSFORMATION34 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • What is causing firms to have difficulty was astonished that none of the seniorstarting or benefiting from digital executives were aware of TripAdvisor.”transformation? Challenges occur in all Executives need not be aware of allthree elements of the transformation changes in industries outside theirprocess: Initiation, Execution, and own, but knowing major digitalCoordination. consumer services products such as Tripadvisor, Facebook, or eBay can be5.1 Initiation challenges very useful fodder for envisioning how executives might change their ownLack of impetus businesses.Impetus often starts at the very top Regulation and reputationof the firm. Executives are justifiablyskeptical of the benefits of emerging Many executives, especially intechnologies. The experience of healthcare and financial services, aree-commerce taught many executives being careful about mobile and socialthat a fast follower approach can technologies because of security andsometimes be lower risk than a privacy concerns. In our sample, 47pioneering approach. However, this percent of companies stated a highskepticism can result in bureaucratic or medium concern over regulatoryinvestment processes that prevent the impacts on their potential digitalfirm from engaging in useful digitally- initiatives. A lost or hacked mobileenabled experiments and business device can give outsiders accesschanges. A manufacturing executive to confidential data on patients orstated: “We’ve always been fairly slow in customers. This has reputationaladopting technology because we more or repercussions well beyond anyless have the ambition of not being first regulatory penalties. A financial...but we have become even slower at the services executive said “The last thingsame time that technology development that any of us want to do is put thehas been speeding up. So, the gap has reputation that we built for more thanincreased.” 100 years on the line because someone lost a device.” A medical executive had aCompany performance can also slow similar concern: “We’ve done a good jobthe move to transformation. If the of becoming a trusted partner to a lot ofcompany is not experiencing pain, the governments and customers. If we violateperceived risk of change may outweigh that trust, if we have one bad apple, youthe potential benefits in the minds of can throw the whole thing out the windowmany executives. A manufacturer said very quickly.”“At the end of the day, we don’t want tostay on the edge of the latest trend. It’s not Companies, especially in financialreally our business.” services, are taking a slow approach to social media for fear of regulatoryAn other concern issue can be lack sanction. For example, blogs, tweetsof awareness of the opportunities or and other messages are typicallythreats of digital transformation. An not reviewed as carefully as otherexecutive in one of the world’s largest corporate communications, but mayfinancial companies said “When I be construed as advice by readers. Amade a presentation to the board, I financial company executive said “We © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 35
  • jumped into going ahead with Twitter and Executives in our sample used a YouTube and Facebook without knowing set of four methods (see Figure what people are actually saying about us. 10) to justify investment in digital Now we have started to monitor it.” transformation initiatives. Some initiatives can be justified in the While these regulatory concerns are traditional way, through quantified real, they need not prevent companies economic business cases. Audio and from moving forward. Two financial videoconferencing technologies, for services firms and one medical example, can be justified on travel device firm are already successfully cost savings or other efficiencies, selling products and services with as could a financial firm’s move to tablets instead of paper. Several a transformed office environment. firms have implemented tools to Larger process transformations also protect confidential information on can cite clear returns, such as when an phones and tablets or to wipe the apparel firm justified its move to digital devices in case they are lost. Nearly design processes through cost savings all of the regulated companies we and significantly shortened product interviewed are establishing policies development cycles. for employee use of personally owned or mobile devices and for using social However, other investments are media. Many firms we interviewed truly bet-your-company, do-or-die are using Facebook and Twitter propositions, in which the financial for brand building. Meanwhile, an case is one of survival. Firms facing insurance firm is helping agents build a burning platform often make large their presence on LinkedIn, and a changes without a strict financial medical device company plans to business case. A business directory use Facebook as a radically new way service, realizing their paper-based to reach the specialists who use its model was declining rapidly, brought products. in a new CEO to lead a radical digital transformation. An airport Unclear business case authority invested heavily in digital transformation when governments Healthy skepticism or regulatory stated that they would withdraw 60 concerns are legitimate reasons percent of public funding within 5 to be careful when investigating years. new technologies. Certainly not all digital initiatives make sense for all However, as with many innovations, companies (or for all employees in digital transformation investments the company). One CIO, discussing often have less clear business cases mobile-enabled process changes, than these examples. Many companies said “At the end of the day, we’re still considered their initial forays into looking at value and cost. For some folks, Facebook or Twitter as simple the most cost-effective technology is still experiments built with limited funding the desktop.” However, these reasons and risk to investigate the potential of should not prevent companies from the new media. Similarly, initial mobile investing in potentially valuable apps or pilot experiments with mobile experiments or transformations. marketing have been scoped to limit cost and risk. These experiments are36 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Figure 10: How companies justify their digital transformation investments ECONOMIC: BURNING PLATFORM: Traditional capital “bet the business” budgeting processes investments made in emphasizing measurable response to rapidly cost or revenue declining performance improvements. in the existing businesses STRATEGIC FOUNDATION LOW-RISK EXPERIMENT: INVESTMENT: investments structured initiatives undertaken to with limited size and risk provide important to learn about organizational technologies, capabilities, usually customers, or potential without a quantified capabilities. financial business caseoften funded “below the radar”, using would be funded on its own merits,the spending authority available to a but the initial investment to set up thesenior executive. shared service was seen as a strategic foundation investment. Similarly,Other initiatives are funded as several firms hired senior executivesstrategic foundation investments that or content experts to get started in thebuild infrastructure and capabilities to analytics and social media spaces. Thebe used elsewhere. These investments new leaders must financially justifyrarely go through the rigor of their existence in the future, but thedeveloping a quantified business case, initial investment was considered asbut rather are undertaken as strategic capability-building.bets. Collaboration tools and internalknowledge bases, for example, were When enabling larger transformations,often justified as relatively low cost/ executives often use a combination oflow risk infrastructure investments approaches over time. Analytics is anto smooth cooperation and synergies interesting example. Specific customeramong a distributed workforce. segmentation or predictive analyticsHowever, some foundation investments efforts can often show a businessare larger. A manufacturing firm case. Marketing experiments eitherinvested in building a shared digital generate higher sales or they don’t.division to provide capabilities and Insurance analytics either generatesupport to digital initiatives across a better risk/return profile or theythe firm. Each new digital initiative don’t. However, firms often require © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 37
  • an investment in infrastructure – Missing skills integrating data, buying tools or hiring expertise – before they can start to Analytic-based decision-making does conduct more measurable analytic- not always come naturally to people based experiments. For a restaurant accustomed to using “professional firm considering analytics, the return judgment” or other methods to make for hiring new skills and conducting decisions. A grocery CFO lamented initiatives was initially unclear, but “We have all of the information in place, senior executives believed it was a but we can’t get those guys to change the bet worth making to understand way they work.” Emerging technologies better sales trends and start to are another area where skills may be engage in dynamic localized pricing scarce internally, especially in areas experiments. such as mobility and social media. Regardless of how an initial investment Firms are filling gaps by hiring experts is justified, the interviews highlighted or working with vendors. Skills that an important point. The real value are in short supply in one industry of digital transformation comes not can sometimes be found in others. A from the initial investment, but from restaurant executive said “We have been continuously re-envisioning how hiring analytics experts from other firms. capabilities can be extended with We give them a chance to play a more digital technology to increase revenue, senior role than they could in their previous cut costs or gain other benefits. Initial employers, where their skills are more investments, made with or without plentiful.” A medical company executive a financial business case, become said “We missed the boat on social media. foundational capabilities on which We just hired a global CMO to take care additional investments can be made. of our social media strategy.” Meanwhile, When it first centralized order taking although the executive recognizes and implemented an ERP system, that smart embedded devices will be executives at the home improvement essential to the firm’s future product products company did not envision strategy “We have nobody to look into the many successful business model that.” A hospitality firm, aiming to changes they would be able to add in limit long-term HR investment while the future. But, to their credit, they experimenting with new technologies, continuously envisioned what else they is working with vendors who have the could do with their digitally-enhanced right skills and are willing to work for foundation, and earned higher and reduced rates to get a foot in the door. higher returns as a result. However, it is encountering knowledge integration issues as key skills are 5.2 Execution challenges located in different vendors. While a top-level impetus for Culture issues transformation is important, it is often not enough. Interviewees cited three Cultural issues can also become a missing elements that threatened to bottleneck for digital transformation. prevent them from moving forward A major cultural issue is related to successfully (see Figure 11). changes in jobs due to automation or information empowerment. A38 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Figure 11: Organizational gaps in digital transformation 77% Missing Skills 55% Culture Issues 50% Ineffective IT Note: Percentage of firms encountering gaps in skills, IT or culture as mentioned by their executives. Some firms are encountering more than one gap.grocery executive mentioned that the vision and frequent communication asfirm’s information-based benefits are essential for driving culture change.reduced by managers who cannotthink differently about how they make Labor relations issues are a stickierdecisions. Other executives find that source of culture change issues.they must work to change the culture A business directory company,when empowering front-line workers. even in the midst of a successfulExecutives shared that these workers, digital transformation, continues toaccustomed to taking orders from experience resistance from unions.headquarters, needed help to adopt In an airline firm, flight employeesthe idea of using new information embrace digitally-enabled changes, butcapabilities to make autonomous ground employees, fearing job cuts,decisions. Meanwhile, previously- are strongly resistant. These labor-autonomous country managers in related culture issues can be overcome.globalizing firms often require coaching Consider two airport operators fromto grow comfortable working in an different countries. Both feel pressureenvironment of centralized shared to change from governments, airlinesservices and standardized processes. and customers. One company feels “stuck” in their environment, unable toOne lever for change is to hire new move because of a culture that resistsleaders. These people, while bringing changes. The other operator overcamenew skills, also bring new vision that these cultural issues. It is now startinghelps change the culture in their areas. to partner with airlines to developA business directory company, apparel initiatives such as self-service drop-off,company, and restaurant firm have all common check-in desk, and sellingbenefited from this approach. However, online airport-related (as opposed towhether leaders come from inside or airline-related) products to customers.outside, senior executives cite a strong © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 39
  • IT Difficulties A strong IT/business relationship can be very helpful in transformation. Digital initiatives are built on a solid The CIOs in a hospitality and foundation of technology-enabled medical devices firm have very processes and data, as well as the strong relationships with other analytics, solution delivery and senior executives, enabling them to relationship capabilities to create suggest and deliver important digital and extend that platform (see Figure initiatives. A financial services firm has 5). Information technology is a consolidated operations and IT under fundamental part of the firm’s digital a single senior executive, enabling the capabilities. However, many companies firm to envision and execute process find their information technology and technology changes in sync. infrastructures and capabilities severely lacking. According to the 5.3. Governance challenges head of the disability business for a major insurer, “We have through the Benefiting from transformation last 50 years proliferated our IT systems typically requires changes in processes and applications. We don’t retire systems. or decision-making that span We just add on top of them, which traditional organizational or functional creates a tremendous amount of expense structures. Transformation, like any and complexity.” Data issues are felt major organizational change, requires especially keenly in marketing. One top-down effort to help employees marketing executive, echoing the envision a different reality, and sentiment from many we interviewed, coordination to ensure the firm moves said “It is very difficult to get a good in the right direction. understanding of the customer when customer data is spread across so many systems.” 40 percent of the Beyond technical issues in IT, relationship issues can be difficult. companies envision A history of poor business / IT a radical digital relations is a difficult foundation for the collaborative work required in transformation digital transformation. One business executive said “IT is a mess. Their costs are not acceptable. They propose things in 9-10 months where external firms could do Incremental vision them in 3-9 weeks. We started offshoring our IT, and now our IT guys are trying While incremental investments can to change.” A CIO described how he be effective starting places to build communicates about the possibilities of digital capability, the largest benefits of digital transformation, but none of his digital transformation come from truly business executive peers (interviewed transforming activities. This requires separately) seemed to find the a more radical vision – one that offers discussions credible. a view of a different way of working, not just a faster or more efficient one. Unless senior executives establish a40 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • transformative vision of the future, establish a picture of what is legitimatemanagers in the rest of the firm will and help to delegitimize local behaviortend to locally optimize within their that detracts from a more globalown spheres of authority. approach.An overarching vision can span More common is a vision that does notorganizational boundaries. Firms go far enough. Insurers and financialundergoing globalization are services firms are using tablets toenvisioning themselves as a single replace paper in sales presentations,entity with local offices, rather than a but have not yet integrated allcollection of independent units. The customer information or sales toolsrestaurant firm has a vision in which into the new mobile or tablet format.every outlet will learn from innovations Many companies are using video andin other outlets. An airport authority collaboration tools to reduce travelis re-examining the boundaries of its costs, but a financial services firmbusiness to consider whether it should and a consulting firm are buildingtake on some functions traditionally capabilities to enable flexible globalperformed by airlines and vice versa. collaboration among employeesThe apparel firm is starting to envision working either from home or an office.linkages between design, marketing, Marketing units are trying experimentsand operations so that each can rapidly with social media and location-basedadjust to what is learned in another marketing, but a restaurant companyarea. These overarching visions conducts pricing and promotion © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 41
  • experiments in one site and then marketing, and direct-to-consumer, rapidly shares the learning across the is now investing in coordination. It company. Overly-limited visions can recently created a digital division to dramatically affect the value obtained ensure that all of its digital efforts – from each digital transformation marketing, production, design and investment. even digitally-enhanced products – are being coordinated. The significant Coordination issues investment is expected to pay strong dividends from better customer Many firms fail to transform because experience, stronger knowledge of of coordination difficulties across rapidly-changing customer preferences, business units or processes. Units are and synergies between internal able to make progress in their own functions. areas, but are unable to influence practices in other units. The paint A further concern arises from manufacturer could not have continued coordination issues between new and to benefit from transformation without traditional businesses or processes. top-down coordination of internal This channel conflict is real, and and customer-facing processes. Others can be very painful for managers in are learning this lesson. A hospitality traditional units that lose when new executive mentioned “We need to start businesses gain. It often must be rethinking our strategy. The approach of addressed through an overarching throwing was everything out there and vision. In a business directory firm, thinking that something is going to stick is that vision was to have 80 percent of not the way to go.” business online. In a credit firm, the digital division envisioned as small An apparel firm, after conducting and complementary, so that it did separate initiatives in design, not compete directly with the offline business.42 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Case StudyCREDIT FONCIER: EVOLVING AS A VALUECHAIN ORCHESTRATOR IN MORTGAGESF acing increasing pressure from competitors, regulatory changes, and customers, Credit Foncier decided to incorporate digital transformation into its business model. The firm, one of the top France’s largest mortgage companies, aimed to augment its strong B2B capabilities by building a B2C experience that extended well beyond its traditional boundaries. It would orchestrate the entire customer experience of buying a property. This required envisioning a whole new way of operating, andthen taking steps to experiment with offerings and educate both employees andcustomers.A customer can go online or use a self-service kiosk in the concept “megastore”to learn how much she is qualified to borrow, or investigate what properties sheis qualified to buy. The company can refer her to real estate brokers or providefinancial products as part of the process. When the customer is ready to buy,she returns to the store or website to start the process of obtaining a loan. Atany point, she can talk to an advisor who will help her in the process. The fullexperience is digitally enhanced, including color-coded maps, analytics-aidedsuggestions, and even a RFID-based key that the customer can use to save andretrieve her information in the store.Internally, the entire process is integrated with analytics and a CRM systemconnecting elements of the B2C experience into the firm’s other processes. Thebranch advisor can follow each customer through the process, offering help asneeded. The company augments its existing assets by partnering with other firmsfrom the long-standing web of business relationships that the firm has built inits B2B business. The company also hired new skills to augment its existing staffcapabilities. The project, which was under consideration for 6 years, took 2 years tobe implemented.While the megastore concept has been successful, and the company is consideringopening a new store in the near future, the company’s focus remains on growingits successful B2B business. The vision for B2C is to augment existing B2B offeringsand hedge against competitive pressure in the consumer mortgage space. As theconcept matures, the firm will begin offering other products through the channel. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 43
  • Case StudyAIRCO: DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION INAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTA irCo manages operations for several of a country’s major airports. Following market evolution, the government demanded that AirCo reduces its dependency on a public subsidy that funded more than half of the firm’s operations. The challenge of converting a former government agency to a profitable company was exacerbated as economic challenges reduced air travel volumes and made airlines more aggressive in negotiating the fees they paid to AirCo.To gain new revenues, AirCo is transforming its business model. The firm’s visionis twofold: to gain efficiencies by unifying processes across airports, and to focus onserving end customers instead of only the airlines. Implementing the transformationalso requires engagement to help employees adopt more business-orientedperspectives. According to executives, however, the transformation benefits fromtwo strategic assets: the firm’s ownership of the airports (and thus control of howproducts and services are sold), and the employees’ collaborative culture.After unifying the management team, AirCo focused on rationalizing andintegrating processes and IT infrastructure. It launched a digital transformationprogram owned by a CIO board that would coordinate and support the digitalprogress of the airports. The objective of the program is to allow the companyairport to follow each customer as she moves through an airport, providing serviceswherever possible.Customer experience:The firm envisions increasing revenues from fliers to overcome diminishingrevenues from airlines. It plans to take advantage of a major change in customers’behaviors: travelers are increasingly their own travel agents. In this world ofself-service, the company believes it can help customers to reduce the stress ofgoing to the airport, navigating traffic, checking in, and getting to the right gatethrough the use of a website or mobile apps. Customer apps already exist for thetwo biggest airports of the country, providing both the customer and the companywith information about the trip. The firm supplements its digital services withinformation agents who roam the airport with tablets to support and guide travelers.AirCo will augment the apps with core business services like car rental, parking,and train tickets. The firm is also developing airline partnerships to provide airlinetickets on the website. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 44
  • Operational processes:The firm’s biggest operational challenge is to have one digital strategy for all of itsairports. It plans to provide every customer in every airport with the same services.The firm has started its platform consolidation and partnered with foreign airportsto provide more information to travelers. It also made services such as drop-off orcheck-in available to the airlines, taking advantage of the interconnectivity of thefirm’s digital platform.Digitization of operational processes is also improving the communication betweenemployees. They are able to deliver a better service to the end customer. 75 percentof workers are already using mobile devices as they move through the airport.The company does not have a social media policy, but has created guidelines. Itencourages employees to be active on Facebook and Twitter. The firm has alsolaunched a collaborative community platform to understand travelers’ experiencesbetter and to be able to adapt its services.AirCo’s digital transformation journey, currently underway, is seen as critical tohelping the firm reach financial autonomy. Executives started with a clear visionthat leveraged key strategic assets, hired a new CIO, and then created governancemechanisms to improve the chances of success. These leaders also started early tobuild digital engagement with employees to change the firm’s culture. Executivesbelieve the firm is well positioned to implement the remaining elements of thedigital transformation. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 45
  • 6HOW CAN YOU MAKE YOUR DIGITAL JOURNEYSUCCESSFUL? © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 46
  • Successful digital transformations These elements work together in in our study used a common set of an iterative approach – constantly elements (see Figure 12). Each is a communicating and listening to lever executives can use to initiate and re-envision and further implement drive digital transformation in their new types of digital transformation. organizations. Leaders diagnose the Senior executives drive digital potential value of existing corporate transformation through an iterative assets and build a transformative three-step process: vision for the future. Then, they invest in skills and initiatives to make 1. Envision the digital future for your the vision a reality. Fundamental firm. to the transformation is effective communication and governance to 2. Invest in digital initiatives and ensure that the firm is moving in the skills. right direction. 3. Lead the change from the top.Figure 12: Digital transformation framework Transformative Digital Vision Strategic Assets Products & Partnership Customer Sales force content network knowledge Point of sale & distribution channels Product innovation Brand Culture Digital Building Blocks Customer Operational Business Digital Engagement Digital Governance Experience Process Model Customer Process Digitally-modified understanding digitization business New digital Top line growth Worker enablement business Customer touch Performance Digital points management globalization Digital capabilities KP I Digital Investment SKILLS INITIATIVES Iterative Transformation Roadmap © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 47
  • 6.1. Envision the digital Interviewees, without being asked, future for your firm often identified important assets that could help or hinder their Many digital transformation initiatives transformations. These strategic assets fail to capture all of the value available include: to them because their vision is not transformative. Only the top of the • Sales force: A strong source of company can create a compelling customer loyalty is the set of vision of the future and communicate relationships cultivated by a strong it throughout the organization. sales force. Digital initiatives Successful digital transformation does can threaten to disintermediate not occur bottom up. The true value salespeople, leading to channel of transformation often comes from conflict. However, digital seeing value across silos and then transformation can also be used to helping everyone else see that value. enhance those relationships, such as a logistics firm that can use demand data in one part of the world to Identify and diagnose strategic provide customers in another part assets of the world with forecasts of trends that will hit them soon. In addition Large companies survive major to sales people, front line employees transitions not by radically replacing often are an important face to the old with the new, but rather the customer, as well as having by transforming some of their important knowledge about how existing resources and competencies business is done. for the new environment. While this sometimes involves changing • Point of sale and distribution leadership or replacing assets, it channels: Stores are often a strong usually involves reassigning or source of location-based advantage, adapting assets and realigning or even in a digital world. In other re-motivating employees. However, cases, firms with a strong warehouse it also requires understanding when and supply chain capabilities are traditional assets and sources of able to use their distribution assets advantage no longer provide value. to disrupt the advantage of local competitors. Digital transformation is the same. Your company will thrive in • Products and content: Media firms digital transformation not by doing find their content is a strong something completely new, but by asset that can be reused in digital taking advantage of your powerful environments. Product companies capabilities to gain advantage through often find they can build new digital digitization. But that requires business around strong products. An thoughtful diagnosis: what assets will electronics manufacturer is building be useful in a digitally transformed energy management solutions world? around its highly successful devices for the commercial buildings48 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • market, and a manufacturer of • Customer knowledge: Across the expensive long-lived transportation years, companies had gathered products is building services that more and more knowledge about digitally diagnose and help to customers. Today, some are maintain those devices. reaching a point where they can start envisioning the next step,• Product innovation: A high-tech monetizing this relationship to materials firm has engineering launch new products, enhance capabilities that few other firms customer relationships or augment can match in its niche markets. It sales via customer-segmentation. has the opportunity to use digital transformation to connect its • Culture: Some firms are able to engineers more closely with global use culture as a powerful asset. manufacturers. An apparel firm has Executives in a manufacturing firm world-class fashion design talent. It found that the company’s historically uses digital technology to connect entrepreneurial culture made digital designers closer to manufacturers, transformation easier. Employees speeding the design-to-market cycle were willing to embrace operational time while enabling designers to changes and strategic partnerships change designs at will. as part of the new vision. An airport authority noted that the• Partnership network: Strong nation’s collegial culture made it partnerships can be a key lever easier to engage in transformation. for transformation. Networks of Meanwhile, another airport authority exclusive or trusted relationships found that its unionized culture can enable firms to combine restricted change. different expertise and deliver powerful new operating models. A Create a transformative vision mortgage company, in switching from a single value chain link to a Successful digital transformation value chain orchestrator, benefited comes from envisioning new ways greatly from its partnership assets. that digital technology improves Partners could have refused the idea performance and customer satisfaction, out of fear of direct competition, not just trying to find a use for the but they cooperated in the project new technologies. As we described because of years of working together earlier, many companies that are doing on many financial products and experiments in mobile marketing, transactions. social media, or analytics find that they can be quickly stymied by• Brand: Companies with a strong organizational boundaries or by brand are able to leverage it in culture issues. Often the problems related offerings. Through mobile arise through vision focused on web, social media, new digital technology rather than different ways businesses and other digital of operating. More often they are initiatives these companies can limited by a vision that is incremental extend and strengthen their brands, instead of transformative. building additional points of contact with customers. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 49
  • Start with an overarching vision of specific business units, while others the what, not the how: “customer extended across the enterprise. experience transformation” not Another element of the vision is the “mobile marketing” or “social media.” relationship between new and existing Then support the message through businesses. Companies in the study consistent communication. Each had visions that included launching specific element of the transformation new businesses, digitally improving can then be placed in a context of existing businesses, or creating an the broader vision. This will also overarching vision for a transformed highlight when issues such as a single company. customer profile or a coordinated messaging approach may be 6.2 Invest in digital important in reaching the vision. initiatives and skills Our interviews showed visions Transformation does not happen that were internally focused, without investment. Digital externally focused, or bridging the transformation is no different. The two. Some visions were focused on investment may be large, and the50 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • business case may not be completely capabilities quickly while helpingclear. It may be a series of low- existing employees understand what itrisk experiments that lead to a means to work in an analytics-drivenlarger investment. It often becomes environment. An apparel companya strategic bet that only senior hired two senior people who wereexecutives can make. As with any already well-versed in social mediainvestment, digital transformation marketing and online commerce,requires understanding the need asking them to help the firm buildfor investment, managing risk, and skills in those areas.making the changes necessary tocapitalize on the change. In addition, While outsiders can be helpful tothere is often tremendous value to jumpstart the change, companiesbe gained from making the most of also found insiders very helpful. Ininvestments you have already made. particular, it was very useful to put senior insiders in roles that requiredFind the right skills coordinating across units and changing cultures. Meanwhile, other firms foundRespondents nearly universally that they could move junior level fast-described the difficulty of finding the risers into roles where their energy andright skills to manage new initiatives resilience was essential for success. Theor to change work methods. While hospitality firm moved two relativelysome were able to reassign or retrain young managers into roles in mobileexisting employees for the new vision, marketing and digital innovation.most found it necessary to acquire These two people oversaw rapidskills from outside. experimentation in their areas using very small staffs and a set of vendors.Find good vendors for technical skills, but Both reported to a much morecoordinate them. When investigating senior executive who could managea new technology, it is often easier coordination across their units andto hire vendors than to hire people. with the rest of the firm.Companies can hire vendors for anemerging technology experiment, Invest in initiatives that advanceand then easily end the contract at the visionthe end of the experiment. However,coordination is still necessary or Very few examples of successfulknowledge will remain stuck in digital transformation were fullyvendor silos. planned in advance. In many cases, executives built basic capabilities forHire some stars. Analytics skills are one need, and then incrementallybecoming more plentiful, but are not added capabilities. A set of relativelydistributed evenly across firms. One incremental changes added up to afirm hired good analytics leaders radical transformation. A medicalfrom firms where these skills were device firm implemented relativelymore plentiful. The new people, who incremental digital changes towere skilled but experiencing limited enable knowledge sharing andupward growth in their firms, were videoconferencing, but then used themable hit the ground running. The to radically transform its strategy-new hires created initial analytics making processes. An apparel firm © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 51
  • conducted digital transformation 6.3 Lead the change from initiatives in product design and in the top marketing, and is now considering initiatives to link the two. Top-level vision rarely translates to local-level action unless reinforced In other cases, radical changes were through top-down communication and just the start of even more radical governance. Consistent engagement, changes later. Executives envisioned backed with appropriate coordination, a radical transformation of the KPIs, and incentives, make the difficult company, invested in key initiatives, process of transformation possible. and then opportunistically made additional changes that advanced Engage the organization the vision. In addition to the home improvement products and directory As in most business transformation, the services companies, a financial role of communication is paramount services firm is an example. Radically in effecting change and reducing changing its headquarters design organizational resistance. People caused people to rethink the way they can be a much bigger obstacle to work. Instead of working in defined successful digital transformation than offices in headquarters, employees any complex technology. Successful began to envision their work companies in our study recognized happening independently of location this by communicating early their – moving desks as needed, working digital vision and using technology to on mobile devices, collaborating mobilize their workforce. There are two virtually, or working from home. Then main characteristics of communication it was only a minor step to improve in a digital world that are making the way the firm collaborated globally. mobilizing the workforce easier and more impactful than traditional As a leader, build a roadmap for your methods: initial changes. Make it clear how the initial roadmap connects to your • Moving away from “cascading” broader vision for the company. But information through traditional then be open to ideas that will build hierarchical channels toward on that foundation for even more enterprise-wide large scale change later on. It requires judgment, communication. On top of traditional but also strategic bets. Not every tools such as e-mail, new possibilities idea will be a winner. By promoting have been opened up with webcasts, a strong vision of a transformed internal social networks or PC-based organization, you put in place a video conferencing. process through which smart people throughout the company can help you • Moving away from a one- to implement and extend that vision way “broadcasting” model of in the future. But then you must be communication toward offering open to hearing and sponsoring those people in the organization the extensions. opportunity to engage in a real52 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • dialogue around the transformation. awareness through communication, Wikis, discussion forums, blogs and but have increased the level of so on are easy tools to support such transparency and trust through this conversations. open dialogue.Enterprise 2.0 tools are powerful Establish digital governancetools to help mobilize and alignthe workforce towards digital Bottom-up digital transformationobjectives. Most organizations is rarely successful. With the righthave already implemented some vision and leadership, opportunitiesof these technologies but are not from digital transformation buildexploiting them to the full in their on each other to create new ways ofcommunication efforts. Successful working that would not have beenorganizations have not only created possible earlier. However, they require © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 53
  • top-down ambition setting to put the One executive stated “There’s an organization in motion, coordination intense focus on the transition to digital to turn disconnected or poorly- because, from the very top, the CEO has considered digital investments into mandated that 20 percent of our sales will true platforms for transformation and be digital within 5 years. To achieve that monitoring to ensure that progress is we will have to change the culture and being measured and managed. the way the organization operates.” In a financial company, the CMO stated Ambition setting: Once an organization “Unfortunately, digital transformation was has defined its transformative vision, not a priority of the board a year ago. We leaders must translate that vision into had 2-3 percent of digital revenue. Now this a set of ambitions and targets that has changed and we have set a challenging signal to executives and employees target of 15 percent for all divisions.” “what good looks like.” In our study, Ambitions need not be only about some of the companies most advanced revenue changes. A home improvement in their digital transformation had product firm sets targets related to established a clear set of ambitious health, safety and environment, as well KPIs to drive the desired results. as to scrap reductions in plants. Figure 13: Coordination models for digital transformation Silo Central coordination • Each business unit can • Digital strategy defined at have its own strategy and HQ B S HQ enterprise level budget for digital initiatives • Digital initiatives funded • No enterprise-level and coordinated at Less Shared coordination enterprise level • Digital operations • Digital operations BU 1 BU 2 BU 3 BU 1 BU 2 BU 3 developed and managed developed and managed in business units in business units Op Op Op Op B B S S Less coordination More coordination Digital hub Global • Digital strategy defined by • Digital strategy set by a central unit, although local HQ HQ dedicated business unit. business units can have • Local business unit digital More Shared their own strategies strategies and budgets are Provider Digital Solutions Provider Digital Solutions • Local business units coordinated across the develop and manage company BU 1 BU 2 BU 3 BU 1 BU 2 BU 3 operations, but must use • Local business units solutions and resources develop and manage from dedicated business Op Op Op Op Op Op operations, but must use unit when available solutions and resources B B B B B B from dedicated business S S S S S S unit when available B Budget owner S Digital strategy Op Operational teams54 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Coordinating mechanisms: Successful (see Figure 13). Figure 14 showscompanies in our study had strong that central coordination is the mostleadership for digital initiatives. Most commonly used model in our study,had to adjust their organizations but all models are relatively common.to accommodate the new digital We found no single model that clearlyambitions. As the CEO of a digital outperforms others. However, we dobusiness unit explained “We said we’d see clearly that companies lackingfind the balance between central and effective digital coordination do notde-central by creating one central role get the value possible from theirfor coordinating the digital strategy. We digital transformation initiatives.appointed local Chief Digital OfficersCDO in local business units reporting to Monitoring progress through KPIs:both the CEO of the business units and a Once the ambition is clearly statedCEO of an overall digital business unit. and the organization structure isIn one of our business units we moved aligned, leaders need to ensure thatthe CEO to the position of Chief Digital a transparent set of metrics and KPIsOfficer. It was a promotion. So the Chief are in place to constantly monitorDigital Officer CDO role is more a and review progress towards thatbusiness role than a technology role.” ambition. As an executive stated “To ensure alignment with our digitalWe observed in our study that not strategy, we monitor our progress throughall the companies use the same a transparent scorecard where everyonestructure. We found four models for can see a quantified assessment of ourcoordinating digital transformation progress and take actions against it.” Figure 14: Usage of digital coordination models in the study Hub Silo 24% 18% 40% 18% Global Central coordination Note: Percent of firms using each coordination model for their digital initiatives. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 55
  • Case Study PRISA: DRIVING DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION ACROSS A GLOBAL COMPANY P RISA is a Spanish-language-based global media organization with businesses spanning television, press, radio and educational publishing. As with many media organizations, PRISA was faced with a rapid transition to digital in most of its core businesses, and a move away from more traditional media. According to a senior executive, “We realized early that if we don’t transform the way we do business, we’re going to die. It’s not about changing the way we do technology but changing the way we do business.” The digital transformation was mandated from the top of the organization. The CEO, in laying out his vision of the future, demanded that the firm substantially grow its digital business from less than 1 percent to 20 percent of its sales within a span of a few years. The CEO instituted a radical change for the highly decentralized organization by creating a centralized digital unit to coordinate and assist in building digital businesses. The appointment of a global Chief Digital Officer from outside the organization, who reports directly to the CEO of the Group, was a major signal. Senior executives were appointed to the position of Chief Digital Officer in each division, coordinating with the central digital unit. The Chief Digital Officer of each division was responsible for the implementation and coordination of the digital transformation of their division. This was a very senior role that had not existed before. For example, The company’s digital transformation was designed around four key pillars: 1. Creating a federated digital organization 2. Creating the next generation digital distribution and monetization platform to ensure that all of their global assets could be shared effectively across businesses, and new products could be easily created 3. Injecting new digital skills and experience from outside the company 4. Encouraging digital experimentation (e.g. social media strategy) and innovation (e.g. crowd sourced textbooks) in the business lines. The company monitors the progress of its digital transformation through clear and transparent performance management scorecards. The digital unit is simultaneously driving innovation (an investment model), sales strategy (a P&L model) and service delivery (shared service model).56 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Through digital, PRISA faces cannibalization of its traditional business. Thefirm still has profitable traditional activities and there is a temptation to focuson retaining this current business. But the transition is being reinforced incommunication from the top of the organization. For example the top managementat PRISA TV talks about the evolving interactive landscape of digital videotechnologies, not just about the traditional set-top-box model of pay TV. Educationis also moving fast. “It’s not only taking a book and making a textbook that’s digital.It’s reinventing education. It’s defending the old business through the power of digitalopportunities.”PRISA is engaged in a strategic project with technology partners “to be able to deliverany type of content anytime, anywhere, any device.” This digital platform will be fullycentralized and support information sharing in the group: “It will enable them toget a South African interview of Christiona Ronaldo for El Pais local, and to publish it inSpain. Of course, the system will preserve some exclusive content for a certain time.” Withthis digital platform, “PRISA will be able to offer a global platform to its customers withone identity -- fifty million customers’ credit cards -- and start giving them a consequentecosystem. No other media companies have yet done that.”For Mobile, the company faces market issues as executives believe the advertisingmarket is not well educated on the new cost structures. PRISA launchedsome initiatives like an app for El Pais that was recognized as the world’s #1media-related iPad apps in April 2011 (see http://mcpheters.com/2011/04/05/imonitor™-releases-list-of-best-publication-apps/).In Social Media, the firm is doing some experiments. PRISA has been on Twitterfor a couple of years and does some advertising on Facebook. The company hasintegrated its digital products more tightly with social media and intends to usesocial media information to drive content consumption. The company views socialmedia, mobile, and video to be key drivers for future growth.PRISA also envisions several new business opportunities “So if you’re watching, forexample, a soccer game of Real Madrid and you see players running around, you’re goingto have technology that understands the numbers on the back of the shirts, and it can go upto the database, and then they can say ‘give me the stats on these players’ and pull them upon the right side of screen. That’s an interactive content analytics play. And maybe you cantweet about it right there.”PRISA’s transformation challenges have mainly been around cultural resistance,the differing speeds of transition in each business unit, digital skills building, andallowing for experimentation while keeping the integrity of the unified strategy. Thefirm’s top three challenges for the future are breaking risk aversion, streamliningthe decision making process, and executing technology on pace to support all ofthe needed changes. Digital will also enable PRISA to expand to other Europeancountries and to deepen its Latin American ties. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 57
  • 7 WHAT IS DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION MATURITY?58 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • 7.1 The What and The How set of elements implemented by the organization, and the resources used The digital transformation framework to do so. Together they represent, has many moving parts because much in essence, the digital intensity of the is required to drive a successful digital organization. transformation. However, executives can think about the figure in terms of The How: The outer boxes, consisting two main areas (see Figure 15). of digital vision, governance and engagement, are the ways in which The What: The inner boxes, leaders will drive the transformation consisting of strategic assets, the nine to a successful outcome. They serve digital elements, digital capabilities, as a form of scaffolding through and investments, are the shape of the which leaders can ensure that the transformation. They are the specific elements of the “what” are built effectively and that the organization Figure 15: The What and the How of Digital Transformation Transformative Digital Vision Strategic Assets Products & Partnership Customer Sales force content network knowledge Point of sale & THE “HOW” IS THE distribution channels Product innovation Brand Culture WAY THAT SENIOR THE “WHAT” IS SPECIFIC SET OF EXECUTIVES DRIVE DIGITALCHANGE THROUGHOUT TRANSFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION. Digital Building Blocks ELEMENTS THIS INCLUDES IMPLEMENTED BY CREATING AND Customer Operational THE ORGANIZATION, Digital Engagement Digital Governance COMMUNICATING Business Model Experience Process INCLUDING THEVISION, ESTABLISHING STRATEGIC ASSETS GOVERNANCE AND AND DIGITAL MEASUREMENT Customer Process Digitally-modified INVESTMENTS THAT MECHANISMS, AND understanding digitization businesses ARE USED TO BUILDING A CREATE THOSE DIGITAL-READY ELEMENTS. CULTURE. New digital Top line growth Worker enablement businesses Customer touch Performance Digital points management globalization Digital Capabilities KP I Digital Investment SKILLS INITIATIVES Iterative Transformation Roadmap © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 59
  • has the skills and culture to drive types of approaches to driving digital value from them. It is, in essence, the transformation. transformation management intensity of the organization. Firms in the lower left are Digital Beginners. They are doing very little Together, the “what” and the “how” with advanced digital capabilities, represent the digital maturity of an although they have more traditional organization (see figure 14). They can digital capabilities such as ERP, internet be thought about as digital “Style” and or e-mail. Companies may be in this “Substance.” Firms that are mature on quadrant by choice. For example, both dimensions can drive powerful executives in a specialty chemicals digital transformation that yields firm believe that their B2B customers business value. Unfortunately, many will not be interested in social media firms in our study are mature at only or mobile technologies, and that one, or neither. their engineering employees are very effective with traditional collaboration 7.2 Digital maturity matrix tools. However, many companies are in this quadrant by accident. They are Figure 16 shows digital maturity as a either unaware of the possibilities of classic 2x2, highlighting four different new digital technologies or are starting Figure 16: Digital maturity matrix FASHIONISTAS DIGIRATI • Many advanced digital features • Strong overarching digital vision (such as social, mobile) in silos • Good governance • No overarching vision • Many digital initiatives • Underdeveloped coordination generating business value in • Digital culture may exist in silos measurable ways • Strong Digital culture Digital intensity BEGINNERS CONSERVATIVES • Management skeptical of the • Overarching digital vision exists, business value of advanced but may be underdeveloped digital technologies • Few advanced digital features, • May carry out some though traditional digital experimentation capabilities many be mature. • Immature digital culture • Strong digital governance across silos • Taking active steps to build digital skills and culture Transformation management intensity60 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • some investments without effective they can’t always build organizationaltransformation management in place. momentum to carry out an ambitious program. As a result, though aimingFirms at the top left are Digital to spend wisely, their careful approachFashionistas. They have implemented may cause them to miss valuablea large amount of sexy digital “stuff.” opportunities that their more stylishSome of these items may be creating competitors will pounce on.value, but some may not. Whilethe digital fashion items may look Firms at the top right are Digirati.good together, they may clash with These firms truly understandother items, and they rarely generate how to drive value from digitalsynergies. Digital fashionistas are transformation. They combine a strongmotivated to bring on digitally- shared vision for transformation,powered change, but their digital careful governance and engagement,transformation strategy is not founded and sufficient investment in newon real knowledge of how to proceed. opportunities. Through managingAs a result, fashionistas may look the “how” carefully, they developgood, but rarely have much substance a digital culture that can envision– in terms of business value – behind further changes and implementthe sizzle. We see many fashionistas them wisely. Through managing thein B2C businesses, where executives “what” sufficiently, they continuously(especially the marketing units) believe advance the competitive advantagethey must move fast to keep up with they draw from implementing digitalthe fast-moving world of consumer transformation.electronics, but do not necessarily havea clear vision for how the elements will 7.3 How to assess yourcollectively create value. Some firms digital maturityare in this quadrant at the enterpriselevel even though digital efforts in silos Figure 17 shows how companies in ourmay be in other quadrants. This is the study scored on an initial qualitativecase with a hospitality firm, in which assessment of digital maturity.marketing and customer service areboth relatively mature digitally, but the What is your digital maturity? Usetwo are not yet well coordinated. the guidelines below to assess your company. Note that digital maturityFirms at the bottom right are Digital may vary across business units,Conservatives. These represent the and will usually be different at thewise old men and women of the digital enterprise level than within silos.world. They understand the needfor a strong unifying vision and for • Digital intensity: consider howgovernance and internal engagement advanced your digital capabilitiesactivities to ensure prudent investment are relative to competitors, ormanagement. However, they are relative to rising expectations oftypically skeptical of the value of new customers and employees. Howtrends, sometimes to their detriment. much are you investing in newDigital conservatives understand where technologies such as mobile,the company should be going and analytics and social media? Arehow to master digital challenges, but you launching technology-enabled © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 61
  • business changes such as location- well-articulated and shared? aware marketing or analytics- How well are you governing and informed supply chain planning? coordinating digital investments? Digital intensity also depends on How well are you helping the your firm’s IT capabilities and the organization be ready for changes? strategic relationship between IT and non-business managers, since Using these guidelines, you can plot most digital opportunities will your own organization on the digital have a significant IT component. transformation maturity matrix. Then, if your company is not yet a digerati, • Transformation management take steps to address any weaknesses in intensity: consider how carefully your digital transformation capabilities you are envisioning and or build a roadmap to maneuver up the managing the firm’s move into maturity cycle. the digital future. Is the vision Figure 17: Distribution of digital maturity FASHIONISTAS DIGIRATI Digital intensity Note: Digital maturity assessments were conducted by the research team using BEGINNERS CONSERVATIVES information from interviews. Vertical and horizontal lines are located at the mean value plus ½ standard deviation along each axis. Transformation management intensity62 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Case StudyPAGES JAUNES: CAPITALIZING ONDIGITAL OPPORTUNITIESH istorically the market leader in local advertising based on printed directories, Pages Jaunes began to experience a digitally-induced change in its markets. Individuals looking for business providers were increasingly shifting from paper directories to alternative digital channels in their search for information. Facing a 10 percent annual decline in business as its clients (typically SMEs) switched their advertising spend, Pages Jaunes saw little opportunityfor growth in the business of printed directories. Although Pages Jaunes hadsome significant online activity by 2009, they needed to quickly grow their onlinepresence to counter the decline of the printed directory business, as well as theglobal economic and financial turmoil.New CEO Jean-Pierre Remy convinced the organization to re-envision its business.Pages Jaunes was not just a provider of directories, but was a trusted name in therelationship business. It disseminated local information to end-users (consumers)and provided local communications services to advertisers. The firm held only a 10percent share of its newly-envisioned market, providing scope for growth. With thisnew vision, the company started to identify new client needs and rapidly captureopportunities to extend its relationship brokering role from paper to the Internet.Pages Jaunes’ strategy aimed to accelerate the transformation of the business fromhaving roughly 30 percent of its business online to 75-80 percent in 3-4 years.Elements of the transformation included:• restructuring the organization into an SME-facing Advertising group and two consumer-facing -media groups, focused on Internet & print respectively. A second CIO was recruited to lead developments around new digital technology while keeping the first CIO in charge of the existing, and still critical, IT systems.• recognizing the value of the relationships built over many years between the firm’s salesforce and its thousands of clients. The firm committed to keeping as many salespeople as possible and helping them to learn to sell the firm’s new services.• substantial effort to change the culture of an erstwhile state-owned company by recruiting new tech-savvy employees and by instituting KPIs to retain focus on attention and performance.• educating clients (SMEs) about how digital possibilities could impact their own business and drive revenues, without losing sight of that portion of its clients’ customers who continue to rely on the print channel. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 63
  • • building content strength online by creating and managing websites for more than 100,000 SMEs in France and Spain. The firm is experimenting with social media possibilities, 3D applications, and focusing on various other services, including display, SEM, SEO, direct marketing, coupons, etc. to reach an increasingly online audience. • building and continuing to enhance a strong online mobile brand presence, reaching number three in the marketplace after Google and Facebook in France. This tactic allows the firm to spend less than before on driving traffic to its sites (search engine marketing). • leveraging analytics heavily to analyze audience traffic and patterns, to quantify for each advertising client the value and impact of products they purchase and to help clients optimize media spending. Pages Jaunes’ approach built on an already strong brand, a strong network of salespeople who had existing relationships with SME clients, strong investments in content and therefore the ability to partner (vs. compete) with major search engines like Bing and Google, and with major content sources like Facebook. Within two years of this strategic shift, Pages Jaunes earned €1billion from online sales at a 50 percent net margin. Online business comprised about 50-60 percent of its total business, and the firm was well-positioned to reach its goal of 75-80 percent online business within two years.64 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • CONCLUSIONDigital technology, which transformed the media industry, • Where are the key investment areas that will maximize theis now transforming the rest of the commercial world. contribution to the new vision?Companies in all industries and regions are experimentingwith – and benefiting from – digital transformation. • Can you de-risk some of the investments throughWhether it is in the way individuals work and collaborate, experimentation and controlled testing?the way business processes are executed within and acrossorganizational boundaries, or in the way the company • What skills are missing in your digital transformationunderstands and services customers, digital technology initiatives? Do you need to hire new executives? Retrainprovides a wealth of opportunity to those willing to change front-line employees? Partner with another firm to gaintheir businesses to take advantage of it. capabilities?The pressure points for change are increasing from many 3. Lead the change from the topangles. Globalization is dictating efficient integration ofbusinesses which can only be achieved through digital • How do you communicate the vision and engage theprocesses and collaborative tools. Employees and customers organization on a large scale? How do you monitorare starting to demand new ways of working. As competitors engagement?and new entrants make digitally-enabled practices a reality inan industry, other firms will need to follow. • What process do you have in place to iterate the vision and strategy?Faced with these challenges, what are the key steps seniorexecutives should take to steer their organization? • How do you coordinate investments and activities across silos? What is the best organizational model to coordinate1. Envision the digital future for your firm. digital initiatives in parallel to the core business?• What assets will be valuable in a digitally-transformed • What KPIs and metrics do you need to put in place to business? monitor the progress of your digital transformation towards your strategic goals?• How can you transform customer experience? Internal operations? Your business model? • What mechanism do you use to make the necessary adjustments?• How can units work differently – and work together differently – in a more connected way? Digital transformation requires skills and influence that only senior leaders possess. Create a transformative vision that is2. Invest in digital transformation initiatives clear and compelling to galvanize the organization. Mindfully consider what parts of your company should move – and why,• Are you getting all of the value out of your previous and when – to make it implementable. Build digital maturity technology and platform investments in ERP, analytics, in two dimensions to increase your chances of success. Then or collaboration tools? If not, what is necessary to get the take actions and monitor progress to turn your vision into foundations right? reality. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 65
  • MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting Team members George Westerman, a research scientist in MIT Sloan’s Center for Digital Business (CDB), is also faculty chair for the MIT Sloan executive course Transforming Your Business Through Information Technology. George’s research examines the role of executive leaders in driving competitive advantage from digital technology. George is co-author of two award-winning books, The Real Business of IT: How CIOs Create and Communicate Value, and IT Risk: Turning Business Threats into Competitive Advantage. Prior to earning his Doctorate from Harvard Business School, he gained more than fifteen years of experience in innovation and technology management. georgew@mit.edu Claire Calméjane is a Managing Consultant in the Technology Transformation Practice. She worked for the last 6 years at the Paris office and is currently visiting scientist at the MIT Center for Digital Business, working with the researchers. She specializes in Digital Transformation and IT Financial Services. She graduated from a Computer Science Engineering School and holds a Master degree from HEC Paris Business School. claire.calmejane@capgemini.com Didier Bonnet is a Managing Director and global head of practices at Capgemini Consulting. Didier has more than 25 years’ experience in strategy development, globalisation, internet & digital economics and business transformation for large multinational corporations and private equity firms. He has authored several research articles and is regularly quoted in the press e.g., WSJ, FT, the Economist and provides commentary for broadcasters such as the BBC, CNN, Reuters and CNBC. Didier graduated from a French Business School and holds a DPhil from Oxford University. He is based in London. didier.bonnet@capgemini.com Patrick Ferraris is the Global Leader of the Technology Transformation practice within Capgemini Consulting. With over 20 years of consulting experience, Patrick has supported large multinational organizations in their digital strategy and transformation with a focus in Telecom, Media, Internet, Insurance and Transportation. He is an alumnus from M.I.T and Ecole Nationale des Ponts & Chaussées. patrick.ferraris@capgemini.com Andrew McAfee, a principal research scientist at MIT, studies the ways that information technology (IT) affects businesses. He coined the phrase “Enterprise 2.0;” his book on the topic was published in 2009 by Harvard Business School Press. He has also held appointments as a professor at Harvard Business School and a fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society. In 2008, he was named the 38th most influential person in IT. amcafee@mit.edu66 © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting
  • Special thanks to our other research team members: Greg Gimpel and Mael Tannou.We would like also to acknowledge the valuable support of a number of colleagueswho have either helped with the data collection or have contributed with their ideasand insights; they are: Emmanuel Rilhac, Vincent Leonetti, Julien Pontault, DeborahSoule, Michael Krauch, Cyril Francois, Martin Hanlon, Kieran Draper, JeromeBuvat.Last thanks to our point of contacts who facilitated access to their clients and oftenperformed interviews: Eric Lamotte, Peter Lindell, Ravouth Keuky, Jesus ViceiraAlguacil, John Varghese, Diego Mackee, David Blackwood, Benoit Pradet, PhilippeDavid, Stanislas de Roys, Mark Hoffland, Eric Kruidhof, Ulf Holmgren, PhilippeBigot, Jari Matula, Adeline Pairault, Sebastien Blot, Sandra Lagrue and others. © 2011 MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting 67
  • About Capgemini ConsultingCapgemini Consulting is the Global Strategy and Transformation Consulting brandof the Capgemini group, specializing in advising and supporting organizations intransforming their business, from the development of innovative strategy throughto execution, with a consistent focus on sustainable results. Capgemini Consultingproposes to leading companies and governments a fresh approach which usesinnovative methods, technology and the talent of over 4,000 consultants worldwideFor more information: www.capgemini-consulting.comFollow us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/capgemini.consulting.globalFollow us on Twitter: @CapgeminiConsulAbout the MIT Center for Digital BusinessFounded in 1999, the MIT Center for Digital Business (http://digital.mit.edu)joins leading companies, visionary educators, and some of the best studentsin the world together in inventing and understanding the business value madepossible by digital technologies. We are supported entirely by corporate sponsorswith whom we work in a dynamic interchange of ideas, analysis, and reflectionintended to solve real problems. The Center has funded more than 50 facultyand performed more than 75 research projects focused on understanding theimpact of technology on business value, and developing tools and frameworksour sponsors can use for competitive advantage. 101011010010 101011010010 101011010010