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REUTERSINSTITUTE for theSTUDY ofJOURNALISM2013REUTERS INSTITUTEDIGITAL NEWS REPORT
Blank Page for HERC report 2010
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013Tracking the Future of NewsEdited by Nic Newman and David A. L. LevySupported by...
Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 2
3ContentsForeword – David A. L. LevyMethodologyAuthorship and Research AcknowledgementsExecutive Summary and Key Findings ...
Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 4
5This is the second in what we hope will be an annualseries of reports that tracks the transition of the newsindustry towa...
Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 6
7MethodologyThis study has been commissioned by the ReutersInstitute to understand how news is being consumed ina range of...
This is an online survey – and as such the results willunder-represent the consumption habits of people whoare not online ...
9News is becoming more mobile, more social, and morereal-time. This year’s survey reveals continuing shifts inhow, when, a...
10This is important because, along with other researchers,4we find that as people acquire more devices theyconsume more new...
11Executive SummaryThirdly we see marked differences in behaviour withincountries – with a clear divide between younger and...
12Where and When we Access the NewsThere are new data in this year’s survey from the UK andDenmark about the devices and l...
13Executive SummaryIn Denmark, Japan, the US (and the UK) there is arelatively equal split between Apple iPhones and other...
14Trust in traditional brands was also high whencompared with blogs or social media. Broadcasterwebsites in the UK were tr...
15Executive SummarySharing and Participation around NewsAs last year, we find that there are marked internationaldifferences...
16Italians and Spanish (16%) also enthusiastic. Only 8% ofour Danish sample consumes live blogs – but they preferto read l...
Reuters InstituteDigital NewsReport 2013Section 1: News Consumption and Access1.1 Frequency of Access and Interest in News...
Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 18
19We here publish the key data tables from our 2013survey. For each section, we have provided a short pieceof context at t...
Introduction20GermanyThe country’s federal structure has shaped its mediaenvironment with a number of regional and nationa...
21Figure 1.1a: Daily news consumption by countryIn this section we lay out the overall shape of newsconsumption, the time ...
Across all our countries (see Figure1.2a), interest in news increases withage, with the 55+ group registering20 percentage...
231. News Consumption and AccessUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanNews Lovers 22% 22% 17% 24% 17%...
Platform segmentationIn a second categorisation, we havesplit our samples by platform use.This non-overlapping segmentatio...
251. News Consumption and AccessUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanTV 79% 82% 72% 74% 84% 85% 72% ...
1. News Consumption and Access26The picture changes when we lookat the importance assigned bydifferent age groups. Looking ...
271. News Consumption and Access1.4 Where and When do weAccess the News?Typically consumers in the UnitedKingdom access ne...
Looking at our segments, we cansee that traditional users are morelikely to have fixed times of day forconsuming the news, ...
291. News Consumption and AccessWhen we look at the specificplatforms used in each location, wecan see how the internet pla...
1.5 Interest in DifferentTypes of NewsWe asked all our respondents toselect their five most importanttypes of news (see Figu...
311. News Consumption and AccessLooking at an aggregated view ofour entire sample of 11,000 peoplewe can see significant di...
We can also look at the impact ofplatform usage on different types ofnews through our multi-countrysegmentation. Traditiona...
331. News Consumption and AccessInterest in political newsThe degree of interest in politicalnews varies considerably by a...
1. News Consumption and Access34Political engagementInternet news users in the UnitedKingdom show slightly morewillingness...
351. News Consumption and AccessPolitical news is much more valuedoverall, but it is clear thatentertainment news is much ...
In terms of sources of entertainmentnews, national newspapers and theirwebsites play a significant role andbroadcasters a l...
37In terms of sources for internationalnews, one striking finding is howforeign broadcasters andnewspapers have become anim...
1.6 Partiality andPolarisation of NewsIn most democratic countries,broadcast media have historicallybeen required to adher...
39When analysing UK data, where wealso have written comments whererespondents explain their choices, itbecame clear that p...
Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 40
412.1 Newspaper Purchase across CountriesThis is the first year we have collected data on newspaperpurchase so the most in...
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
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Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013
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Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013

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The Reuters Institute Digital News Report reveals new insights about digital news consumption based on a representative survey of online news consumers in the UK, US, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Japan and Denmark.

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Transcript of "Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013"

  1. 1. REUTERSINSTITUTE for theSTUDY ofJOURNALISM2013REUTERS INSTITUTEDIGITAL NEWS REPORT
  2. 2. Blank Page for HERC report 2010
  3. 3. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013Tracking the Future of NewsEdited by Nic Newman and David A. L. LevySupported byREUTERSINSTITUTE for theSTUDY ofJOURNALISM
  4. 4. Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 2
  5. 5. 3ContentsForeword – David A. L. LevyMethodologyAuthorship and Research AcknowledgementsExecutive Summary and Key Findings - Nic NewmanIntroduction 19Section 1: News Consumption and Access1.1 Frequency of Access and Interest in News 211.2 Segmentation Approaches 221.3 Sources and Access to News 251.4 When and Where do we Access the News? 271.5 Interest in Different Types of News 301.6 The Partiality and Polarisation of News 38Section 2: Paying for News2.1 Newspaper Purchase across Countries 412.2 Paying for Digital News 42Section 3: Online News in Detail3.1 The Growth of Multi-Platform News 473.2 Types of News Accessed Online 513.3 Online News Sources 533.4 The Importance of Brand and the Role of Trust 593.5 Gateways: How Audiences Discover News Online 613.6 Participation and Engagement Online 66Section 4: EssaysThe Uneven Digital Revolution – Rasmus Kleis Nielsen 75Lagging Behind or Choosing a Different Path? Information 81Behaviour in Germany – Uwe Hasebrink and Sascha HöligHow Live Blogs are Reconfiguring Breaking News – Neil Thurman 85The Bottom Line: Do and will Consumers Pay for Digital News? – 89Robert G. PicardSmart TVs – the Final Frontier for Interactive News? – Dan Brilot 93Demographic Divides: How Different Groups Experience Online 97News – Alison PrestonPartiality and Polarisation of News – Paolo Mancini 105Postscript and Further Reading 108Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 3
  6. 6. Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 4
  7. 7. 5This is the second in what we hope will be an annualseries of reports that tracks the transition of the newsindustry towards an increasingly digital and multi-platform future. This year’s report provides compellingevidence about the growing number of ways ofconsuming news and, in particular, the speeding up ofthe mobile and tablet revolution. It also documents theways in which people are paying for news, the growingnumber of locations where they access the news, andbrings new data about the trust and credibility ofdifferent news sources as well as attitudes to partial orimpartial news.But there are many other fascinating insights thathave emerged from our unique survey of the newshabits within nine countries. We have expanded ourfocus to include Japan, Brazil,1 Italy, and Spain – inaddition to the five countries (US, UK, France, Germany,and Denmark) that provided the basis of last year’ssurvey and we’ve asked more questions in all countrieson the key issues.Once again we combined these data with a series ofessays, which add depth and context to the findings,and these have been strengthened by academicpartnerships with the Hans Bredow Institute inHamburg, the School of Journalism at the Institute ofPolitical Science in Paris, and the Centre for Power, Mediaand Communication at Roskilde University, Denmark.Many of our academic partners are also organisingevents or country reports looking in more details atnational themes – and adding wider value to thisinternational project.To that end we have also taken more effort to openup all of the data this year. A new website(www.digitalnewsreport.org) contains slidepacks, charts,and raw data tables, along with a license thatencourages reuse. The website – which is optimised formobile and tablet devices – will also carry links to non-English-language versions of the report. Over time, if wecan secure the necessary long term funding, we believethis will build into an invaluable resource for academicsand news organisations to explain the past as well as thefuture. A description of the methodology is availablealong with the complete questionnaire.Making all this possible, we are hugely grateful to oursponsors this year, Google, BBC Global News, Ofcom,France Télévisions, and Newsworks, as well as the HansBredow Institute and Roskilde University.I am also grateful to YouGov, our polling company,who did everything possible to accommodate ourcomplex requirements and helped our research teamanalyse and contextualise the data.IntroductionDavid A. L. Levy, Director,Reuters Institute1The survey only covered urban Brazil. See the following section on methodology.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 5
  8. 8. Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 6
  9. 9. 7MethodologyThis study has been commissioned by the ReutersInstitute to understand how news is being consumed ina range of countries. This research was conducted byYouGov using an online questionnaire at the end ofJanuary/beginning of February 2013.• The data was weighted to targets set on age andgender, region, newspaper readership, and socialgrade to reflect the total population of eachcountry. The sample is reflective of thepopulation that has access to the internet.• As this survey deals with news consumption, wefiltered out anyone who said that they had notconsumed any news in the past month in orderto ensure that irrelevant responses didn’tadversely affect date quality. This category wasbetween 2% and 4% in most countries but ashigh as 9% in the UK.• A comprehensive online questionnaire wasdesigned to capture all aspects of newsconsumption.• Core questions were asked in France, Germany,Denmark, Spain, Italy, Japan, Brazil, and the US, aswell as the UK, to a nationally representativeaudience to provide an international comparison.*Please note that Brazil is representative of an urban population rather than a national population; as such the internet penetration is likely to be higher than statedabove, which must be taken into consideration when interpreting results.**Source: Internet World Stats www.internetworldstats.com population estimate 2012.Country Starting sample Non-news users Final sampleTotalpopulation**InternetpenetrationUK 2308 9% 2078 63,047,162 84%Germany 1099 3% 1062 81,305,856 83%Spain 1016 4% 979 47,042,984 67%Italy 1003 4% 965 61,261,254 58%France 1016 4% 973 65,630,692 80%Denmark 1024 2% 1007 5,543,453 90%US 2170 7% 2028 313,847,465 78%Brazil* 1003 2% 985 193,946,886 46%Japan 1004 2% 978 127,368,088 80%Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 7
  10. 10. This is an online survey – and as such the results willunder-represent the consumption habits of people whoare not online (typically older, less affluent, and withlimited formal education). Where relevant, we have triedto make this clear within the text. Going forward, theseissues will become less of a factor as online penetrationgrows. In any case, the core purpose of this survey is notto deliver absolute numbers, but rather to track theactivities and changes within the digital space – as wellas gaining understanding about how offline media andonline media are used together.Dr David A. L. Levy is Director of the Reuters Institutefor the Study of Journalism, a Fellow of Green TempletonCollege, and an expert in media policy and regulation.He previously worked at the BBC both as a news andcurrent affairs producer, reporter, and editor, and later asController Public Policy. He is the author of EuropesDigital Revolution: Broadcasting Regulation, the EU and theNation State (Routledge 1999/2001), and joint editor withTim Gardam of The Price of Plurality (RISJ/Ofcom 2008),with Rasmus Kleis Nielsen of The Changing Business ofJournalism and its Implications for Democracy (RISJ, 2010)and with Robert G. Picard of Is there a Better Structure forNews Providers? The Potential in Charitable and TrustOwnership (RISJ, 2011). He recently co-authored ThePublic Appetite for Foreign News on TV and Online (RISJ,2013).Nic Newman is a journalist and digital strategist whoplayed a key role in shaping the BBC’s internet servicesover more than a decade. He was a founding member ofthe BBC News Website, leading international coverage asWorld Editor (1997–2001). As Head of ProductDevelopment he led digital teams, developing websites,mobile and interactive TV applications for all BBCJournalism sites. Nic is currently a Research Associate atthe Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism and asenior Research Fellow at City University London. He isalso a consultant on digital media, working actively withnews companies on product and business strategies fordigital transition.Authorship and Research Acknowledgements8Additional expert analysis and interpretation of the survey data was provided by the team at YouGov, in particular,Shaun Austin, Angharad Houlden, Ilana Tyler-Rubinstein and Bernadeta Wilk.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 8
  11. 11. 9News is becoming more mobile, more social, and morereal-time. This year’s survey reveals continuing shifts inhow, when, and where people access the news, withdigital patterns becoming more entrenched –particularly amongst the younger half of the population.Audiences increasingly want news on any device, in anyformat, and at any time of day.But our survey reveals that the multi-platform anddigital revolution is not proceeding at an even pace in allcountries. What happens in the US does not necessaryfollow automatically in Europe or elsewhere. Geography,culture, and government policy also play their part, withGermany and France still showing strong allegiance totraditional forms of media. We also see markeddifferences in‘participatory cultures’, with very differentrates of take up in social media, commenting, and votingacross our surveyed countries.For traditional brands – and especially newspapers –these changes bring ever-greater competition and moredisruption to business models. But this year’s surveyoffers some signs of hope for those investing in originalnews content. More people say theyve paid for digitalnews in the past 10 months and we have data for thefirst time about the types and frequency of digitalpayment. Traditional brands continue to attract thelargest online audiences and we find that trust in newsbrands remains uniquely valued by young and old. Welay out our data on subsequent pages and in full on ourwebsite, but first here is a summary of our key findings.Rapid Growth in Both Mobile and TabletUse for NewsTablet usage has doubled in the 10 months since the lastsurvey in those countries covered in both 2012 and2013. Weekly news use has risen from 8% to 16% of ourUK sample and from 13% to 25% in Denmark.2Mobile usage is also up substantially. In many countriessmartphone users are now in the majority3and most ofthem use these devices to access news every week.Denmark leads the way with 43% weekly news usagefrom a smartphone. Germany lags with 22%.Trend to Multi-Platform ConsumptionWhile the computer remains the primary device foraccessing digital news, the key underlying trend is aboutgrowth in access from multiple devices. One-third of ourentire global sample now gets news on at least twodevices and 9% use more than three.Executive Summary and Key FindingsNic Newman13% 11%8% 6% 5%25%16% 16%11% 10%Denmark US UK France Germany2012 2013Percent accessing news via tablet by country2These figures are not exactly comparable because we routed the questionsslightly differently last year. They are however consistent with other datashowing a sharp increase in news traffic from tablets.3Ofcom Technology tracker Oct.–Dec. 2012 shows 55% smartphone ownershipin the UK. A Pew Internet Project survey from Aug.–Sept. 2012 found 45% of USadults owned a smartphone (66% among 18–29 year olds).Q8a/Q8b: Which, if any, of the following devices have you used to accessnews in the last week?Base: UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark(n=1007)33%33idowtet neg33secivedaltgiitsaet ln as owe33Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 9
  12. 12. 10This is important because, along with other researchers,4we find that as people acquire more devices theyconsume more news in aggregate (time spent) – butalso access news more often throughout the day.5Some devices are used more heavily for news thanothers. 85% of computer users say they access news onthat device each week, compared with 63% ofsmartphone users, 60% of tablet users, 54% of smart TVusers, and only 17% for the e-reader.But multi-platform is not just about digital news.Across all of our countries, an average of 49% of thosewho access news on a tablet say they also read a printednewspaper at least once each week; 81% also watch TVnews and we see similar patterns with smartphoneusers.Digital may be impacting traditional platforms but it isnot yet replacing them. For most people digital news isextending the range of options available.See section 3.1. Multi-platform news and theImpact of tablets and smartphones, p. 47Uneven Pace of Change – Differencesbetween and within CountriesDespite the general growth of online and multi-platformnews, we find that a sizeable minority is sticking withtraditional platforms such as TV, radio, and print,particularly in Germany and France. Despite this beingan online survey, one in three of our French and Germansamples said they had only used traditional newsplatforms in the previous week. In Germany, we find that58% of our sample are using only traditional or mainlytraditional news platforms6– compared with 35% in theUS and 29% in Japan.See essay: Uwe Hasebrink and Sascha Hölig onthe reasons for Germany’s different path. p. 81Amongst online news users, we also see markeddifferences between countries over the extent to whichtraditional news brands are being disrupted. In countrieslike the UK and Denmark, traditional news brandscontinue to attract 80% or more of the online audience,whilst in Japan and the US‘pure players’and aggregatorshave attracted a much bigger market share. In the UK,the strength of broadcast brands is largely accounted forby the BBC, while in both the US and Japan it is a newerplayer, Yahoo that attracts most users with 32% and 63%respectively. Social media and blogs are used more as asource of news in Spain, Italy, urban Brazil, and the US,than in our other countries.UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Brazil JapanBroadcast news brands 45% 20% 36% 31% 18% 35% 35% 42% 38%Newspaper brands 35% 25% 42% 37% 26% 54% 31% 37% 66%Newer brands (HuffPost, Yahoo) 24% 28% 25% 38% 26% 18% 41% 43% 66%Social media, blogs 23% 21% 35% 35% 20% 33% 32% 51% 25%Frequency of access grows with devices (all countries)Q1b: Typically, how often do you access news (in any way)?Base: All markets (n=11004)Device Several times a dayALL News users 62%Computer 68%Smartphone 73%Tablet 75%Tablet and smartphone 86%All three 88%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Q3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as asource of news?Base: All markets (n=11004) Tablet users (n=2726) Smartphone users (n=5042)Percent of tablet and smartphone users using other mediasources weekly (all countries)How traditional news brands perform online by countryQ3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)4This is confirmed by other research – see Pew Research Center’s Project forExcellence in Journalism, Mobile Devices and News Consumption,http://stateofthemedia.org/2012/mobile-devices-and-news-consumption-some-good-signs-for-journalism.5This aggregate information is also borne out at country level (see p. 51).6We have segmented our samples using both platform- and interest-basedapproaches, which are explained on pp. 22–24.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 1081% TV news49% newspaper43% radio news77% TV news47% newspaper41% radio news
  13. 13. 11Executive SummaryThirdly we see marked differences in behaviour withincountries – with a clear divide between younger andolder groups. Younger people are more likely to usesocial media and aggregator brands and in all countriesthey show a strong preference for online. For‘under 45s’– almost half the population – the internet is now theMAIN source of news as well as their most frequentlyaccessed source. For‘over 45s’the main source remainsTV, with other traditional platforms also important.This is a split defined more by age than any otherdemographic factor and reflects the habits of those whohave grown up with the internet or have adapted to it aspart of their working lives.It should be noted that our numbers understate theimportance of traditional platforms because of our(online) sample. However this also means that theplatform differences noted above are likely to be evenmore marked amongst the older groups.Newspaper Readership and PurchaseThis is the first year we have collected data of newspaper(printed) purchase, so the most interesting findings arearound the differences between our nine surveyedcountries rather than changes over time.Claimed newspaper purchase (at least once a week)remains high in most countries. It is strongest in Japan(68%), Italy (59%), and Germany (56%) and lowest inFrance (39%) and the US (42%).There are sharp differences in the balance of ad hocpurchase (newsstand/shop) vs ongoing commitment(mainly home delivery). Japan has 84% home deliverywhereas in Italy 86% of purchases are at the newsstandor shops. Germany has a healthy balance, with a strongleaning to home delivery.Paying for Digital NewsWhilst 50% of our global sample (average) said they hadbought a printed newspaper in the last week, only 5%said they had paid for digital news in the same timeperiod. This is partly because the majority of onlinenewspapers still do not charge for news – although thatis changing rapidly with the erection of paywalls,combined subscriptions, and app-based purchases.Since our last survey, we’ve seen a significant rise inthe number of respondents paying for online news –albeit from a low base. In the UK 9% (+5) of our samplesaid they had paid for digital news in the last year. Franceis at 13% (+5) and USA 12% (+3).In the United States, we find that smartphone and tabletusers are significantly more likely to pay than other onlinenews users. Even after controlling for the followingvariables: interest in news, age, gender, education andincome, they are on average almost twice as likely to pay asthose who don’t use these devices.We do not see the samedevice impact in the UK where the eco-system around paidnews is less developed and there are a large number ofhigh quality free news apps in the market. .7All four of the countries surveyed for the first time in2013 show higher percentages of people who have paidfor digital news in the last year – with Brazil (24%) andItaly (21%) leading the way. Italy and Spain’s figures arelargely driven by one-off payments for apps and articleswhile the US and Denmark statistics are more fuelled byongoing digital subscription.Of those who are not currently paying, more thanone in ten (14% on average) said they were very likely orsomewhat likely to pay for digital news in the future (‘forsources that you like’). In Brazil the figure was a striking 58%.See section 2: Paying for News, p. 41See Essay: Robert G. Picard, ‘The Bottom Line’ p. 8950%32%25%50%Online TV18-44 45+!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!50%!50%18-44 45+!50%!!!!!Online!Online VT!!!!!!!!!!!Q4: You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, whichwould you say is your MAIN source of news?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week (n=10843)MAIN source of news by age (all countries)12%9%4%8% 6%10% 12%9%13%10%Denmark US UK France Germany2012 2013!Q7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digitalnews service?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973)Denmark(n=1007)Percentagesthatsaidyesinthelastweek,month, year or longerthan a yearPercent paying for digital news in past year by country7 The methodology behind our controlled regression test around the impact ofdevices on payment can be found on our website digitalnewsreport.orgDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 11
  14. 14. 12Where and When we Access the NewsThere are new data in this year’s survey from the UK andDenmark about the devices and locations used foraccessing news. These show tablets are still mainly usedin the home – and specifically in the living room.Everywhere else, given the choice, the smartphone ispreferred over the tablet as a way of accessing news.Portability trumps screen size.In the workplace 71% of news access comes via thecomputer, while in the car, radio still dominates (84%).On public transport in Denmark, people are twice aslikely to use a mobile phone for news (63%) as to read aprinted newspaper (33%). In the UK, the data show 48%use mobile phones, 34% use print, and 6% access newsvia a tablet.See section 1.4: Where and When do weAccess the News? p. 27Pathways to News – the Rise of the NewGatekeepersLast year, we were only able to ask the question abouthow people discover news in the UK. Now we are ableto see results from all nine countries, with significantdifferences emerging. Previous US research,8along withour survey last year, suggested that brand was still themost important pathway to news, followed by search,and then aggregators and social media. This does notappear to be a universal pattern.In France and Germany, search engines are the mostimportant gateway – used about twice as often as in theUK. In Brazil, social media are the top-ranked gateway forour urban-based online sample (60% said it was one ofthe five most important ways of finding news). The sameis true in Spain (45% social media compared with 40%for search). Japanese consumers, by contrast, are morelikely to get news from aggregators and portals, followedby search.!34% 33%48%63%6%13%UK DenmarkPrint Mobile Tablet!!!!!!!!Print!63%Print Mobile abletTTablet!!!!!!34%UK!63%13%kramneD!13%!!!!!UK!kramneDt!!!!!!!!!!!UK3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locations.Base: Those who access news while travelling via public transport UK (n=270) Den(n=92)Media used to access news on public transport(UK and Denmark)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanBrands 34% 32% 38% 35% 16% 55% 20% 47% 28%Search 24% 40% 40% 49% 45% 30% 33% 44% 39%Social 17% 50% 45% 38% 14% 22% 30% 60% 12%Aggregators 17% 16% 17% 16% 12% 7% 26% 37% 43%Most important gateways to newsQ10: Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across news stories? Chose up to five.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)8Pew State of the Media report 2012.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 12
  15. 15. 13Executive SummaryIn Denmark, Japan, the US (and the UK) there is arelatively equal split between Apple iPhones and otherdevices (mostly Android). Elsewhere, other operatingsystems such as Android and Blackberry tend todominate. Apple has only a quarter of the market inGermany (26%) and Spain (25%).See essay: Rasmus Kleis Nielsen explores theimpact of the new gatekeepeers, p. 75The Enduring Role of Brands and the Roleof TrustOur survey cast further light on the importance oftrusted news brands. In all countries we asked if peopleagreed that they preferred to get news from sites theyknow and trust. The figures were universally high, with90% supporting the proposition in Brazil, 82% in the US,and 77% in the UK. People who consume heavily and aremost absorbed by news are far more likely to agree withthe statement (90% of UK multiple device users).Asking the question in a different way (‘I don’t noticewhich sites I’m looking at…’) showed a slightly differentpicture. The UK, which has strong traditional newsbrands, showed the lowest levels of agreement (16%).Brazil (34%), France (37%), and Japan (44%) – which alldemonstrate greater usage of aggregators or newer‘pure player’brands – had the highest levels. One keyfactor in reducing brand recognition appears to be socialmedia. Heavy social media users in the UK are more likelyto agree that‘they don’t notice which sites’they areusing (23%).Beneath the headline numbers, however, again we seesignificant generational differences, with social medianow rated more important than search amongst the‘under 45s’. By contrast, amongst the‘over 45s’in the UK,only 9% think social media are an important way offinding news.This evidence from nine countries paints a picturewhere brands are being increasingly dis-intermediatedby a growing range of pathways to their content. This isespecially the case for light and occasional users and foryounger users.See section 3.5: Gateways: How AudiencesDiscover News Online, p. 61Facebook, Google, Apple, and Amazon now have asignificant and growing stake in the news industry. Theirprominence as gateways enables them to take a share ofadvertising revenue and/or a cut of subscriptionrevenues if, for example, people access via a brandedapp. Apple is a particularly dominant force in the newsbusiness in some countries – the UK, Denmark, and theUS – but less so elsewhere.9%23%27%47%UKUSUnder 45s Over 45Q10: Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main waysthat you come across news stories? (select up to FIVE).Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Germany (n=1062) Urban Brazil (n=985)Those using social media to FIND news (selected countries)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanApple iPhones 39% 26% 25% 33% 34% 47% 43% 28% 56%Apple iPads 63% 48% 42% 45% 51% 80% 58% 39% 70%Market share of Apple devices by countryQ8a: Which, if any, of the following devices do you ever use for any purpose? (Multiple answers allowed).Base: All smartphone users UK (n=1037) Germany (n=462) Spain (n=538) Japan (n=255) Italy (n=404) France (n=398) Denmark (n=617) Urban Brazil (n=418), US (n=913)All Tablet users UK (n=585) Germany (n=188) Spain (n=220) Japan (n=123) Italy (n=222) France (n=189) Denmark (n=360) Urban Brazil (n=295), US (n=545)UK France USUrbanBrazilJapanI prefer to get news fromsites I know and trust.77% 76% 82% 90% 71%I don’t notice which sitesI am looking at...16% 37% 24% 34% 44%Trust and brand recognition by (selected) countryQ9 : Thinking about the different kind of news available to you online, towhat extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements.Base: All UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Japan (n=985) France (n=973) Urban Brazil(n=985) % agreeDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 13
  16. 16. 14Trust in traditional brands was also high whencompared with blogs or social media. Broadcasterwebsites in the UK were trusted by 79%, withnewspapers showing over 60%. In comparison,Facebook (8%) and Twitter (9%) were widely mistrusted –although heavy social media users were significantlymore likely to trust what they found. Trust in newsbrands increases significantly with the amount of usage,so it is not surprising that smartphone and tablet newsusers also show more trust in traditional brands. We alsofind, in terms of their behaviour, that users of thesedevices are much more likely to go directly to a brand(50%) using a desktop icon, on a smartphone, comparedto the overall sample (34%). The more devices – and theheavier the use – the better they tend to do.See section 3.4: The Importance of Brandand the Role of Trust, p. 59The Impact of Tablets and Smartphoneson Brand PerformanceThis year we also asked respondents in all countriesabout specific news brands they accessed on differentdevices (computers, tablets, and smartphones) to see ifthere was an impact on market share.We find that brands that have a reputation forbreaking news, like Sky News in the UK, TF1 in France,and CNN in the US, tend to do better on mobile devices.Sky News has 15% share on the web and 25% on mobilein the UK, driven by a strong app offer and promotionfrom TV. In contrast, old-style web aggregators likeYahoo and MSN – where news services are linked todefault browser settings – seem to be losing out in anapp-based world – at least in the UK and US.These differences, however, are very much theexception. Most brands do about the same in terms ofmarket share on mobile and tablet as the general web,with the same problems of discovery.As tablets and smartphones become more mainstream,people seem to be accessing the brands they feelcomfortable with elsewhere. Although niche players can dowell, scale and the ability of brands to cut through acrossplatform are likely to become increasingly important.See section 3.3: Online News Sources –winners and losers, p. 53Partiality in NewsThere is a growing debate in parts of Europe about thecontinuing relevance of impartial news provision –particularly on television. Many parts of the world (theUS, Italy, and Brazil) already have a more partial, lessregulated media system. Our survey found a strongpreference in all countries for news that has‘no point ofview’– led by Japan (81%), France (78%), Germany (76%),and the UK (70%). Brazil was the big outlier with only 28%.In general about a quarter of our samples preferrednews that shared their viewpoint – lowest in Denmark(13%) and Japan (15%). The Brazilians (29%) and Danes(27%) love to be challenged by their news provider,whereas the Germans (1%) and Japanese (4%) do not.See essay: Paolo Mancini on‘Partiality and Polarisation of News’, p. 105Brand Computer Mobile Gain/Loss TabletSky News 15% 25% +10% 21%CNN 16% 19% +3% 16%TF1 10% 16% +6% 14%Yahoo (US) 37% 25% -12% 27%Yahoo (UK) 20% 8% -12% 9%MSN (US) 14% 10% -4% 10%Breaking news brands vs aggregators market share by platformQ8c : You say you access news via a computer,/mobile, tablet. When usingthat device which of the following news sources have you used in the lastweek ? Base variousBrand Computer Mobile TabletBild (Germany) 21% 21% 16%Daily Mail (UK) 18% 14% 16%La Republica (Italy) 34% 37% 38%Le Monde (France) 16% 18% 15%El Mundo (Spain) 24% 17% 22%New York Times (US) 11% 9% 12%Selected traditional news brands market share by platformQ8c:When using a computer, mobile or tablet to access news, which of thefollowing sources did you use in the last week? Base variousIt’s good to feelthat others sharemy concerns &interestsIt gives the viewerthe opportunity tocome to their ownconclusionsMore stimulatingand prepares youfor what theenemy thinks23% 66% 11%News that shares yourpoint of viewNews that has nopoint of viewNews that challengesyour point of viewAttitudes to partial or impartial news (all country view)Q5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do youprefer? (three options)Base: All markets (n=11004) % agree Respondent quotes from UKDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 14
  17. 17. 15Executive SummarySharing and Participation around NewsAs last year, we find that there are marked internationaldifferences in the level and types of online participationwith news. Taking one example – commenting on anews story via a social network – we can see that theSpanish (27%) Italians (26%), and Americans (21%) aremore than twice as likely to comment on a news storyvia a social network as the British (10%). Brazilians arearound five times more likely to comment than Germansor Japanese.More generally, Brazil (92%), Italy (85%), and Spain(84%) have the highest levels of participation andengagement when we aggregate 12 separate types ofonline and offline engagement. This compares withJapan (64%), which has the lowest level of participation,along with Northern European countries such asDenmark, the UK, and Germany. This suggests thatcultural factors (rather than access to technical tools)play the biggest part in the extent of onlineengagement with news.The sharing of news through online networkscontinues to grow. In Brazil, 44% of our sample of onlineusers said they share a news story on a weekly basis via asocial network. 32% did so by email.In the UK 18% had shared a news story in the lastweek by email or social network but amongst thoseactively interested in news the figures are much higher.29% of those with a high interest in news share a newslink at least once a week.There is conflicting evidence about whether adoption ofnew devices is encouraging these trends. In UnitedStates, Apple smartphone users are 41% more likely toshare news than other digital users – when controllingfor the following factors: interest in news, age, gender,education and income. Tablets, on the other hand, donot seem to significantly encourage sharing in the sameway when taking into account these variables.Facebook, email, and Twitter dominate the sharing ofnews content in the UK, where no other network getsmore than 3% weekly usage. We do not have data onsocial network usage from elsewhere but other researchshows the mix of networks can differ significantly.In the UK we have developed a model ofparticipation that shows that the majority of our samplenow participates in some way with news each week. Wehave identified a group of intense participators (10%)who engage proactively and share stories widely, oftenmany times a day, and a group of easy participators(30%) who like and rate stories and post occasionalcomments. A further group participates only offline(23%) by talking about news to friends and colleaguesand the remaining 37% are passive each week.See section 3.6: Participation andEngagement Online, p. 66Types of NewsWe find that digital news is gradually moving away fromthe article and picture format that has dominated foralmost 20 years. Short video clips and the streaming oflive news TV or radio coverage are becoming morepopular. Americans consume the largest amount ofshort form video (27%), almost twice as much as those inthe UK (14%), but when put together with podcasts andTV and radio streams almost half (47%) of our UK samplenow uses news audio or video each week. Anotherrecent innovation has been the development of liveblogs as a way of covering breaking news and sportsstories. 35% of our Japanese sample used these livepages at least once a week, with the French (19%),E !38%27% 26%21%11% 10% 10% 8% 7%Brazil Spain Italy US Denmark UK France Germany Japan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!38%!!!!!!!azilBr Spain!Spain talyI US!kenmarD UK!eancrF ymanerG!Japan!!!!!!!!International differences around commenting on news (in social networks)Q13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage?Base: UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 15
  18. 18. 16Italians and Spanish (16%) also enthusiastic. Only 8% ofour Danish sample consumes live blogs – but they preferto read longer articles (40%).See essay: Neil Thurman on ‘How Live Blogs areReconfiguring Breaking News’, p. 85Smart TVs and Connected NewsFinally, our survey focused on the fast-growing market ininternet-connected TVs, including some specificadditional questions in two countries: France and theUK.Overall, the Brazilians (13%), Italians (12%), French (11%),and Spanish (11%) use connected TVs most for news –running at about three times the levels seen in the UK orthe US.Our respondents strongly agreed with the propositionthat they would like to have more control over thescheduling of news content (like on a PC), 46% agreed inthe UK and 64% in France. Also our sample was keen tohave on-demand content fronted by a presenter theywere familiar with in France (57%) and also the UK (52%).When the whole sample was asked about potentialinterest in different types of on-demand news serviceson a television, there was a preference expressed forvideo content over text and a particular interest inbreaking news alerts for TV (64% interest in France and56% interest in the UK). Otherwise the most popular on-demand content on a TV was weather (53% France and48% UK).See essay: Dan Brilot on smart TV and the prospects fornews, with additional exclusive data from YouGov, p. 93ConclusionThis year’s data offer contradictory evidence about thenature and rate of change in the news industry. Theoverwhelming message is that audiences increasinglyexpect news that they can access anytime, anywhere.But that doesn’t mean they only want online news.Audiences may be embracing news on tablets andsmartphones but they still want to catch up withbroadcast news and they enjoy taking time with theprinted page. It’s a multi-platform world and becomingmore so.At the same time – and pulling in a differentdirection – we see the strong influence of habit, culture,and tradition. We see countries like Germany and Francethat are slow to change and we see significant groups –mainly older – within all countries who are refusing tojoin in the digital and multi-platform news revolutionaltogether. These divisions between and withincountries are making it increasingly difficult to addressaudience needs with the simplicity that was possible inthe past. Embracing digital is clearly the future, but newsbrands can’t afford to leave behind groups who still carryhuge influence and drive most of the revenue.Clearly news brands still matter but a strong nameand long heritage is no longer enough. Our data showthat there still is a yearning – in an ocean of content – fortrusted news across a range of subject areas, but newerbrands like Yahoo and the Huffington Post are alsoproving they can fill that role alongside a raft of specialistproviders, blogs, and social media too.Against this background, it is not surprising to seemore and more anguished debates around editorial anddistribution strategies. Most news organisations arereconfiguring their workflows for the multi-platform age– trying to drive more output to more platforms with thesame number (or fewer) journalists. Finding newaudiences and revenues is proving more challenging.Some news organisations are looking to exploit niches,others are pushing for scale and paywalls are going uparound the world. As ever, success will depend on acombination of clear strategies and a strongunderstanding of changing audience behaviours. In thatrespect, we hope this annual survey provides useful andinsightful data to help inform the challenges to come.Market share of of Smart TVs by countryQ8a/Q8b Which, if any, of the following devices do you ever use for anypurpose/ have you used to access news in the last week?Base: Selected countries UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Italy (n=965)France (n=973) Urban Brazil (n=985)13% 12% 11% 11%4% 4%UrbanBrazilItaly France Spain US UK!Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 16
  19. 19. Reuters InstituteDigital NewsReport 2013Section 1: News Consumption and Access1.1 Frequency of Access and Interest in News1.2 Segmentation Approaches1.3 Sources and Access to News1.4 When and Where do we Access the News?1.5 Interest in Different Types of News1.6 The Partiality and Polarisation of NewsSection 2: Paying for News2.1 Newspaper Purchase across Countries2.2 Paying for Digital NewsSection 3: Online News in Detail3.1 The Growth of Multi-Platform News3.2 Types of News Accessed Online3.3 Online News Sources3.4 The Importance of Brand and the Role of Trust3.5 Gateways: How Audiences Discover News Online3.6 Participation and Engagement OnlineDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 17
  20. 20. Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 18
  21. 21. 19We here publish the key data tables from our 2013survey. For each section, we have provided a short pieceof context at the start and have selected the mostinteresting charts and tables – illustrated where relevantwith comments to explain the significance of a particularelement.The full questionnaire, additional charts and tables –plus the raw data – are available from our websitewww.digitalnewsreport.org.BackgroundIn order to understand the results it is important to setout the demographics and internet use in each country,which will contribute to some of the internationaldifferences that we find. We also offer a brief pen portraitof the media landscape in our nine surveyed countries,to help contextualise the results.IntroductionUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanInternet Population 52,731,209 67,483,860 31,606,233 35,800,000 52,228,905 4,989,108 245,203,319 88,494,756 101,228,736Male 48% 48% 49% 48% 49% 50% 48% 49% 49%Female 52% 52% 51% 52% 51% 51% 51% 51% 51%18 to 24 12% 10% 11% 9% 12% 13% 9% 21% 9%25 to 34 17% 14% 21% 18% 17% 16% 18% 24% 15%35 to 44 17% 18% 19% 19% 18% 19% 19% 21% 17%45 to 54 19% 18% 15% 16% 18% 21% 15% 16% 15%55+ 36% 39% 33% 38% 35% 31% 37% 18% 44%Figure 0.1: Internet penetration, gender and age breakdown by countryWhilst most of our countries see internet penetration of80% or more, Italy and Brazil in particular have far lowerlevels of access. In those countries we are looking at thehabits of around (or less than) half the adult population.It should also be noted that the Brazilian sample is(uniquely) an urban-based sample (and skews faryounger, with roughly half the proportion of over 55s,compared to the other countries surveyed). Theinternational comparisons will still be relevant in termsof understanding differences in the online sphere, butanyone interpreting these results should be careful notto suggest these figures represent the total adultpopulation, especially when considering offline versusonline consumption.United KingdomThe media environment is characterised by a vigorousand highly competitive national press – including astrong tabloid sector accounting for the majority ofnewspapers sold daily – and the best-known publicbroadcaster in the world. The BBC reaches around 80%of all consumers with news on all platforms each week.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 19
  22. 22. Introduction20GermanyThe country’s federal structure has shaped its mediaenvironment with a number of regional and nationalpublic broadcasters competing for audiences withpowerful commercial operators. Each of the 16 regionsregulates its own private and public broadcasting.Germany is home to some of the worlds largest mediaconglomerates, including Bertelsmann and the publisherAxel Springer. There are several national newspapers, butthe press market is strongest at a regional level, withmore than 300 titles. Newspapers and magazines havealso taken a lead online, with public service broadcastersfacing restrictions on the extent of their digital activities.SpainThe media in Spain have witnessed a significantexpansion in recent years with the emergence of newcommercial operators and the launch of digital services.Radio Television Espanola (RTVE) is the publicbroadcaster. There are 13 regional TV stations backed byregional governments and many local stations.Ownership of daily newspapers is concentrated withinlarge media groups with popular news brands such as ElPais and El Mundo leading the charge online.ItalySilvio Berlusconis Mediaset empire operates Italys topprivate TV stations, and the public broadcaster, Rai, hasalso been subject to political influence. Between them, Raiand Mediaset dominate Italys TV market, which remainsthe main source of news for the bulk of the population.The Italian press is highly regionalised, reflecting thecountrys history and character. Most newspapers areprivately owned, often linked to a political party, or run bya large media group. Newspaper readership figures(overall) are low compared to other European countries.FranceFrance has more than 100 daily newspapers. Most ofthem are in private hands and are not linked to politicalparties and the most successful papers are oftenregional rather than national. Online, many of the bestknown national titles such as Le Monde and Le Figaro facecompetition from new players such as Mediapart, Rue89,and now the Huffington Post. Television news remainspopular, with viewership split between FranceTélévisions, privately owned TF1, and a range of cableand satellite providers. Frances long-establishedcommercial radio, particularly RTL and Europe 1, stillcommands large audiences, along with a range ofpublicly funded stations such as France Inter.DenmarkDenmarks main public broadcaster, Danmarks Radio(DR), operates six TV networks alongside national andregional radio stations. It is funded by a licence fee and isalso a strong presence online. TV2, a government-ownedcommercial broadcaster, operates a round the clock TVnews channel along with a number of niche channels.Popular newspapers include Jyllands-Posten, Ekstra-Bladet, Berlingske Tidende, BT, and Politiken, all of whichhave a healthy market share online and have performedparticularly well compared with the websites of newsbroadcasters.United StatesThere are more than 1,500 daily newspapers in the US,most of them with a local or regional readership. Printcirculations are in long-term decline as readers turn tothe internet. More than 300 US newspapers, includingthe New York Times and the Los Angeles Times, have nowintroduced paywalls – twice as many as at this time lastyear.9In TV news, the big networks ABC, CBS, and NBCdominated for decades until the take-up of cable andsatellite and the arrival of Fox which is now the bestrated cable news network. There are around 10,000commercial radio stations, including many dedicated tonews, sports, and talk. The US is the home of the internetand so it is appropriate that one of the early pioneers,Yahoo, is the single biggest news provider online.Traditional news companies face new threats from pureplayers like the Huffington Post, now owned by AOL.BrazilSouth Americas biggest media market is home tothousands of radio stations and hundreds of TV channels.Media ownership is highly concentrated. Domesticconglomerates such as Globo, Brazils most-successfulbroadcaster, dominate the market and run TV and radionetworks, newspapers, and successful online operations.Brazilians are among the worlds top users of blogs andsocial networks and use of online is growing fast. GooglesOrkut and Facebook are the two biggest social networks.JapanThere are five national terrestrial TV companies,including publicly funded NHK, which also runs nationalradio networks. Newspaper readership is particularlyhigh, with around 80% of Japanese reading a paperevery day. National dailies sell in millions, circulationsboosted by afternoon and evening editions. Anincreasing number of newspapers charge for access totheir websites. Japan was amongst the first to offerinternet access via mobile phones, using walled-gardenservices like iMode. These feature phones are graduallybeing replaced by smartphones.9 http://mashable.com/2012/11/04/paywalls-infographic.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 20
  23. 23. 21Figure 1.1a: Daily news consumption by countryIn this section we lay out the overall shape of newsconsumption, the time spent on different devices, andalso explain in more detail the segmentation we haveused to drive our insights. We also explore interest indifferent types of news, such as political andentertainment news, along with attitudes to partialityand polarisation of news.Section 1. News Consumption And Access1.1 Frequency of Accessand Interest in NewsOur survey of online users showssome differences in how frequentlynews is accessed by consumers indifferent countries across allplatforms – TV, radio, and online. TheJapanese access news mostfrequently, with 9 in 10 accessingnews at least once a day comparedwith around three in four Americansin our sample. Across the fivecountries surveyed in 2012 (UK, US,France, Germany, and Denmark) theindividual country figures arebroadly comparable to last year butwe have seen a general uplift ofmore than 5%, which could relate tothe increased use of smartphonesand tablets. We have seen morepronounced changes in the UK andFrance, with increases of +11% and+ 7% respectively.!92% 89% 88% 86% 86% 85% 85% 83%76%Japan Denmark Urban Brazil UK Italy Germany France Spain US!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!92%!89% 88% 86%!% 86% 85%!85% 83%!!!!Japan enmarD!kenmar azilban BrUr UK!UK talyI ymanerG!eancrF Spain!US!!!!!!!!Q1b:Typically, how often do you access news (in any way)? By news we mean international, national, regional/local news and other topical events accessedvia radio, TV, newspaper or online.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)In general, daily news consumptionis significantly higher amongstmales in all of our surveyedcountries. It is also significantlyhigher amongst those aged 35+ andthose using smartphones.Interest in NewsAs well as frequency of access, wealso asked about levels of interest inthe news. Here, our sample fromurban Brazil claimed the highestinterest in news – while Italy and theUK showed the greatest number ofpeople who were only somewhat,not very, or not at all interested innews.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 21
  24. 24. Across all our countries (see Figure1.2a), interest in news increases withage, with the 55+ group registering20 percentage points higher thanthe 18–24s. Again, men say they aremore interested in news thanwomen.1. News Consumption and Access22Male Female 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Interested in news 78% 70% 60% 68% 72% 77% 80%Q1c: How interested, if at all, would you say you are in news?Base: All markets (n=11004)Figure 1.1b: Interest in news by country87%81% 80%75% 74% 71% 71%67% 67%12%19% 20%25% 26% 29% 29% 32% 33%Urban Brazil Spain Germany France Denmark US Japan Italy UKInterested Not very interestedGermany and Spain have mostinterest in our European countriesQ1c: How interested, if at all, would you say you are in news.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Figure 1.1c: Interest in news increases with age (ALL countries)1.2 SegmentationApproachesNews interest segmentationWe have combined these metrics offrequency and interest to give us afirst non-overlapping categorisationof the news universe that we canapply across all of our countries.• News Lovers: These are peoplewho access the news severaltimes a day and say they areextremely interested in the news.• Daily Briefers: These are peoplewho also access the news severaltimes a day but they say they area bit less interested (very orsomewhat) in the news.• Casual Users: These are peoplewho consume less frequently –anything between once a day toonce a month – and they alsotend to be less interested in thenews with a majority onlysomewhat interested in news.• Non Users: The people whoexcluded themselves from thesurvey who say they access newsless often than once a month(depending on the country, thiswas between 2% in Japan,Denmark, and Brazil, 7% in theUnited States, and 9% in the UK).We’ll refer back to these groupingsthroughout this study. News Loversconsume more, share more, arewealthier, and are more likely to payfor news, but Daily Briefers areimportant in reaching massaudiences, which remains importantfor advertisers. The majority ofconsumers across countries can beconsidered‘Daily Briefers’. The US hasthe highest proportion of CasualUsers, but also a high proportion ofNews Lovers. Denmark has both thehighest proportion of News Loversand the lowest share of Casual Users,along with Brazil.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 22
  25. 25. 231. News Consumption and AccessUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanNews Lovers 22% 22% 17% 24% 17% 27% 26% 25% 21%Daily Briefers 51% 55% 56% 51% 58% 55% 41% 58% 63%Casual Users 28% 24% 26% 26% 26% 18% 33% 18% 16%Figure 1.2a: News interest segmentation by countryUK exampleWithin a country like the UnitedKingdom, we can roughly mapthese groups to get a sense of thetotal size of each group. Assuming50m UK adults over 18, internetpenetration of 84%, and 9% non-news users, this would produce theaddressable groups shown in Figure1.2b.InterestinnewsFrequency of access12.74m23.2m10.01m4.5m Not interestedCasual usersDaily briefersNews loversIndicative base of 50m UK adults, 84% internet access and 9% of them not accessing news (not interested) in thelast monthFigure 1.2b: UK online users segmented by level interest and frequency of access• News Lovers: Are much morelikely to own a smartphone andtablet; they are twice as likely touse Twitter for news as theaverage. They tend to be male(57%) and have higher incomesand social grade (heavy skew toAB). They are particularlyinterested in politics andinternational news but onlyshow an average interest inentertainment and celebritynews. They are heavy onlineusers but are twice as likely touse quality‘broadsheet’printednewspapers along with the BBCand Sky News for televisionnews. They are twice as likely tohave paid for a digital newsservice in the last week as DailyBriefers.• Casual Users: Tend to be female(60%) and more traditional intheir media habits. They seem tobe particularly attached to print,especially mid-market andpopular newspapers andmagazines. A significantminority of this group use onlytraditional media sources (31%).They are particularlyuninterested by internationaland political news. They tend tohave lower incomes and befrom lower social grades (C2DE).Many own smartphones andtablets but are less likely to usethem for news than the othergroups.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 23
  26. 26. Platform segmentationIn a second categorisation, we havesplit our samples by platform use.This non-overlapping segmentationis achieved by looking at thenumber and type of devices used toaccess news (see Figure 1.2c).These segments were cross-checked with claimed time spent(where data was available in the UKto ensure this approach was robust).When applying this to all ourcountries we can see that manyEuropean countries tend to have astronger attachment to traditionalmethods of access than say theUnited States, Brazil, and Japan.1. News Consumption and Access24OfflineOnline03+2101 2 3+Online onlyModerateMainly trad.Trad.onlyHeavyMainly onlineThese segments were cross-checked with claimed time spent (where data was available in the UK) to ensurethis approach was robust.Figure 1.2c: Audience segments by platform used to access news(Representation of approach)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanInternet penetration 84% 83% 67% 58% 80% 90% 78% 46% 80%Online only* 8% 6% 9% 11% 6% 6% 11% 11% 13%Mainly online 7% 5% 10% 11% 6% 9% 14% 18% 10%Half half** 39% 31% 38% 40% 33% 39% 40% 48% 48%Mainly traditional 20% 25% 22% 20% 24% 28% 12% 15% 16%Traditional only*** 25% 33% 20% 19% 32% 18% 23% 9% 13%Figure 1.2d: Segments based on platform preference (by country)* Online only: This is a smaller segment and a slightly schizophrenic one. They include some heavy news users but also a large number who are not particularlyinterested in news at all. This segment has a relatively high proportion of 18-24s.**The half and half segment contains the secondary group of heavy multi-channel users.This sub-group makes up around 10% of the total sample and its memberscombine multiple traditional and online sources each week They have much in common with news lovers, they are more likely to pay for news, and are heavily intosocial media. We will refer to this sub-group from time to time.*** Traditional only: These users tend to be older with a female bias across all countries.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Despite this being an online sample,one in three of both the French andGermans – and one in four in the UK– say they have only used traditionalways of accessing news in the lastweek (see Figure 1.2d). In bothcountries over 55% of our sample isusing traditional only or mainlytraditional news consumption(compared with 35% in the US and29% in Japan). The Japanese and oursample from urban Brazil are leadingthe charge for mainly online andexclusively online news habits.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 24
  27. 27. 251. News Consumption and AccessUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanTV 79% 82% 72% 74% 84% 85% 72% 75% 69%Radio 37% 51% 39% 34% 44% 53% 28% 19% 24%Print 59% 63% 61% 59% 46% 49% 47% 50% 63%Online 74% 66% 79% 80% 68% 81% 75% 90% 85%Figure 1.3a: Platforms used to access news on a weekly basis (Frequency)Q3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)1.3 Sources and Access toNewsWe asked respondents to tell usabout the sources they used fornews. Our questions broke thisdown into different types oftelevision, radio, print, and onlinenews, so we could understand thefull granularity and complexity. In anonline context, for example, it isuseful to be able to distinguishbetween the websites of traditionalmedia outlets, aggregators, socialmedia, and blogs. We can thenaggregate these sources backtogether to get a picture of theoverall platform balance betweenTV, radio, print, and online for therespondents to this online surveyacross all of our countries.France and Germany have thelowest levels of online news access,with both countries showing strongallegiance to traditional newsplatforms.Online and television newsremain the two most frequentlyaccessed platforms for news amongour online survey respondents in allour countries. Online is furthestahead in Japan and with our urbansample in Brazil. When taking intoaccount those who are offline (56%in Brazil and 42% in Italy, forexample), television news is likely tobe ahead pretty much everywhere.UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanTV 41% 43% 33% 39% 57% 44% 43% 38% 35%Radio 7% 13% 9% 5% 12% 8% 5% 2% 4%Print 15% 18% 15% 13% 6% 11% 9% 6% 20%Online 35% 25% 41% 42% 23% 35% 39% 53% 39%Figure 1.3b: MAIN news platform by countryQ4: You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, which would you say is MOST IMPORTANT or which would you say is your main news?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)We also asked respondents abouttheir MAIN or most importantsource of news. Here we see asimilar story. Television and onlineare the two platforms that ourrespondents value or rely on most.Once again Germany and Franceshow themselves with a strongpreference for TV over online, withBrazil and Japan narrowly preferringonline (see Figure 1.3b).Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 25
  28. 28. 1. News Consumption and Access26The picture changes when we lookat the importance assigned bydifferent age groups. Looking at ALLour countries together, we can seethat there is a significant dividedeveloping between the under 35swho prefer online and those agedover 45 who strongly prefertelevision.All countries follow this pattern withthe exception of France, whereyoung people still show a strongloyalty to television news and havenot embraced internet news in asignificant way.56%28%55%28%42%38%32%47%21%55%Online TV18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+56% 55%18-24 25-34 35-44 45-5455%45-54 55+OnlineOnline VTFigure 1.3c: Main news platform by age (Online vs Television) - ALL countriesQ4:You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, which would you say is your MAIN sourceof news?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week (n=10843 )31%52%36%52%24%53%23%56%13%64%Online TV18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+… all across columns or split into two possibly (and maybe the columns without st !!!!!!!!!18-24 25-34!52% 52% 53% 56%35-44 45-54 55+!56%64%!!!!31%!31%36%24% 23%13%Online!VT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!64%20%61%23%41% 41%35%49%25%54%Online TV18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+64% 61%18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+54%55+41%35%Online20% 23%41%35%25%T41%49%VTFigure 1.3d: Main news platform by age (Online vs Television) - ALL countriesQ4: You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, which would you say is your MAINsource of news?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week France (n=963), US (n=1916)FranceUnited StatesDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 26
  29. 29. 271. News Consumption and Access1.4 Where and When do weAccess the News?Typically consumers in the UnitedKingdom access news first thing inthe morning or early evening.Younger people tend to access in amore even way throughout the day.Older people such as the over 55sare more likely to follow thebreakfast, lunch, and early eveningpeaks, compared with all thegroupings under 45. Even the 35–44s seem to be losing thecommitment for appointment-to-view news bulletins in the early andlate evening.We can also see the impact of agewhen we look at UK data showingthe time people spend on differentdevices. Not only do the youngvalue online news more than TV,they also spend more time withcomputers – along withconsiderable amounts of additionaltime on smartphones and tablets.Older groups spend far more timewith traditional media, such as TVnews, radio news, and print.2519 1832222820 192520182922 2117213223202920 18 162137272426152321 194531 302512172516TV Radio PrintedPublicationComputer Mobile Phone Tablet E-reader Smart TV18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 +QS1: On a typical day, how much time do you spend accessing news on EACH of the following?Base All UK=2078Chart shows mean time spent per day in minutesFigure 1.3e: Mean time spent accessing news by device per day UK (minutes)0%10%20%30%40%50%60%First thingin themorningLater in themorningLunchtime Afternoon EarlyeveningLateeveningLast thingat nightAll 18-24 25-34!35-44 45-54 55+QS2: When do you typically access the news?Base: UK=2078 18 to 24 (n=269) 25 to 34: (n=286) 35 to 44: (n=321) 45 to 54 (n=383) 55+ (n=819)Figure 1.4a: News access across the day by age (UK)Traditional forms of accessingnews are more popular amongolder age groupsDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 27
  30. 30. Looking at our segments, we cansee that traditional users are morelikely to have fixed times of day forconsuming the news, whereas themainly online and heavy multi-channel groups tend to accessthroughout the day (50% and 61%respectively) reflecting the greaterease of access to online newsoutside the home. Heavy multi-channel users also extend theirnews consumption right through tobedtime.Locations for newsFor the first time, this year we havebeen able to look in detail atlocations and devices used for newsacross the day in two of ourcountries, Denmark and the UK. Theoverall patterns in both countriesare almost identical, with most newsuse in the home – followed bycommuting and work.1. News Consumption and Access280%10%20%30%40%50%60%First thingin themorningLater in themorningLunchtime Afternoon EarlyeveningLateeveningLast thingat nightAll Mainly online Half/halfMainly online Heavy MultichannelQS2: When do you typically access the news?Base: UK=2078 Mainly Online (n=162) Half/ half (n=791) Mainly traditional (n=400) Half/ half moderate (n=597)Heavy multichannel (n=194)Figure 1.4b: News access across the day by platform segment (UK)!68%46%24%20%13%9%4%3%71%41%31%28%9%6%5%6%At home: communalAt home: personalAt workCommuting personal eg carCommuting on public transportOut and about generallyOther people’s homesAt a place of studyUK Denmark!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!t home: cAt home: personalAommuting personal eg carC!ommunalt home: ct home: personalkort wAommuting personal eg car!68%!68%71%!!!!ommuting on public trCut and about generOther peopleOt a placA!tansporommuting on public trallyut and about geners homes’ther peoplee of studyt a plac!!!!!!!!!!!QS3A: Where were you when you looked at/listened to the news over the last few days?Base: UK=2078, Denmark =994Figure 1.4c: Where news is accessed (UK vs Denmark)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 28
  31. 31. 291. News Consumption and AccessWhen we look at the specificplatforms used in each location, wecan see how the internet plays abigger role at work and on themove. In general traditional mediaare not being replaced, althoughprint is clearly being substituted insome areas.Television is the main source ofnews in the living room but thecomputer takes over in personalspaces at home and at work. Radiodominates in the car. One elementto note is the amount of media thatare consumed in the communalspace, with computers,smartphones, and tablets nowcompeting with newspapers,magazines, and radio.We see the greatest effects ofsubstitution on the daily commutevia public transport, traditionally aheartland for newspaper reading. Inthe UK and Denmark, the mobilephone has overtaken print as themain way of consuming news onthe way to work. In Denmark,people are twice as likely to use amobile phone for news (63%) thanread a printed newspaper (33%).On UK public transport 48% usemobile phones, 34% use print, and6% access news via a tablet –though print is still ahead in London(56%), probably because ofavailability of strong freenewspapers and limited internetaccess on the Underground.The tablet remains largelyconfined to the home – certainly inthe UK – although the arrival ofsmaller more mobile 7”tablets maychange the mix in years to come.Once again, the shift towards digitalis being led by younger age groups,with the over 45s largely stickingwith print.87%54%7% 7%0%40%29%33%14%94%32%16% 16%33%2%52%59%75%13%1%24% 27% 24%63%10%19% 19%5%13%2%At home: communalspaceAt home: personalspaceAt work: o ce, shopetcCommuting via publictransportCommuting via car(personal)Television Radio Printed publicationInternet via computer Internet via mobile Internet via tabletQS3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locationsBase: At home : communal (n=1421) At home: personal (n=957) At work (n=482) At place of study (n=70) While travelling via public transport (n=270) While travelling viaprivate transport (n=400)Figure 1.4d: News sources uses by location (Denmark)!34% 33%48%63%6%13%UKPrint Mobile Tablet!!!!!!!!!!Print!Print Mobile abletTTablet!!!!!!34%!63%!13%!!!!!KU!!!!!!!!!!LondonSouthEastNorthMobile 46% 56% 48%Print56% 25% 28%Figure 1.4e: Changing face of media use on public transport (UK)QS3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locationsBase: While travelling via public transport UK (n=270) Den (n=92) ,Those who have looked at news on public transport in last days London (n=66), South East (n=61, North (n=71)UK DenmarkDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 29
  32. 32. 1.5 Interest in DifferentTypes of NewsWe asked all our respondents toselect their five most importanttypes of news (see Figure 1.5a). Aswith last year, domestic news is themost popular type of news, closelyfollowed by international, local, andregional news. Mirroring politicaland media structures, we see thatregional news is most important inGermany. Local news matters morein a vast country like the UnitedStates where city newspapers andlocal TV stations have become acore part of the media diet. Oursample from urban Brazil tends toplace more importance on businessand financial news, health andeducation news, and science andtechnology news.The mobile phone is also by far themost important source of newswhen‘out and about generally’. Ofthose who looked for news in thisway, 76% used a mobile phone inthe UK, compared with 18% usingprinted newspapers. In Denmark thenumbers are 85% by phone and13% reading newspapers in print.Despite platform substitutionthere is no evidence that brands arebeing substituted. Some of the mostsuccessful brands on the move inboth countries are free newspaperssuch as Metro in the UK, which hasbeen pursuing an aggressive digitalstrategy and is widely used on tabletand mobile, as well as in print.In terms of personal transport –largely cars but also bikes – mobilephones are also making inroads as asource of news, not least becausethey can access audio-based newspodcasts or other on-demand newscontent which can plug intoheadphones or a car sound system.1. News Consumption and Access30vate transport!84%94%13% 10%6% 2%UK DenmarkRadio Mobile Print!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!daR!94%10%oid Mobile Print!!!!!!UK!10%kenmarD!2%k!!!!!!!!Figure 1.4f: Changing shape of media use (private transport)UK3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locations.Base: While travelling via private transport UK (n=400) Denmark (n=283)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 30
  33. 33. 311. News Consumption and AccessLooking at an aggregated view ofour entire sample of 11,000 peoplewe can see significant differences byage and gender (see Figure 1.5b).Men are much more interested insports news, political news, andbusiness and economic news.Women place more importance onhealth and education news, localnews, and especially entertainmentand celebrity news. In terms of age,interest in political and economicnews grows as people get older. Incontrast, entertainment and scienceand technology news are of greaterinterest for younger groups.Figure 1.5a: Interest in types of news by countryUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanNews about thecountry71% 70% 64% 62% 66% 70% 57% 73% 62%International news 53% 67% 44% 42% 54% 66% 56% 42% 48%Local news about mytown or city49% 47% 42% 49% 31% 48% 59% 52% 30%News about myregion44% 53% 43% 38% 41% 27% 31% 16% 37%Business andfinancial news20% 18% 14% 16% 18% 24% 22% 30% 27%News about theeconomy44% 31% 41% 40% 35% 36% 52% 29% 48%Entertainment andcelebrity news20% 18% 13% 15% 13% 14% 14% 24% 18%Health andeducational news28% 27% 38% 35% 36% 29% 29% 55% 18%Arts and culturenews11% 8% 21% 19% 17% 16% 9% 23% 20%Sports news 31% 28% 36% 33% 27% 31% 23% 35% 32%News about thecountry’s politics37% 50% 43% 52% 45% 51% 54% 34% 60%Science andtechnology news22% 29% 30% 31% 31% 30% 26% 40% 26%Q2 Which of the following types of news is most important to you? Please choose up to five.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Figure 1.5b: Interest in news by age and gender (all countries)Male Female 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55+News about the country 63% 68% 60% 62% 67% 69% 68%International news 54% 52% 48% 47% 49% 54% 59%Local news about mytown or city42% 52% 36% 41% 49% 51% 51%News about myregion32% 42% 25% 31% 36% 40% 43%Business andfinancial news27% 15% 17% 20% 21% 20% 22%News about the economy 46% 36% 30% 34% 37% 44% 49%Entertainment andcelebrity news9% 24% 25% 25% 20% 14% 9%Health andeducational news21% 43% 35% 35% 31% 31% 30%Arts and culture news 11% 19% 19% 16% 14% 12% 15%Sports news 44% 16% 28% 29% 33% 32% 28%News about the country’spolitics52% 42% 36% 35% 42% 48% 58%Science and technologynews35% 22% 40% 32% 27% 27% 25%Q2: Which of the following types of news is most important to you? Please choose up to five.Base: All markets (n=11004) 18-24 (n=1244), 25-34 (n=1927) 35-44 (n=2043) 45-54 (n=1889), 55+ (n=3901)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 31
  34. 34. We can also look at the impact ofplatform usage on different types ofnews through our multi-countrysegmentation. Traditional users tendto be comfortable with the broadsubject areas dealt with in televisionand radio news bulletins, such asregional news and country news.Those who use multiple onlinesources (mainly online and heavymulti-channel) are more likely tovalue niche areas such asentertainment as well as scienceand technology news – subjectsthat the internet is able to cover infar greater depth.In our other segment, NewsLovers are more interested in politicsand business and financial news. Incontrast, Daily Briefers and CasualUsers are relatively more interestedin local news, regional news, andhealth and education news.1. News Consumption and Access32Figure 1.5c: Interest in news by platform segment(see Figure 1.2d for explanation of segmentation)HeavymultichannelMainlyonlineHalf/halfmoderateMainlytraditionalTraditionalonlyNews about the country 69% 67% 67% 72% 63%International news 63% 58% 50% 61% 48%Local news about mytown or city46% 44% 48% 49% 52%News about myregion32% 30% 37% 41% 44%Business andfinancial news28% 26% 20% 24% 16%News about the economy 47% 44% 41% 46% 39%Entertainment andcelebrity news19% 21% 18% 15% 12%Health andeducational news33% 33% 32% 34% 27%Arts and culture news 20% 20% 14% 17% 10%Sports news 35% 33% 31% 34% 27%News about the country’spolitics56% 53% 45% 55% 43%Science and technologynews36% 41% 29% 27% 19%Q2: Which of the following types of news is most important to you? Please choose up to fiveBase: All countries (n=11004), Heavy multichannel (n=1200), Mainly online (n=1090), Half/half mod (n=3055),Mainly traditional (n=2105), Traditional only (n=2365)!11%16%22%38%42%33%18%8%7%4%UK politicsGerman politicsExtremely interested Very interested Somewhat interestedNot very interested Not at all interested Dont know54%33%25%12%Political news and politicalengagementThis year we have been able to askdetailed questions about politicalnews in Germany and the UnitedKingdom and this offers theopportunity to compare the ways inwhich political news is found andconsumed – as well as exploringlevels of political participation online.Researchers are particularlyinterested in understanding theseissues because a strong democracyis felt to depend on a high quality ofinformation – where a range ofviews can be easily obtained anddebated. So how do our twocountries match up?Figure 1.5d: Interest in politics – Germany vs UKQS4a: How interested would you say you are in politics?Base: UK (n=2078); Germany (n=1062)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 32
  35. 35. 331. News Consumption and AccessInterest in political newsThe degree of interest in politicalnews varies considerably by age andgender. In general, men take a moreactive interest than women, andolder people more than the young.This is particularly the case inGermany, but less so in the UKwhere younger people showinterest in politics close to theaverage. There is no obviousenthusiasm for politics amongstolder groups in the UK either.In the UK, there is also someevidence from our survey of a lowlevel of political interest amongworking-class voters – somethingthat has been a long-standingconcern of left of centre politicalparties. Among council tenants, only26% had a high level of interest inpolitics, compared with 39% forthose who owned their own homes.Sources of political newsIn both the UK and Germany,broadcasters (via TV, radio, andinternet) are top sources of news.Reflecting the German federalmodel, local/regional newspapersare more important than in the UKwhere political power is much morecentralised. Political magazines (e.g.Focus) are much more widely read inGermany than in the UK, wherepublications like the New Statesmanand The Spectator tend to bereserved for narrow political elitesand national newspapers tend tosee their role as helping to set thepolitical agenda.All Male Female 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Germany 54% 65% 44% 37% 42% 50% 58% 63%UK 33% 42% 24% 33% 28% 29% 32% 37%QS4a: How interested would you say you are in politics?Base: UK (n=2078); Germany (n=1062)Figure 1.5e: Interest in politics by age and genderOverall, interest in politics issignificantly higher in Germany thanin the United Kingdom. In Germany54% of our sample say they areeither extremely interested or veryinterested in politics, compared withjust 33% in the UK. In addition, twiceas many of our UK respondents(25%) said they were not veryinterested or not at all interested inpolitics compared with those inGermany (12%). The two countrieshave similar levels of internetpenetration and age profiles andthere were no significant electionsduring our survey.!1%4%25%17%15%13%32%51%36%72%2%4%7%9%10%16%25%27%52%72%Don’t knowNone of thesePolitically focussed magazines inclonlineEmail newsletters/alertsOnline specialist or political blogsSocial media eg FecebookFriends, relatives or colleaguesLocal newspapers (print or online)National newspapers (print or online)Broadcasters (TV, radio or online)UK GermanyFigure 1.5f: Sources of political news UK vs GermanyQS4b: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with political andgovernment issues?Base: Interested in political news: UK (n=1924) Germany (n= 968)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 33
  36. 36. 1. News Consumption and Access34Political engagementInternet news users in the UnitedKingdom show slightly morewillingness to engage online withpolitical activities than their Germancounterparts despite a lower level ofoverall interest.Although general levels of onlineengagement with politics are stillrelatively low, particular groups ofusers are adopting these newtechniques more enthusiastically. Ofthose who are interested in politicalnews (75% of the sample in the UKand 88% in Germany) at least aquarter had signed an onlinepetition on politics in the past year.A small percentage were following apolitician via social networks, butthis rises to one in four social mediausers and heavy multi-channel users(see Figure 1.2c for explanation ofthis group). 18–24s are four timesmore likely to follow a politician viasocial media than the over 55s inGermany and six times as likely inthe UK.!5%52%13%6%5%10%13%12%25%2%48%3%8%10%10%14%14%38%Don’t knowNone of theseVolunteered for political activityFollowed politician via social mediaJoined campaign via social mediaPosted on politics to news sitePosted on politics to social media siteSent email on political issueSigned online petitionUK GermanyFigure 1.5g: Online engagement and activism UK vs GermanyQS4c: In which, if any, of the following ways have you used the internet in the last year to get moreinvolved in politics or express a political opinion? Please select all that applyBase: Those interested in political news: UK (n=1924) Germany (n= 968)Germany UKAll 6% 8%18-24s 17% 19%55+ 4% 3%Social Media users 16% 26%HeavyMultichannel13% 27%Germany UKAll 25% 38%18-24s 28% 46%55+ 24% 41%Social Media users 35% 52%HeavyMultichannel47% 59%Figure 1.5h: Forms of online political engagementSigning an online petition Following a politician via social mediaQS4c: In which, if any, of the following ways have you used the internet in the last year to get moreinvolved in politics or express a political opinion? Please select all that applyBase: Interested in political news: UK (n=1924) Germany (n= 968)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 34
  37. 37. 351. News Consumption and AccessPolitical news is much more valuedoverall, but it is clear thatentertainment news is much morepolarised. People either love it orhate it. Interest is driven by womenfar more than by men and by theunder 45s.Entertainment newsOne of the most striking findingsfrom last year’s survey was that theUnited Kingdom had the lowestlevel of interest in political news butthe highest level of interest inentertainment and celebrity news.The UK stands out again in thisrespect in the 2013 survey (seeFigure 1.5a) against all our countriesapart from urban Brazil. This year wehave drilled down in more detail tosee what is driving these trends inthe UK.!11%5%22%11%42%32%18%27%7%25%Political newsEntertainment andcelebrity newsExtremely interested Very interested Somewhat interestedNot very interested Not at all interested Dont know16%33% 52%25%Figure 1.5i: Interest in entertainment vs political news in the UKQS4a/QS5a: How interested would you say you are in politics news/entertainment and celebrity news?Base: UK=2078Male Female 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Very/extremelyinterested10% 21% 21% 33% 22% 11% 5%QS5a: How interested would you say you are in entertainment and celebrity news?Base: UK=2078 , Extremely or very interested (n=323)Figure 1.5j: Interest in entertainment news by age and genderDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 35
  38. 38. In terms of sources of entertainmentnews, national newspapers and theirwebsites play a significant role andbroadcasters a less significant rolecompared with other genres. Forthose with the strongest interest inthe subject social media andcelebrity-focused magazines are asimportant as national newspapersand broadcasters. There is also asignificant role for online blogs andspecialist sites like TMZ and DigitalSpy. Together with the strongentertainment focus of sites like MailOnline, there is evidence that onlineis fuelling interest in this form ofnews, providing moreentertainment news at a greaterlevel of frequency than in a mainlyanalogue world.1. News Consumption and Access360%1%13%29%19%47%48%42%51%54%3%13%5%10%12%18%23%25%42%46%Don’t knowNoneof theseEmail newsletters/alertsOnline specialist sites/blogsLocal newspapers(print or online)Magazines (print or online)Social media eg FacebookFriends, relatives or colleaguesNational newspapers(print oronline)Broadcasters (TV radio or online)ALL Very or extremely interestedFigure 1.5k: Sources for entertainment and celebrity news (UK)QS5b: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with entertainment and celebrity news?Base: ALL Interested in entertainment news:1528 Net very and extremely interested (n=323)TOP BRANDS… for those interested in entertainmentnewsOffline•" Sun•" Star•" MetroOnline•" Mail Online•" Sun Online•" MSNSpecialistDigital SpyFacebookANDSOP BRTd in enteerest… for those int""""""inmentaterd in ent""""""swwsneOffline• Sun• tarS• oetrMnlineO• ail OnlineM""""""""""""• Sun Online• MSNecialistSpyital SpDigebookacF""""""!8%11%5%29%22%11%49%42%32%10%18%27%3%7%25%International newsPolitical newsEntertainment andcelebrityExtremely interested Very interested Somewhat interestedNot very interested Not at all interested Dont know13%25%52%Figure: 1.5l: Interest in international vs political vs entertainment newsQS4a/5a/6a: How interested would you say you are in politics news/entertainment and celebrity news/international news?Base: UK(n=2078)Interest in international news inthe UKInternational news has the smallestnumber of people who say they arenot interested, compared with theother two categories. This may bebecause this category covers such awide range of stories or because it isless socially acceptable to say youare not interested in events outsideyour own country.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 36
  39. 39. 37In terms of sources for internationalnews, one striking finding is howforeign broadcasters andnewspapers have become animportant part of the media mix inthe UK, with a combination of multi-channel TV and the choice providedby the internet. This is particularlythe case for those who are mostinterested in the subject.Comparing the influence of UKnewspapers on different types ofnewsThere has been much written aboutthe importance of UK newspapers inproviding information and definingthe agenda around subjects likepolitics and international news,together with a diet of scoops aboutthe royal family and televisioncelebrities. By looking at those mostinterested in these different types ofnews (see Figure 1.5n overleaf) wecan see that newspapers in the UKhave not lost influence in the moveto online. Broadsheet newspapers,like The Times, the Daily Telegraph,and the Guardian, play if anything amore important role online whereusers tend to be more promiscuousand interested news users will oftengravitate towards the mostdistinctive content. We see the sameeffect with entertainment news. Inthis case, though, the distinctive andexclusive content is produced bymid-market and popularnewspapers and interestedaudiences are more likely to find thiscontent than is the case offline.B!10%19%28%13%14%19%26%56%73%5%12%17%7%8%14%17%47%67%Email newslettersNon UK newspapers and websitesNon UK broadcasters and websitesInternational Magazines and websitesOnline only international sites or blogsSocial media eg FacebookFriends, relatives or colleaguesNational newspapers (print and online)Broadcasters (TV, radio and online)ALL Very or extremely interested!!!!!!!!ers (oadcastBr!adio and online), rVV, rTers (ALL emely intrxy or eerV!73%47%67%edestertemely in!!!!!ertOnline only inocial media eg FS, riendsrFspapers (prtional newNa!es or blogstional sitnaebookacocial media eg Folleagueses or ctivela, rt and online)inspapers (pr!14%19%26%56%8%14%17%47%!!!!!wenKUnoNdaorbKUnoNagazines and wtional MnaertnI!5%7%ersslettEmail newsetisbewdnasrepapswsetisbewdnasretsacdesebsitagazines and w!10%19%28%13%5%12%17%7%!!!!!!!!!!Figure 1.5m: Sources for international news (UK)QS5b: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with international news?Base: Those Interested in international news (n=1998), Extremely and very interested (n=678)International news providerstional neernatnI vidersos prwtional ne1. News Consumption and AccessDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 37
  40. 40. 1.6 Partiality andPolarisation of NewsIn most democratic countries,broadcast media have historicallybeen required to adhere to strongstandards of impartiality in news.This is because of the perceivedpower of television and thelimitations in broadcast spectrum,which inevitably restrictedcompetition. In contrast,newspapers have largely beenallowed to follow a more partialnews agenda, especially in opinionpieces and political reporting. But inthe past decade, in the UnitedStates, a new breed of partial newschannels such as Fox News havegained popularity and a number ofsenior media figures have suggestedthat rules on impartiality ontelevision are now outdated.10Our data indicate that there isstill strong support for impartialnews, particularly in countries withstrong public service traditions(Japan, Germany, France, UK) butthere are very different attitudes inBrazil, which has largely followed anAmerican commercial model. TheGermans (1%), French (4%), andJapanese (4%) in particular don’t likenews media – of any kind – tochallenge their viewpoints,compared with people in Denmark,Brazil, and the UK.3858%52%10%44% 40%18%32%26%21%38%33%16%International Political EntertainmentBroadsheet Midmarket Popular ALL56% 58%12%39%37%24%36%38%29%38%33%16%International Political EntertainmentBroadsheet Midmarket Popular ALLOffline sources Online sources1 !!!!!!!!!58%Offline sour!52%escine sour!56%nline sourO!58%escnline sour!!!!tional%naertnI!52%%oliticalP tainmenertEn!%ttainmen tional%naertnI!oliticalP tainmenertEn!%ttainmen!!!tionalnaertnIoadsheetBr!oliticalP tainmenertEnketidmarM opularP!ttainmenALLtionalnaertnIoadsheetBr!oliticalP tainmenertEnoadsheet ketidmarM opularP!ttainmenALL!!!!!!!!Figure 1.5n: Interest in three categories of news by readers of different types of newspapers (UK)QS4a/5a/6a: How interested would you say you are in politics news/entertainment and celebrity news/international news?Base: UK (n=2078) ALL = all those net interested - very, extremely -, International (n=789) Politics (n=685), Entertainment (n=332), Broadsheet (n=570, 324), Midmarket(n=756, 349), Popular (n=623, 161)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanShare your point ofview19% 23% 31% 25% 18% 13% 24% 43% 15%Have no particularpoint of view70% 76% 58% 65% 78% 60% 68% 28% 81%Challenge your view 10% 1% 11% 11% 4% 27% 8% 29% 4%Figure 1.6a: Preference for impartial news, compared with news that shares or challenges your point of viewQ5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do you prefer? (choice of statements)Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)% agree1. News Consumption and AccessOffline sources Online sourcesDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 38
  41. 41. 39When analysing UK data, where wealso have written comments whererespondents explain their choices, itbecame clear that people who arevery interested in the news find ithard to answer this questionbecause they like impartial newsAND a wider range of perspectives.Casual users are happier to defaultto one or two sources, which in theUK tends to be an impartialbroadcast news source like the BBC.People who are‘intenseparticipators’(heavy and proactiveusers of social media channels) areno more likely to consume newsthat shares their point of view thanpeople who are generally interestedin news. If anything they are alsoslightly more likely to look for newsthat challenges their point of view.This tends to contradict the‘virtualecho chamber’theory11 (at least inthe UK), which suggests that digitaland social media might lead peopleto take more entrenched views andmiss out on a more balancedperspective.See Essay: Paolo Mancini onwhether digital news is contributing toa more polarised media system, p. 105In the United Kingdom, the presstends to support one of the twomain parties, Labour or theConservatives. It is striking, but notsurprising, that our data show thatsupporters of these parties are morelikely to consume news that sharestheir point of view compared withsupporters of smaller parties like theLiberal Democrats and nationalistparties in Wales and Scotland.10www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/17/mark-thompson-bbc-fox-news. See R. Sambrook,Delivering Trust: Impartiality and Objectivity in theDigital Age (RISJ, 2012) for a discussion of the issue.11First proposed by Professor Cass Sunstein in 2001.31%50%19%26%59%15%25%62%13%18%72%10%18%74%8%News that shares yourpoint of viewNews with no particularpoint of viewNews that challengesyour point of viewPolitics lovers Intense social News loversDaily briefers Casual usersFigure 1.6b: Preference for impartial or partial news by segment (UK)Q5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do you prefer? (choice of statements)Base:UK(n=2078),NewsLovers(n=448)DailyBriefers(n=1059),CasualUsers(n=572)Intenseparticipators(n=201),Extremely interested in politics (n=227)22%67%10%24%67%10%12%78%11%6%81%13%News that shares yourpoint of viewNews with noparticular point of viewNews that challengesyour point of viewLabour Conservative Lib Dem SNP, Plaid CymruFigure 1.6c: Preference for impartial or partial news by political party allegianceQ5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do you prefer? (choice of statements)Base: (UK=2078)% agree1. News Consumption and AccessDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 39
  42. 42. Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 40
  43. 43. 412.1 Newspaper Purchase across CountriesThis is the first year we have collected data on newspaperpurchase so the most interesting findings are around thedifferences between our surveyed countries. We haveremoved Italy, Spain, and Brazil because the relatively lowlevels of internet penetration are likely to lead tomisleading results when measuring an offline activity.Theremaining results are broadly in line with officiallypublished readership figures in these countries, which alsosee Japan topping the league for newspaper purchase.Section 2. Paying For NewsDenmark and France are leastlikely to have paid for a printednewspaper. In the case of Denmarkthis is partly due to substitution withfree newspapers and online. Paidnewspaper circulation has halved inthe past 15 years in Denmark.12InFrance, paid newspaper circulationhas been historically lower withoutthe mass market‘tabloid’papersfound in countries like Germany andthe United Kingdom. On the otherhand, France does have a number ofsuccessful free newspapers like 20Minutes, DirectMatin-Plus, and Metro.When looking at where peoplebuy newspapers (see Figure 2.1boverleaf), Italy, Spain, UK, and urbanBrazil are more likely to use a newsstand or shop. In Germany, Denmark,US, and Japan home delivery is moreprevalent – suggesting thatnewspapers may be able to buildfurther on a continuing relationshipwith customers in digital or print. It isno coincidence that Germany andJapan, which have seen the mostresilience in newspaper sales, are thecountries with the highest level ofhome delivery (a proxy for asubscription relationship).68%56%54%42% 39%33%Japan Germany UK US France Denmark!Figure 2.1a: Weekly newspaper purchase by countryQ6: Have you bought (paid for) a printed newspaper in the last week?Base:AllmarketsUK(n=2078)US(n=2028))Japan(n=978)Germany(n=1062)France(n=973)Denmark(n=1007)12www.newspaperinnovation.com/index.php/category/circulation.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 41

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