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Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013

Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013



The Reuters Institute Digital News Report reveals new insights about digital news consumption based on a representative survey of online news consumers in the UK, US, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, ...

The Reuters Institute Digital News Report reveals new insights about digital news consumption based on a representative survey of online news consumers in the UK, US, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Japan and Denmark.



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    Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013 Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013 Document Transcript

    • Blank Page for HERC report 2010
    • Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013Tracking the Future of NewsEdited by Nic Newman and David A. L. LevySupported byREUTERSINSTITUTE for theSTUDY ofJOURNALISM
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 2
    • 3ContentsForeword – David A. L. LevyMethodologyAuthorship and Research AcknowledgementsExecutive Summary and Key Findings - Nic NewmanIntroduction 19Section 1: News Consumption and Access1.1 Frequency of Access and Interest in News 211.2 Segmentation Approaches 221.3 Sources and Access to News 251.4 When and Where do we Access the News? 271.5 Interest in Different Types of News 301.6 The Partiality and Polarisation of News 38Section 2: Paying for News2.1 Newspaper Purchase across Countries 412.2 Paying for Digital News 42Section 3: Online News in Detail3.1 The Growth of Multi-Platform News 473.2 Types of News Accessed Online 513.3 Online News Sources 533.4 The Importance of Brand and the Role of Trust 593.5 Gateways: How Audiences Discover News Online 613.6 Participation and Engagement Online 66Section 4: EssaysThe Uneven Digital Revolution – Rasmus Kleis Nielsen 75Lagging Behind or Choosing a Different Path? Information 81Behaviour in Germany – Uwe Hasebrink and Sascha HöligHow Live Blogs are Reconfiguring Breaking News – Neil Thurman 85The Bottom Line: Do and will Consumers Pay for Digital News? – 89Robert G. PicardSmart TVs – the Final Frontier for Interactive News? – Dan Brilot 93Demographic Divides: How Different Groups Experience Online 97News – Alison PrestonPartiality and Polarisation of News – Paolo Mancini 105Postscript and Further Reading 108Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 3
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 4
    • 5This is the second in what we hope will be an annualseries of reports that tracks the transition of the newsindustry towards an increasingly digital and multi-platform future. This year’s report provides compellingevidence about the growing number of ways ofconsuming news and, in particular, the speeding up ofthe mobile and tablet revolution. It also documents theways in which people are paying for news, the growingnumber of locations where they access the news, andbrings new data about the trust and credibility ofdifferent news sources as well as attitudes to partial orimpartial news.But there are many other fascinating insights thathave emerged from our unique survey of the newshabits within nine countries. We have expanded ourfocus to include Japan, Brazil,1 Italy, and Spain – inaddition to the five countries (US, UK, France, Germany,and Denmark) that provided the basis of last year’ssurvey and we’ve asked more questions in all countrieson the key issues.Once again we combined these data with a series ofessays, which add depth and context to the findings,and these have been strengthened by academicpartnerships with the Hans Bredow Institute inHamburg, the School of Journalism at the Institute ofPolitical Science in Paris, and the Centre for Power, Mediaand Communication at Roskilde University, Denmark.Many of our academic partners are also organisingevents or country reports looking in more details atnational themes – and adding wider value to thisinternational project.To that end we have also taken more effort to openup all of the data this year. A new website(www.digitalnewsreport.org) contains slidepacks, charts,and raw data tables, along with a license thatencourages reuse. The website – which is optimised formobile and tablet devices – will also carry links to non-English-language versions of the report. Over time, if wecan secure the necessary long term funding, we believethis will build into an invaluable resource for academicsand news organisations to explain the past as well as thefuture. A description of the methodology is availablealong with the complete questionnaire.Making all this possible, we are hugely grateful to oursponsors this year, Google, BBC Global News, Ofcom,France Télévisions, and Newsworks, as well as the HansBredow Institute and Roskilde University.I am also grateful to YouGov, our polling company,who did everything possible to accommodate ourcomplex requirements and helped our research teamanalyse and contextualise the data.IntroductionDavid A. L. Levy, Director,Reuters Institute1The survey only covered urban Brazil. See the following section on methodology.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 5
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 6
    • 7MethodologyThis study has been commissioned by the ReutersInstitute to understand how news is being consumed ina range of countries. This research was conducted byYouGov using an online questionnaire at the end ofJanuary/beginning of February 2013.• The data was weighted to targets set on age andgender, region, newspaper readership, and socialgrade to reflect the total population of eachcountry. The sample is reflective of thepopulation that has access to the internet.• As this survey deals with news consumption, wefiltered out anyone who said that they had notconsumed any news in the past month in orderto ensure that irrelevant responses didn’tadversely affect date quality. This category wasbetween 2% and 4% in most countries but ashigh as 9% in the UK.• A comprehensive online questionnaire wasdesigned to capture all aspects of newsconsumption.• Core questions were asked in France, Germany,Denmark, Spain, Italy, Japan, Brazil, and the US, aswell as the UK, to a nationally representativeaudience to provide an international comparison.*Please note that Brazil is representative of an urban population rather than a national population; as such the internet penetration is likely to be higher than statedabove, which must be taken into consideration when interpreting results.**Source: Internet World Stats www.internetworldstats.com population estimate 2012.Country Starting sample Non-news users Final sampleTotalpopulation**InternetpenetrationUK 2308 9% 2078 63,047,162 84%Germany 1099 3% 1062 81,305,856 83%Spain 1016 4% 979 47,042,984 67%Italy 1003 4% 965 61,261,254 58%France 1016 4% 973 65,630,692 80%Denmark 1024 2% 1007 5,543,453 90%US 2170 7% 2028 313,847,465 78%Brazil* 1003 2% 985 193,946,886 46%Japan 1004 2% 978 127,368,088 80%Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 7
    • This is an online survey – and as such the results willunder-represent the consumption habits of people whoare not online (typically older, less affluent, and withlimited formal education). Where relevant, we have triedto make this clear within the text. Going forward, theseissues will become less of a factor as online penetrationgrows. In any case, the core purpose of this survey is notto deliver absolute numbers, but rather to track theactivities and changes within the digital space – as wellas gaining understanding about how offline media andonline media are used together.Dr David A. L. Levy is Director of the Reuters Institutefor the Study of Journalism, a Fellow of Green TempletonCollege, and an expert in media policy and regulation.He previously worked at the BBC both as a news andcurrent affairs producer, reporter, and editor, and later asController Public Policy. He is the author of EuropesDigital Revolution: Broadcasting Regulation, the EU and theNation State (Routledge 1999/2001), and joint editor withTim Gardam of The Price of Plurality (RISJ/Ofcom 2008),with Rasmus Kleis Nielsen of The Changing Business ofJournalism and its Implications for Democracy (RISJ, 2010)and with Robert G. Picard of Is there a Better Structure forNews Providers? The Potential in Charitable and TrustOwnership (RISJ, 2011). He recently co-authored ThePublic Appetite for Foreign News on TV and Online (RISJ,2013).Nic Newman is a journalist and digital strategist whoplayed a key role in shaping the BBC’s internet servicesover more than a decade. He was a founding member ofthe BBC News Website, leading international coverage asWorld Editor (1997–2001). As Head of ProductDevelopment he led digital teams, developing websites,mobile and interactive TV applications for all BBCJournalism sites. Nic is currently a Research Associate atthe Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism and asenior Research Fellow at City University London. He isalso a consultant on digital media, working actively withnews companies on product and business strategies fordigital transition.Authorship and Research Acknowledgements8Additional expert analysis and interpretation of the survey data was provided by the team at YouGov, in particular,Shaun Austin, Angharad Houlden, Ilana Tyler-Rubinstein and Bernadeta Wilk.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 8
    • 9News is becoming more mobile, more social, and morereal-time. This year’s survey reveals continuing shifts inhow, when, and where people access the news, withdigital patterns becoming more entrenched –particularly amongst the younger half of the population.Audiences increasingly want news on any device, in anyformat, and at any time of day.But our survey reveals that the multi-platform anddigital revolution is not proceeding at an even pace in allcountries. What happens in the US does not necessaryfollow automatically in Europe or elsewhere. Geography,culture, and government policy also play their part, withGermany and France still showing strong allegiance totraditional forms of media. We also see markeddifferences in‘participatory cultures’, with very differentrates of take up in social media, commenting, and votingacross our surveyed countries.For traditional brands – and especially newspapers –these changes bring ever-greater competition and moredisruption to business models. But this year’s surveyoffers some signs of hope for those investing in originalnews content. More people say theyve paid for digitalnews in the past 10 months and we have data for thefirst time about the types and frequency of digitalpayment. Traditional brands continue to attract thelargest online audiences and we find that trust in newsbrands remains uniquely valued by young and old. Welay out our data on subsequent pages and in full on ourwebsite, but first here is a summary of our key findings.Rapid Growth in Both Mobile and TabletUse for NewsTablet usage has doubled in the 10 months since the lastsurvey in those countries covered in both 2012 and2013. Weekly news use has risen from 8% to 16% of ourUK sample and from 13% to 25% in Denmark.2Mobile usage is also up substantially. In many countriessmartphone users are now in the majority3and most ofthem use these devices to access news every week.Denmark leads the way with 43% weekly news usagefrom a smartphone. Germany lags with 22%.Trend to Multi-Platform ConsumptionWhile the computer remains the primary device foraccessing digital news, the key underlying trend is aboutgrowth in access from multiple devices. One-third of ourentire global sample now gets news on at least twodevices and 9% use more than three.Executive Summary and Key FindingsNic Newman13% 11%8% 6% 5%25%16% 16%11% 10%Denmark US UK France Germany2012 2013Percent accessing news via tablet by country2These figures are not exactly comparable because we routed the questionsslightly differently last year. They are however consistent with other datashowing a sharp increase in news traffic from tablets.3Ofcom Technology tracker Oct.–Dec. 2012 shows 55% smartphone ownershipin the UK. A Pew Internet Project survey from Aug.–Sept. 2012 found 45% of USadults owned a smartphone (66% among 18–29 year olds).Q8a/Q8b: Which, if any, of the following devices have you used to accessnews in the last week?Base: UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark(n=1007)33%33idowtet neg33secivedaltgiitsaet ln as owe33Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 9
    • 10This is important because, along with other researchers,4we find that as people acquire more devices theyconsume more news in aggregate (time spent) – butalso access news more often throughout the day.5Some devices are used more heavily for news thanothers. 85% of computer users say they access news onthat device each week, compared with 63% ofsmartphone users, 60% of tablet users, 54% of smart TVusers, and only 17% for the e-reader.But multi-platform is not just about digital news.Across all of our countries, an average of 49% of thosewho access news on a tablet say they also read a printednewspaper at least once each week; 81% also watch TVnews and we see similar patterns with smartphoneusers.Digital may be impacting traditional platforms but it isnot yet replacing them. For most people digital news isextending the range of options available.See section 3.1. Multi-platform news and theImpact of tablets and smartphones, p. 47Uneven Pace of Change – Differencesbetween and within CountriesDespite the general growth of online and multi-platformnews, we find that a sizeable minority is sticking withtraditional platforms such as TV, radio, and print,particularly in Germany and France. Despite this beingan online survey, one in three of our French and Germansamples said they had only used traditional newsplatforms in the previous week. In Germany, we find that58% of our sample are using only traditional or mainlytraditional news platforms6– compared with 35% in theUS and 29% in Japan.See essay: Uwe Hasebrink and Sascha Hölig onthe reasons for Germany’s different path. p. 81Amongst online news users, we also see markeddifferences between countries over the extent to whichtraditional news brands are being disrupted. In countrieslike the UK and Denmark, traditional news brandscontinue to attract 80% or more of the online audience,whilst in Japan and the US‘pure players’and aggregatorshave attracted a much bigger market share. In the UK,the strength of broadcast brands is largely accounted forby the BBC, while in both the US and Japan it is a newerplayer, Yahoo that attracts most users with 32% and 63%respectively. Social media and blogs are used more as asource of news in Spain, Italy, urban Brazil, and the US,than in our other countries.UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Brazil JapanBroadcast news brands 45% 20% 36% 31% 18% 35% 35% 42% 38%Newspaper brands 35% 25% 42% 37% 26% 54% 31% 37% 66%Newer brands (HuffPost, Yahoo) 24% 28% 25% 38% 26% 18% 41% 43% 66%Social media, blogs 23% 21% 35% 35% 20% 33% 32% 51% 25%Frequency of access grows with devices (all countries)Q1b: Typically, how often do you access news (in any way)?Base: All markets (n=11004)Device Several times a dayALL News users 62%Computer 68%Smartphone 73%Tablet 75%Tablet and smartphone 86%All three 88%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Q3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as asource of news?Base: All markets (n=11004) Tablet users (n=2726) Smartphone users (n=5042)Percent of tablet and smartphone users using other mediasources weekly (all countries)How traditional news brands perform online by countryQ3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)4This is confirmed by other research – see Pew Research Center’s Project forExcellence in Journalism, Mobile Devices and News Consumption,http://stateofthemedia.org/2012/mobile-devices-and-news-consumption-some-good-signs-for-journalism.5This aggregate information is also borne out at country level (see p. 51).6We have segmented our samples using both platform- and interest-basedapproaches, which are explained on pp. 22–24.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 1081% TV news49% newspaper43% radio news77% TV news47% newspaper41% radio news
    • 11Executive SummaryThirdly we see marked differences in behaviour withincountries – with a clear divide between younger andolder groups. Younger people are more likely to usesocial media and aggregator brands and in all countriesthey show a strong preference for online. For‘under 45s’– almost half the population – the internet is now theMAIN source of news as well as their most frequentlyaccessed source. For‘over 45s’the main source remainsTV, with other traditional platforms also important.This is a split defined more by age than any otherdemographic factor and reflects the habits of those whohave grown up with the internet or have adapted to it aspart of their working lives.It should be noted that our numbers understate theimportance of traditional platforms because of our(online) sample. However this also means that theplatform differences noted above are likely to be evenmore marked amongst the older groups.Newspaper Readership and PurchaseThis is the first year we have collected data of newspaper(printed) purchase, so the most interesting findings arearound the differences between our nine surveyedcountries rather than changes over time.Claimed newspaper purchase (at least once a week)remains high in most countries. It is strongest in Japan(68%), Italy (59%), and Germany (56%) and lowest inFrance (39%) and the US (42%).There are sharp differences in the balance of ad hocpurchase (newsstand/shop) vs ongoing commitment(mainly home delivery). Japan has 84% home deliverywhereas in Italy 86% of purchases are at the newsstandor shops. Germany has a healthy balance, with a strongleaning to home delivery.Paying for Digital NewsWhilst 50% of our global sample (average) said they hadbought a printed newspaper in the last week, only 5%said they had paid for digital news in the same timeperiod. This is partly because the majority of onlinenewspapers still do not charge for news – although thatis changing rapidly with the erection of paywalls,combined subscriptions, and app-based purchases.Since our last survey, we’ve seen a significant rise inthe number of respondents paying for online news –albeit from a low base. In the UK 9% (+5) of our samplesaid they had paid for digital news in the last year. Franceis at 13% (+5) and USA 12% (+3).In the United States, we find that smartphone and tabletusers are significantly more likely to pay than other onlinenews users. Even after controlling for the followingvariables: interest in news, age, gender, education andincome, they are on average almost twice as likely to pay asthose who don’t use these devices.We do not see the samedevice impact in the UK where the eco-system around paidnews is less developed and there are a large number ofhigh quality free news apps in the market. .7All four of the countries surveyed for the first time in2013 show higher percentages of people who have paidfor digital news in the last year – with Brazil (24%) andItaly (21%) leading the way. Italy and Spain’s figures arelargely driven by one-off payments for apps and articleswhile the US and Denmark statistics are more fuelled byongoing digital subscription.Of those who are not currently paying, more thanone in ten (14% on average) said they were very likely orsomewhat likely to pay for digital news in the future (‘forsources that you like’). In Brazil the figure was a striking 58%.See section 2: Paying for News, p. 41See Essay: Robert G. Picard, ‘The Bottom Line’ p. 8950%32%25%50%Online TV18-44 45+!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!50%!50%18-44 45+!50%!!!!!Online!Online VT!!!!!!!!!!!Q4: You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, whichwould you say is your MAIN source of news?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week (n=10843)MAIN source of news by age (all countries)12%9%4%8% 6%10% 12%9%13%10%Denmark US UK France Germany2012 2013!Q7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digitalnews service?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973)Denmark(n=1007)Percentagesthatsaidyesinthelastweek,month, year or longerthan a yearPercent paying for digital news in past year by country7 The methodology behind our controlled regression test around the impact ofdevices on payment can be found on our website digitalnewsreport.orgDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 11
    • 12Where and When we Access the NewsThere are new data in this year’s survey from the UK andDenmark about the devices and locations used foraccessing news. These show tablets are still mainly usedin the home – and specifically in the living room.Everywhere else, given the choice, the smartphone ispreferred over the tablet as a way of accessing news.Portability trumps screen size.In the workplace 71% of news access comes via thecomputer, while in the car, radio still dominates (84%).On public transport in Denmark, people are twice aslikely to use a mobile phone for news (63%) as to read aprinted newspaper (33%). In the UK, the data show 48%use mobile phones, 34% use print, and 6% access newsvia a tablet.See section 1.4: Where and When do weAccess the News? p. 27Pathways to News – the Rise of the NewGatekeepersLast year, we were only able to ask the question abouthow people discover news in the UK. Now we are ableto see results from all nine countries, with significantdifferences emerging. Previous US research,8along withour survey last year, suggested that brand was still themost important pathway to news, followed by search,and then aggregators and social media. This does notappear to be a universal pattern.In France and Germany, search engines are the mostimportant gateway – used about twice as often as in theUK. In Brazil, social media are the top-ranked gateway forour urban-based online sample (60% said it was one ofthe five most important ways of finding news). The sameis true in Spain (45% social media compared with 40%for search). Japanese consumers, by contrast, are morelikely to get news from aggregators and portals, followedby search.!34% 33%48%63%6%13%UK DenmarkPrint Mobile Tablet!!!!!!!!Print!63%Print Mobile abletTTablet!!!!!!34%UK!63%13%kramneD!13%!!!!!UK!kramneDt!!!!!!!!!!!UK3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locations.Base: Those who access news while travelling via public transport UK (n=270) Den(n=92)Media used to access news on public transport(UK and Denmark)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanBrands 34% 32% 38% 35% 16% 55% 20% 47% 28%Search 24% 40% 40% 49% 45% 30% 33% 44% 39%Social 17% 50% 45% 38% 14% 22% 30% 60% 12%Aggregators 17% 16% 17% 16% 12% 7% 26% 37% 43%Most important gateways to newsQ10: Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across news stories? Chose up to five.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)8Pew State of the Media report 2012.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 12
    • 13Executive SummaryIn Denmark, Japan, the US (and the UK) there is arelatively equal split between Apple iPhones and otherdevices (mostly Android). Elsewhere, other operatingsystems such as Android and Blackberry tend todominate. Apple has only a quarter of the market inGermany (26%) and Spain (25%).See essay: Rasmus Kleis Nielsen explores theimpact of the new gatekeepeers, p. 75The Enduring Role of Brands and the Roleof TrustOur survey cast further light on the importance oftrusted news brands. In all countries we asked if peopleagreed that they preferred to get news from sites theyknow and trust. The figures were universally high, with90% supporting the proposition in Brazil, 82% in the US,and 77% in the UK. People who consume heavily and aremost absorbed by news are far more likely to agree withthe statement (90% of UK multiple device users).Asking the question in a different way (‘I don’t noticewhich sites I’m looking at…’) showed a slightly differentpicture. The UK, which has strong traditional newsbrands, showed the lowest levels of agreement (16%).Brazil (34%), France (37%), and Japan (44%) – which alldemonstrate greater usage of aggregators or newer‘pure player’brands – had the highest levels. One keyfactor in reducing brand recognition appears to be socialmedia. Heavy social media users in the UK are more likelyto agree that‘they don’t notice which sites’they areusing (23%).Beneath the headline numbers, however, again we seesignificant generational differences, with social medianow rated more important than search amongst the‘under 45s’. By contrast, amongst the‘over 45s’in the UK,only 9% think social media are an important way offinding news.This evidence from nine countries paints a picturewhere brands are being increasingly dis-intermediatedby a growing range of pathways to their content. This isespecially the case for light and occasional users and foryounger users.See section 3.5: Gateways: How AudiencesDiscover News Online, p. 61Facebook, Google, Apple, and Amazon now have asignificant and growing stake in the news industry. Theirprominence as gateways enables them to take a share ofadvertising revenue and/or a cut of subscriptionrevenues if, for example, people access via a brandedapp. Apple is a particularly dominant force in the newsbusiness in some countries – the UK, Denmark, and theUS – but less so elsewhere.9%23%27%47%UKUSUnder 45s Over 45Q10: Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main waysthat you come across news stories? (select up to FIVE).Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Germany (n=1062) Urban Brazil (n=985)Those using social media to FIND news (selected countries)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanApple iPhones 39% 26% 25% 33% 34% 47% 43% 28% 56%Apple iPads 63% 48% 42% 45% 51% 80% 58% 39% 70%Market share of Apple devices by countryQ8a: Which, if any, of the following devices do you ever use for any purpose? (Multiple answers allowed).Base: All smartphone users UK (n=1037) Germany (n=462) Spain (n=538) Japan (n=255) Italy (n=404) France (n=398) Denmark (n=617) Urban Brazil (n=418), US (n=913)All Tablet users UK (n=585) Germany (n=188) Spain (n=220) Japan (n=123) Italy (n=222) France (n=189) Denmark (n=360) Urban Brazil (n=295), US (n=545)UK France USUrbanBrazilJapanI prefer to get news fromsites I know and trust.77% 76% 82% 90% 71%I don’t notice which sitesI am looking at...16% 37% 24% 34% 44%Trust and brand recognition by (selected) countryQ9 : Thinking about the different kind of news available to you online, towhat extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements.Base: All UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Japan (n=985) France (n=973) Urban Brazil(n=985) % agreeDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 13
    • 14Trust in traditional brands was also high whencompared with blogs or social media. Broadcasterwebsites in the UK were trusted by 79%, withnewspapers showing over 60%. In comparison,Facebook (8%) and Twitter (9%) were widely mistrusted –although heavy social media users were significantlymore likely to trust what they found. Trust in newsbrands increases significantly with the amount of usage,so it is not surprising that smartphone and tablet newsusers also show more trust in traditional brands. We alsofind, in terms of their behaviour, that users of thesedevices are much more likely to go directly to a brand(50%) using a desktop icon, on a smartphone, comparedto the overall sample (34%). The more devices – and theheavier the use – the better they tend to do.See section 3.4: The Importance of Brandand the Role of Trust, p. 59The Impact of Tablets and Smartphoneson Brand PerformanceThis year we also asked respondents in all countriesabout specific news brands they accessed on differentdevices (computers, tablets, and smartphones) to see ifthere was an impact on market share.We find that brands that have a reputation forbreaking news, like Sky News in the UK, TF1 in France,and CNN in the US, tend to do better on mobile devices.Sky News has 15% share on the web and 25% on mobilein the UK, driven by a strong app offer and promotionfrom TV. In contrast, old-style web aggregators likeYahoo and MSN – where news services are linked todefault browser settings – seem to be losing out in anapp-based world – at least in the UK and US.These differences, however, are very much theexception. Most brands do about the same in terms ofmarket share on mobile and tablet as the general web,with the same problems of discovery.As tablets and smartphones become more mainstream,people seem to be accessing the brands they feelcomfortable with elsewhere. Although niche players can dowell, scale and the ability of brands to cut through acrossplatform are likely to become increasingly important.See section 3.3: Online News Sources –winners and losers, p. 53Partiality in NewsThere is a growing debate in parts of Europe about thecontinuing relevance of impartial news provision –particularly on television. Many parts of the world (theUS, Italy, and Brazil) already have a more partial, lessregulated media system. Our survey found a strongpreference in all countries for news that has‘no point ofview’– led by Japan (81%), France (78%), Germany (76%),and the UK (70%). Brazil was the big outlier with only 28%.In general about a quarter of our samples preferrednews that shared their viewpoint – lowest in Denmark(13%) and Japan (15%). The Brazilians (29%) and Danes(27%) love to be challenged by their news provider,whereas the Germans (1%) and Japanese (4%) do not.See essay: Paolo Mancini on‘Partiality and Polarisation of News’, p. 105Brand Computer Mobile Gain/Loss TabletSky News 15% 25% +10% 21%CNN 16% 19% +3% 16%TF1 10% 16% +6% 14%Yahoo (US) 37% 25% -12% 27%Yahoo (UK) 20% 8% -12% 9%MSN (US) 14% 10% -4% 10%Breaking news brands vs aggregators market share by platformQ8c : You say you access news via a computer,/mobile, tablet. When usingthat device which of the following news sources have you used in the lastweek ? Base variousBrand Computer Mobile TabletBild (Germany) 21% 21% 16%Daily Mail (UK) 18% 14% 16%La Republica (Italy) 34% 37% 38%Le Monde (France) 16% 18% 15%El Mundo (Spain) 24% 17% 22%New York Times (US) 11% 9% 12%Selected traditional news brands market share by platformQ8c:When using a computer, mobile or tablet to access news, which of thefollowing sources did you use in the last week? Base variousIt’s good to feelthat others sharemy concerns &interestsIt gives the viewerthe opportunity tocome to their ownconclusionsMore stimulatingand prepares youfor what theenemy thinks23% 66% 11%News that shares yourpoint of viewNews that has nopoint of viewNews that challengesyour point of viewAttitudes to partial or impartial news (all country view)Q5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do youprefer? (three options)Base: All markets (n=11004) % agree Respondent quotes from UKDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 14
    • 15Executive SummarySharing and Participation around NewsAs last year, we find that there are marked internationaldifferences in the level and types of online participationwith news. Taking one example – commenting on anews story via a social network – we can see that theSpanish (27%) Italians (26%), and Americans (21%) aremore than twice as likely to comment on a news storyvia a social network as the British (10%). Brazilians arearound five times more likely to comment than Germansor Japanese.More generally, Brazil (92%), Italy (85%), and Spain(84%) have the highest levels of participation andengagement when we aggregate 12 separate types ofonline and offline engagement. This compares withJapan (64%), which has the lowest level of participation,along with Northern European countries such asDenmark, the UK, and Germany. This suggests thatcultural factors (rather than access to technical tools)play the biggest part in the extent of onlineengagement with news.The sharing of news through online networkscontinues to grow. In Brazil, 44% of our sample of onlineusers said they share a news story on a weekly basis via asocial network. 32% did so by email.In the UK 18% had shared a news story in the lastweek by email or social network but amongst thoseactively interested in news the figures are much higher.29% of those with a high interest in news share a newslink at least once a week.There is conflicting evidence about whether adoption ofnew devices is encouraging these trends. In UnitedStates, Apple smartphone users are 41% more likely toshare news than other digital users – when controllingfor the following factors: interest in news, age, gender,education and income. Tablets, on the other hand, donot seem to significantly encourage sharing in the sameway when taking into account these variables.Facebook, email, and Twitter dominate the sharing ofnews content in the UK, where no other network getsmore than 3% weekly usage. We do not have data onsocial network usage from elsewhere but other researchshows the mix of networks can differ significantly.In the UK we have developed a model ofparticipation that shows that the majority of our samplenow participates in some way with news each week. Wehave identified a group of intense participators (10%)who engage proactively and share stories widely, oftenmany times a day, and a group of easy participators(30%) who like and rate stories and post occasionalcomments. A further group participates only offline(23%) by talking about news to friends and colleaguesand the remaining 37% are passive each week.See section 3.6: Participation andEngagement Online, p. 66Types of NewsWe find that digital news is gradually moving away fromthe article and picture format that has dominated foralmost 20 years. Short video clips and the streaming oflive news TV or radio coverage are becoming morepopular. Americans consume the largest amount ofshort form video (27%), almost twice as much as those inthe UK (14%), but when put together with podcasts andTV and radio streams almost half (47%) of our UK samplenow uses news audio or video each week. Anotherrecent innovation has been the development of liveblogs as a way of covering breaking news and sportsstories. 35% of our Japanese sample used these livepages at least once a week, with the French (19%),E !38%27% 26%21%11% 10% 10% 8% 7%Brazil Spain Italy US Denmark UK France Germany Japan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!38%!!!!!!!azilBr Spain!Spain talyI US!kenmarD UK!eancrF ymanerG!Japan!!!!!!!!International differences around commenting on news (in social networks)Q13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage?Base: UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 15
    • 16Italians and Spanish (16%) also enthusiastic. Only 8% ofour Danish sample consumes live blogs – but they preferto read longer articles (40%).See essay: Neil Thurman on ‘How Live Blogs areReconfiguring Breaking News’, p. 85Smart TVs and Connected NewsFinally, our survey focused on the fast-growing market ininternet-connected TVs, including some specificadditional questions in two countries: France and theUK.Overall, the Brazilians (13%), Italians (12%), French (11%),and Spanish (11%) use connected TVs most for news –running at about three times the levels seen in the UK orthe US.Our respondents strongly agreed with the propositionthat they would like to have more control over thescheduling of news content (like on a PC), 46% agreed inthe UK and 64% in France. Also our sample was keen tohave on-demand content fronted by a presenter theywere familiar with in France (57%) and also the UK (52%).When the whole sample was asked about potentialinterest in different types of on-demand news serviceson a television, there was a preference expressed forvideo content over text and a particular interest inbreaking news alerts for TV (64% interest in France and56% interest in the UK). Otherwise the most popular on-demand content on a TV was weather (53% France and48% UK).See essay: Dan Brilot on smart TV and the prospects fornews, with additional exclusive data from YouGov, p. 93ConclusionThis year’s data offer contradictory evidence about thenature and rate of change in the news industry. Theoverwhelming message is that audiences increasinglyexpect news that they can access anytime, anywhere.But that doesn’t mean they only want online news.Audiences may be embracing news on tablets andsmartphones but they still want to catch up withbroadcast news and they enjoy taking time with theprinted page. It’s a multi-platform world and becomingmore so.At the same time – and pulling in a differentdirection – we see the strong influence of habit, culture,and tradition. We see countries like Germany and Francethat are slow to change and we see significant groups –mainly older – within all countries who are refusing tojoin in the digital and multi-platform news revolutionaltogether. These divisions between and withincountries are making it increasingly difficult to addressaudience needs with the simplicity that was possible inthe past. Embracing digital is clearly the future, but newsbrands can’t afford to leave behind groups who still carryhuge influence and drive most of the revenue.Clearly news brands still matter but a strong nameand long heritage is no longer enough. Our data showthat there still is a yearning – in an ocean of content – fortrusted news across a range of subject areas, but newerbrands like Yahoo and the Huffington Post are alsoproving they can fill that role alongside a raft of specialistproviders, blogs, and social media too.Against this background, it is not surprising to seemore and more anguished debates around editorial anddistribution strategies. Most news organisations arereconfiguring their workflows for the multi-platform age– trying to drive more output to more platforms with thesame number (or fewer) journalists. Finding newaudiences and revenues is proving more challenging.Some news organisations are looking to exploit niches,others are pushing for scale and paywalls are going uparound the world. As ever, success will depend on acombination of clear strategies and a strongunderstanding of changing audience behaviours. In thatrespect, we hope this annual survey provides useful andinsightful data to help inform the challenges to come.Market share of of Smart TVs by countryQ8a/Q8b Which, if any, of the following devices do you ever use for anypurpose/ have you used to access news in the last week?Base: Selected countries UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Italy (n=965)France (n=973) Urban Brazil (n=985)13% 12% 11% 11%4% 4%UrbanBrazilItaly France Spain US UK!Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 16
    • Reuters InstituteDigital NewsReport 2013Section 1: News Consumption and Access1.1 Frequency of Access and Interest in News1.2 Segmentation Approaches1.3 Sources and Access to News1.4 When and Where do we Access the News?1.5 Interest in Different Types of News1.6 The Partiality and Polarisation of NewsSection 2: Paying for News2.1 Newspaper Purchase across Countries2.2 Paying for Digital NewsSection 3: Online News in Detail3.1 The Growth of Multi-Platform News3.2 Types of News Accessed Online3.3 Online News Sources3.4 The Importance of Brand and the Role of Trust3.5 Gateways: How Audiences Discover News Online3.6 Participation and Engagement OnlineDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 17
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 18
    • 19We here publish the key data tables from our 2013survey. For each section, we have provided a short pieceof context at the start and have selected the mostinteresting charts and tables – illustrated where relevantwith comments to explain the significance of a particularelement.The full questionnaire, additional charts and tables –plus the raw data – are available from our websitewww.digitalnewsreport.org.BackgroundIn order to understand the results it is important to setout the demographics and internet use in each country,which will contribute to some of the internationaldifferences that we find. We also offer a brief pen portraitof the media landscape in our nine surveyed countries,to help contextualise the results.IntroductionUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanInternet Population 52,731,209 67,483,860 31,606,233 35,800,000 52,228,905 4,989,108 245,203,319 88,494,756 101,228,736Male 48% 48% 49% 48% 49% 50% 48% 49% 49%Female 52% 52% 51% 52% 51% 51% 51% 51% 51%18 to 24 12% 10% 11% 9% 12% 13% 9% 21% 9%25 to 34 17% 14% 21% 18% 17% 16% 18% 24% 15%35 to 44 17% 18% 19% 19% 18% 19% 19% 21% 17%45 to 54 19% 18% 15% 16% 18% 21% 15% 16% 15%55+ 36% 39% 33% 38% 35% 31% 37% 18% 44%Figure 0.1: Internet penetration, gender and age breakdown by countryWhilst most of our countries see internet penetration of80% or more, Italy and Brazil in particular have far lowerlevels of access. In those countries we are looking at thehabits of around (or less than) half the adult population.It should also be noted that the Brazilian sample is(uniquely) an urban-based sample (and skews faryounger, with roughly half the proportion of over 55s,compared to the other countries surveyed). Theinternational comparisons will still be relevant in termsof understanding differences in the online sphere, butanyone interpreting these results should be careful notto suggest these figures represent the total adultpopulation, especially when considering offline versusonline consumption.United KingdomThe media environment is characterised by a vigorousand highly competitive national press – including astrong tabloid sector accounting for the majority ofnewspapers sold daily – and the best-known publicbroadcaster in the world. The BBC reaches around 80%of all consumers with news on all platforms each week.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 19
    • Introduction20GermanyThe country’s federal structure has shaped its mediaenvironment with a number of regional and nationalpublic broadcasters competing for audiences withpowerful commercial operators. Each of the 16 regionsregulates its own private and public broadcasting.Germany is home to some of the worlds largest mediaconglomerates, including Bertelsmann and the publisherAxel Springer. There are several national newspapers, butthe press market is strongest at a regional level, withmore than 300 titles. Newspapers and magazines havealso taken a lead online, with public service broadcastersfacing restrictions on the extent of their digital activities.SpainThe media in Spain have witnessed a significantexpansion in recent years with the emergence of newcommercial operators and the launch of digital services.Radio Television Espanola (RTVE) is the publicbroadcaster. There are 13 regional TV stations backed byregional governments and many local stations.Ownership of daily newspapers is concentrated withinlarge media groups with popular news brands such as ElPais and El Mundo leading the charge online.ItalySilvio Berlusconis Mediaset empire operates Italys topprivate TV stations, and the public broadcaster, Rai, hasalso been subject to political influence. Between them, Raiand Mediaset dominate Italys TV market, which remainsthe main source of news for the bulk of the population.The Italian press is highly regionalised, reflecting thecountrys history and character. Most newspapers areprivately owned, often linked to a political party, or run bya large media group. Newspaper readership figures(overall) are low compared to other European countries.FranceFrance has more than 100 daily newspapers. Most ofthem are in private hands and are not linked to politicalparties and the most successful papers are oftenregional rather than national. Online, many of the bestknown national titles such as Le Monde and Le Figaro facecompetition from new players such as Mediapart, Rue89,and now the Huffington Post. Television news remainspopular, with viewership split between FranceTélévisions, privately owned TF1, and a range of cableand satellite providers. Frances long-establishedcommercial radio, particularly RTL and Europe 1, stillcommands large audiences, along with a range ofpublicly funded stations such as France Inter.DenmarkDenmarks main public broadcaster, Danmarks Radio(DR), operates six TV networks alongside national andregional radio stations. It is funded by a licence fee and isalso a strong presence online. TV2, a government-ownedcommercial broadcaster, operates a round the clock TVnews channel along with a number of niche channels.Popular newspapers include Jyllands-Posten, Ekstra-Bladet, Berlingske Tidende, BT, and Politiken, all of whichhave a healthy market share online and have performedparticularly well compared with the websites of newsbroadcasters.United StatesThere are more than 1,500 daily newspapers in the US,most of them with a local or regional readership. Printcirculations are in long-term decline as readers turn tothe internet. More than 300 US newspapers, includingthe New York Times and the Los Angeles Times, have nowintroduced paywalls – twice as many as at this time lastyear.9In TV news, the big networks ABC, CBS, and NBCdominated for decades until the take-up of cable andsatellite and the arrival of Fox which is now the bestrated cable news network. There are around 10,000commercial radio stations, including many dedicated tonews, sports, and talk. The US is the home of the internetand so it is appropriate that one of the early pioneers,Yahoo, is the single biggest news provider online.Traditional news companies face new threats from pureplayers like the Huffington Post, now owned by AOL.BrazilSouth Americas biggest media market is home tothousands of radio stations and hundreds of TV channels.Media ownership is highly concentrated. Domesticconglomerates such as Globo, Brazils most-successfulbroadcaster, dominate the market and run TV and radionetworks, newspapers, and successful online operations.Brazilians are among the worlds top users of blogs andsocial networks and use of online is growing fast. GooglesOrkut and Facebook are the two biggest social networks.JapanThere are five national terrestrial TV companies,including publicly funded NHK, which also runs nationalradio networks. Newspaper readership is particularlyhigh, with around 80% of Japanese reading a paperevery day. National dailies sell in millions, circulationsboosted by afternoon and evening editions. Anincreasing number of newspapers charge for access totheir websites. Japan was amongst the first to offerinternet access via mobile phones, using walled-gardenservices like iMode. These feature phones are graduallybeing replaced by smartphones.9 http://mashable.com/2012/11/04/paywalls-infographic.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 20
    • 21Figure 1.1a: Daily news consumption by countryIn this section we lay out the overall shape of newsconsumption, the time spent on different devices, andalso explain in more detail the segmentation we haveused to drive our insights. We also explore interest indifferent types of news, such as political andentertainment news, along with attitudes to partialityand polarisation of news.Section 1. News Consumption And Access1.1 Frequency of Accessand Interest in NewsOur survey of online users showssome differences in how frequentlynews is accessed by consumers indifferent countries across allplatforms – TV, radio, and online. TheJapanese access news mostfrequently, with 9 in 10 accessingnews at least once a day comparedwith around three in four Americansin our sample. Across the fivecountries surveyed in 2012 (UK, US,France, Germany, and Denmark) theindividual country figures arebroadly comparable to last year butwe have seen a general uplift ofmore than 5%, which could relate tothe increased use of smartphonesand tablets. We have seen morepronounced changes in the UK andFrance, with increases of +11% and+ 7% respectively.!92% 89% 88% 86% 86% 85% 85% 83%76%Japan Denmark Urban Brazil UK Italy Germany France Spain US!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!92%!89% 88% 86%!% 86% 85%!85% 83%!!!!Japan enmarD!kenmar azilban BrUr UK!UK talyI ymanerG!eancrF Spain!US!!!!!!!!Q1b:Typically, how often do you access news (in any way)? By news we mean international, national, regional/local news and other topical events accessedvia radio, TV, newspaper or online.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)In general, daily news consumptionis significantly higher amongstmales in all of our surveyedcountries. It is also significantlyhigher amongst those aged 35+ andthose using smartphones.Interest in NewsAs well as frequency of access, wealso asked about levels of interest inthe news. Here, our sample fromurban Brazil claimed the highestinterest in news – while Italy and theUK showed the greatest number ofpeople who were only somewhat,not very, or not at all interested innews.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 21
    • Across all our countries (see Figure1.2a), interest in news increases withage, with the 55+ group registering20 percentage points higher thanthe 18–24s. Again, men say they aremore interested in news thanwomen.1. News Consumption and Access22Male Female 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Interested in news 78% 70% 60% 68% 72% 77% 80%Q1c: How interested, if at all, would you say you are in news?Base: All markets (n=11004)Figure 1.1b: Interest in news by country87%81% 80%75% 74% 71% 71%67% 67%12%19% 20%25% 26% 29% 29% 32% 33%Urban Brazil Spain Germany France Denmark US Japan Italy UKInterested Not very interestedGermany and Spain have mostinterest in our European countriesQ1c: How interested, if at all, would you say you are in news.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Figure 1.1c: Interest in news increases with age (ALL countries)1.2 SegmentationApproachesNews interest segmentationWe have combined these metrics offrequency and interest to give us afirst non-overlapping categorisationof the news universe that we canapply across all of our countries.• News Lovers: These are peoplewho access the news severaltimes a day and say they areextremely interested in the news.• Daily Briefers: These are peoplewho also access the news severaltimes a day but they say they area bit less interested (very orsomewhat) in the news.• Casual Users: These are peoplewho consume less frequently –anything between once a day toonce a month – and they alsotend to be less interested in thenews with a majority onlysomewhat interested in news.• Non Users: The people whoexcluded themselves from thesurvey who say they access newsless often than once a month(depending on the country, thiswas between 2% in Japan,Denmark, and Brazil, 7% in theUnited States, and 9% in the UK).We’ll refer back to these groupingsthroughout this study. News Loversconsume more, share more, arewealthier, and are more likely to payfor news, but Daily Briefers areimportant in reaching massaudiences, which remains importantfor advertisers. The majority ofconsumers across countries can beconsidered‘Daily Briefers’. The US hasthe highest proportion of CasualUsers, but also a high proportion ofNews Lovers. Denmark has both thehighest proportion of News Loversand the lowest share of Casual Users,along with Brazil.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 22
    • 231. News Consumption and AccessUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanNews Lovers 22% 22% 17% 24% 17% 27% 26% 25% 21%Daily Briefers 51% 55% 56% 51% 58% 55% 41% 58% 63%Casual Users 28% 24% 26% 26% 26% 18% 33% 18% 16%Figure 1.2a: News interest segmentation by countryUK exampleWithin a country like the UnitedKingdom, we can roughly mapthese groups to get a sense of thetotal size of each group. Assuming50m UK adults over 18, internetpenetration of 84%, and 9% non-news users, this would produce theaddressable groups shown in Figure1.2b.InterestinnewsFrequency of access12.74m23.2m10.01m4.5m Not interestedCasual usersDaily briefersNews loversIndicative base of 50m UK adults, 84% internet access and 9% of them not accessing news (not interested) in thelast monthFigure 1.2b: UK online users segmented by level interest and frequency of access• News Lovers: Are much morelikely to own a smartphone andtablet; they are twice as likely touse Twitter for news as theaverage. They tend to be male(57%) and have higher incomesand social grade (heavy skew toAB). They are particularlyinterested in politics andinternational news but onlyshow an average interest inentertainment and celebritynews. They are heavy onlineusers but are twice as likely touse quality‘broadsheet’printednewspapers along with the BBCand Sky News for televisionnews. They are twice as likely tohave paid for a digital newsservice in the last week as DailyBriefers.• Casual Users: Tend to be female(60%) and more traditional intheir media habits. They seem tobe particularly attached to print,especially mid-market andpopular newspapers andmagazines. A significantminority of this group use onlytraditional media sources (31%).They are particularlyuninterested by internationaland political news. They tend tohave lower incomes and befrom lower social grades (C2DE).Many own smartphones andtablets but are less likely to usethem for news than the othergroups.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:12 Page 23
    • Platform segmentationIn a second categorisation, we havesplit our samples by platform use.This non-overlapping segmentationis achieved by looking at thenumber and type of devices used toaccess news (see Figure 1.2c).These segments were cross-checked with claimed time spent(where data was available in the UKto ensure this approach was robust).When applying this to all ourcountries we can see that manyEuropean countries tend to have astronger attachment to traditionalmethods of access than say theUnited States, Brazil, and Japan.1. News Consumption and Access24OfflineOnline03+2101 2 3+Online onlyModerateMainly trad.Trad.onlyHeavyMainly onlineThese segments were cross-checked with claimed time spent (where data was available in the UK) to ensurethis approach was robust.Figure 1.2c: Audience segments by platform used to access news(Representation of approach)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanInternet penetration 84% 83% 67% 58% 80% 90% 78% 46% 80%Online only* 8% 6% 9% 11% 6% 6% 11% 11% 13%Mainly online 7% 5% 10% 11% 6% 9% 14% 18% 10%Half half** 39% 31% 38% 40% 33% 39% 40% 48% 48%Mainly traditional 20% 25% 22% 20% 24% 28% 12% 15% 16%Traditional only*** 25% 33% 20% 19% 32% 18% 23% 9% 13%Figure 1.2d: Segments based on platform preference (by country)* Online only: This is a smaller segment and a slightly schizophrenic one. They include some heavy news users but also a large number who are not particularlyinterested in news at all. This segment has a relatively high proportion of 18-24s.**The half and half segment contains the secondary group of heavy multi-channel users.This sub-group makes up around 10% of the total sample and its memberscombine multiple traditional and online sources each week They have much in common with news lovers, they are more likely to pay for news, and are heavily intosocial media. We will refer to this sub-group from time to time.*** Traditional only: These users tend to be older with a female bias across all countries.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Despite this being an online sample,one in three of both the French andGermans – and one in four in the UK– say they have only used traditionalways of accessing news in the lastweek (see Figure 1.2d). In bothcountries over 55% of our sample isusing traditional only or mainlytraditional news consumption(compared with 35% in the US and29% in Japan). The Japanese and oursample from urban Brazil are leadingthe charge for mainly online andexclusively online news habits.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 24
    • 251. News Consumption and AccessUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanTV 79% 82% 72% 74% 84% 85% 72% 75% 69%Radio 37% 51% 39% 34% 44% 53% 28% 19% 24%Print 59% 63% 61% 59% 46% 49% 47% 50% 63%Online 74% 66% 79% 80% 68% 81% 75% 90% 85%Figure 1.3a: Platforms used to access news on a weekly basis (Frequency)Q3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)1.3 Sources and Access toNewsWe asked respondents to tell usabout the sources they used fornews. Our questions broke thisdown into different types oftelevision, radio, print, and onlinenews, so we could understand thefull granularity and complexity. In anonline context, for example, it isuseful to be able to distinguishbetween the websites of traditionalmedia outlets, aggregators, socialmedia, and blogs. We can thenaggregate these sources backtogether to get a picture of theoverall platform balance betweenTV, radio, print, and online for therespondents to this online surveyacross all of our countries.France and Germany have thelowest levels of online news access,with both countries showing strongallegiance to traditional newsplatforms.Online and television newsremain the two most frequentlyaccessed platforms for news amongour online survey respondents in allour countries. Online is furthestahead in Japan and with our urbansample in Brazil. When taking intoaccount those who are offline (56%in Brazil and 42% in Italy, forexample), television news is likely tobe ahead pretty much everywhere.UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanTV 41% 43% 33% 39% 57% 44% 43% 38% 35%Radio 7% 13% 9% 5% 12% 8% 5% 2% 4%Print 15% 18% 15% 13% 6% 11% 9% 6% 20%Online 35% 25% 41% 42% 23% 35% 39% 53% 39%Figure 1.3b: MAIN news platform by countryQ4: You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, which would you say is MOST IMPORTANT or which would you say is your main news?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)We also asked respondents abouttheir MAIN or most importantsource of news. Here we see asimilar story. Television and onlineare the two platforms that ourrespondents value or rely on most.Once again Germany and Franceshow themselves with a strongpreference for TV over online, withBrazil and Japan narrowly preferringonline (see Figure 1.3b).Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 25
    • 1. News Consumption and Access26The picture changes when we lookat the importance assigned bydifferent age groups. Looking at ALLour countries together, we can seethat there is a significant dividedeveloping between the under 35swho prefer online and those agedover 45 who strongly prefertelevision.All countries follow this pattern withthe exception of France, whereyoung people still show a strongloyalty to television news and havenot embraced internet news in asignificant way.56%28%55%28%42%38%32%47%21%55%Online TV18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+56% 55%18-24 25-34 35-44 45-5455%45-54 55+OnlineOnline VTFigure 1.3c: Main news platform by age (Online vs Television) - ALL countriesQ4:You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, which would you say is your MAIN sourceof news?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week (n=10843 )31%52%36%52%24%53%23%56%13%64%Online TV18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+… all across columns or split into two possibly (and maybe the columns without st !!!!!!!!!18-24 25-34!52% 52% 53% 56%35-44 45-54 55+!56%64%!!!!31%!31%36%24% 23%13%Online!VT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!64%20%61%23%41% 41%35%49%25%54%Online TV18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+64% 61%18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+54%55+41%35%Online20% 23%41%35%25%T41%49%VTFigure 1.3d: Main news platform by age (Online vs Television) - ALL countriesQ4: You say you’ve used these sources of news in the last week, which would you say is your MAINsource of news?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week France (n=963), US (n=1916)FranceUnited StatesDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 26
    • 271. News Consumption and Access1.4 Where and When do weAccess the News?Typically consumers in the UnitedKingdom access news first thing inthe morning or early evening.Younger people tend to access in amore even way throughout the day.Older people such as the over 55sare more likely to follow thebreakfast, lunch, and early eveningpeaks, compared with all thegroupings under 45. Even the 35–44s seem to be losing thecommitment for appointment-to-view news bulletins in the early andlate evening.We can also see the impact of agewhen we look at UK data showingthe time people spend on differentdevices. Not only do the youngvalue online news more than TV,they also spend more time withcomputers – along withconsiderable amounts of additionaltime on smartphones and tablets.Older groups spend far more timewith traditional media, such as TVnews, radio news, and print.2519 1832222820 192520182922 2117213223202920 18 162137272426152321 194531 302512172516TV Radio PrintedPublicationComputer Mobile Phone Tablet E-reader Smart TV18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 +QS1: On a typical day, how much time do you spend accessing news on EACH of the following?Base All UK=2078Chart shows mean time spent per day in minutesFigure 1.3e: Mean time spent accessing news by device per day UK (minutes)0%10%20%30%40%50%60%First thingin themorningLater in themorningLunchtime Afternoon EarlyeveningLateeveningLast thingat nightAll 18-24 25-34!35-44 45-54 55+QS2: When do you typically access the news?Base: UK=2078 18 to 24 (n=269) 25 to 34: (n=286) 35 to 44: (n=321) 45 to 54 (n=383) 55+ (n=819)Figure 1.4a: News access across the day by age (UK)Traditional forms of accessingnews are more popular amongolder age groupsDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 27
    • Looking at our segments, we cansee that traditional users are morelikely to have fixed times of day forconsuming the news, whereas themainly online and heavy multi-channel groups tend to accessthroughout the day (50% and 61%respectively) reflecting the greaterease of access to online newsoutside the home. Heavy multi-channel users also extend theirnews consumption right through tobedtime.Locations for newsFor the first time, this year we havebeen able to look in detail atlocations and devices used for newsacross the day in two of ourcountries, Denmark and the UK. Theoverall patterns in both countriesare almost identical, with most newsuse in the home – followed bycommuting and work.1. News Consumption and Access280%10%20%30%40%50%60%First thingin themorningLater in themorningLunchtime Afternoon EarlyeveningLateeveningLast thingat nightAll Mainly online Half/halfMainly online Heavy MultichannelQS2: When do you typically access the news?Base: UK=2078 Mainly Online (n=162) Half/ half (n=791) Mainly traditional (n=400) Half/ half moderate (n=597)Heavy multichannel (n=194)Figure 1.4b: News access across the day by platform segment (UK)!68%46%24%20%13%9%4%3%71%41%31%28%9%6%5%6%At home: communalAt home: personalAt workCommuting personal eg carCommuting on public transportOut and about generallyOther people’s homesAt a place of studyUK Denmark!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!t home: cAt home: personalAommuting personal eg carC!ommunalt home: ct home: personalkort wAommuting personal eg car!68%!68%71%!!!!ommuting on public trCut and about generOther peopleOt a placA!tansporommuting on public trallyut and about geners homes’ther peoplee of studyt a plac!!!!!!!!!!!QS3A: Where were you when you looked at/listened to the news over the last few days?Base: UK=2078, Denmark =994Figure 1.4c: Where news is accessed (UK vs Denmark)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 28
    • 291. News Consumption and AccessWhen we look at the specificplatforms used in each location, wecan see how the internet plays abigger role at work and on themove. In general traditional mediaare not being replaced, althoughprint is clearly being substituted insome areas.Television is the main source ofnews in the living room but thecomputer takes over in personalspaces at home and at work. Radiodominates in the car. One elementto note is the amount of media thatare consumed in the communalspace, with computers,smartphones, and tablets nowcompeting with newspapers,magazines, and radio.We see the greatest effects ofsubstitution on the daily commutevia public transport, traditionally aheartland for newspaper reading. Inthe UK and Denmark, the mobilephone has overtaken print as themain way of consuming news onthe way to work. In Denmark,people are twice as likely to use amobile phone for news (63%) thanread a printed newspaper (33%).On UK public transport 48% usemobile phones, 34% use print, and6% access news via a tablet –though print is still ahead in London(56%), probably because ofavailability of strong freenewspapers and limited internetaccess on the Underground.The tablet remains largelyconfined to the home – certainly inthe UK – although the arrival ofsmaller more mobile 7”tablets maychange the mix in years to come.Once again, the shift towards digitalis being led by younger age groups,with the over 45s largely stickingwith print.87%54%7% 7%0%40%29%33%14%94%32%16% 16%33%2%52%59%75%13%1%24% 27% 24%63%10%19% 19%5%13%2%At home: communalspaceAt home: personalspaceAt work: o ce, shopetcCommuting via publictransportCommuting via car(personal)Television Radio Printed publicationInternet via computer Internet via mobile Internet via tabletQS3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locationsBase: At home : communal (n=1421) At home: personal (n=957) At work (n=482) At place of study (n=70) While travelling via public transport (n=270) While travelling viaprivate transport (n=400)Figure 1.4d: News sources uses by location (Denmark)!34% 33%48%63%6%13%UKPrint Mobile Tablet!!!!!!!!!!Print!Print Mobile abletTTablet!!!!!!34%!63%!13%!!!!!KU!!!!!!!!!!LondonSouthEastNorthMobile 46% 56% 48%Print56% 25% 28%Figure 1.4e: Changing face of media use on public transport (UK)QS3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locationsBase: While travelling via public transport UK (n=270) Den (n=92) ,Those who have looked at news on public transport in last days London (n=66), South East (n=61, North (n=71)UK DenmarkDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 29
    • 1.5 Interest in DifferentTypes of NewsWe asked all our respondents toselect their five most importanttypes of news (see Figure 1.5a). Aswith last year, domestic news is themost popular type of news, closelyfollowed by international, local, andregional news. Mirroring politicaland media structures, we see thatregional news is most important inGermany. Local news matters morein a vast country like the UnitedStates where city newspapers andlocal TV stations have become acore part of the media diet. Oursample from urban Brazil tends toplace more importance on businessand financial news, health andeducation news, and science andtechnology news.The mobile phone is also by far themost important source of newswhen‘out and about generally’. Ofthose who looked for news in thisway, 76% used a mobile phone inthe UK, compared with 18% usingprinted newspapers. In Denmark thenumbers are 85% by phone and13% reading newspapers in print.Despite platform substitutionthere is no evidence that brands arebeing substituted. Some of the mostsuccessful brands on the move inboth countries are free newspaperssuch as Metro in the UK, which hasbeen pursuing an aggressive digitalstrategy and is widely used on tabletand mobile, as well as in print.In terms of personal transport –largely cars but also bikes – mobilephones are also making inroads as asource of news, not least becausethey can access audio-based newspodcasts or other on-demand newscontent which can plug intoheadphones or a car sound system.1. News Consumption and Access30vate transport!84%94%13% 10%6% 2%UK DenmarkRadio Mobile Print!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!daR!94%10%oid Mobile Print!!!!!!UK!10%kenmarD!2%k!!!!!!!!Figure 1.4f: Changing shape of media use (private transport)UK3B: Please mention the key news media you used in these locations.Base: While travelling via private transport UK (n=400) Denmark (n=283)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 30
    • 311. News Consumption and AccessLooking at an aggregated view ofour entire sample of 11,000 peoplewe can see significant differences byage and gender (see Figure 1.5b).Men are much more interested insports news, political news, andbusiness and economic news.Women place more importance onhealth and education news, localnews, and especially entertainmentand celebrity news. In terms of age,interest in political and economicnews grows as people get older. Incontrast, entertainment and scienceand technology news are of greaterinterest for younger groups.Figure 1.5a: Interest in types of news by countryUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanNews about thecountry71% 70% 64% 62% 66% 70% 57% 73% 62%International news 53% 67% 44% 42% 54% 66% 56% 42% 48%Local news about mytown or city49% 47% 42% 49% 31% 48% 59% 52% 30%News about myregion44% 53% 43% 38% 41% 27% 31% 16% 37%Business andfinancial news20% 18% 14% 16% 18% 24% 22% 30% 27%News about theeconomy44% 31% 41% 40% 35% 36% 52% 29% 48%Entertainment andcelebrity news20% 18% 13% 15% 13% 14% 14% 24% 18%Health andeducational news28% 27% 38% 35% 36% 29% 29% 55% 18%Arts and culturenews11% 8% 21% 19% 17% 16% 9% 23% 20%Sports news 31% 28% 36% 33% 27% 31% 23% 35% 32%News about thecountry’s politics37% 50% 43% 52% 45% 51% 54% 34% 60%Science andtechnology news22% 29% 30% 31% 31% 30% 26% 40% 26%Q2 Which of the following types of news is most important to you? Please choose up to five.Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Figure 1.5b: Interest in news by age and gender (all countries)Male Female 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55+News about the country 63% 68% 60% 62% 67% 69% 68%International news 54% 52% 48% 47% 49% 54% 59%Local news about mytown or city42% 52% 36% 41% 49% 51% 51%News about myregion32% 42% 25% 31% 36% 40% 43%Business andfinancial news27% 15% 17% 20% 21% 20% 22%News about the economy 46% 36% 30% 34% 37% 44% 49%Entertainment andcelebrity news9% 24% 25% 25% 20% 14% 9%Health andeducational news21% 43% 35% 35% 31% 31% 30%Arts and culture news 11% 19% 19% 16% 14% 12% 15%Sports news 44% 16% 28% 29% 33% 32% 28%News about the country’spolitics52% 42% 36% 35% 42% 48% 58%Science and technologynews35% 22% 40% 32% 27% 27% 25%Q2: Which of the following types of news is most important to you? Please choose up to five.Base: All markets (n=11004) 18-24 (n=1244), 25-34 (n=1927) 35-44 (n=2043) 45-54 (n=1889), 55+ (n=3901)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 31
    • We can also look at the impact ofplatform usage on different types ofnews through our multi-countrysegmentation. Traditional users tendto be comfortable with the broadsubject areas dealt with in televisionand radio news bulletins, such asregional news and country news.Those who use multiple onlinesources (mainly online and heavymulti-channel) are more likely tovalue niche areas such asentertainment as well as scienceand technology news – subjectsthat the internet is able to cover infar greater depth.In our other segment, NewsLovers are more interested in politicsand business and financial news. Incontrast, Daily Briefers and CasualUsers are relatively more interestedin local news, regional news, andhealth and education news.1. News Consumption and Access32Figure 1.5c: Interest in news by platform segment(see Figure 1.2d for explanation of segmentation)HeavymultichannelMainlyonlineHalf/halfmoderateMainlytraditionalTraditionalonlyNews about the country 69% 67% 67% 72% 63%International news 63% 58% 50% 61% 48%Local news about mytown or city46% 44% 48% 49% 52%News about myregion32% 30% 37% 41% 44%Business andfinancial news28% 26% 20% 24% 16%News about the economy 47% 44% 41% 46% 39%Entertainment andcelebrity news19% 21% 18% 15% 12%Health andeducational news33% 33% 32% 34% 27%Arts and culture news 20% 20% 14% 17% 10%Sports news 35% 33% 31% 34% 27%News about the country’spolitics56% 53% 45% 55% 43%Science and technologynews36% 41% 29% 27% 19%Q2: Which of the following types of news is most important to you? Please choose up to fiveBase: All countries (n=11004), Heavy multichannel (n=1200), Mainly online (n=1090), Half/half mod (n=3055),Mainly traditional (n=2105), Traditional only (n=2365)!11%16%22%38%42%33%18%8%7%4%UK politicsGerman politicsExtremely interested Very interested Somewhat interestedNot very interested Not at all interested Dont know54%33%25%12%Political news and politicalengagementThis year we have been able to askdetailed questions about politicalnews in Germany and the UnitedKingdom and this offers theopportunity to compare the ways inwhich political news is found andconsumed – as well as exploringlevels of political participation online.Researchers are particularlyinterested in understanding theseissues because a strong democracyis felt to depend on a high quality ofinformation – where a range ofviews can be easily obtained anddebated. So how do our twocountries match up?Figure 1.5d: Interest in politics – Germany vs UKQS4a: How interested would you say you are in politics?Base: UK (n=2078); Germany (n=1062)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 32
    • 331. News Consumption and AccessInterest in political newsThe degree of interest in politicalnews varies considerably by age andgender. In general, men take a moreactive interest than women, andolder people more than the young.This is particularly the case inGermany, but less so in the UKwhere younger people showinterest in politics close to theaverage. There is no obviousenthusiasm for politics amongstolder groups in the UK either.In the UK, there is also someevidence from our survey of a lowlevel of political interest amongworking-class voters – somethingthat has been a long-standingconcern of left of centre politicalparties. Among council tenants, only26% had a high level of interest inpolitics, compared with 39% forthose who owned their own homes.Sources of political newsIn both the UK and Germany,broadcasters (via TV, radio, andinternet) are top sources of news.Reflecting the German federalmodel, local/regional newspapersare more important than in the UKwhere political power is much morecentralised. Political magazines (e.g.Focus) are much more widely read inGermany than in the UK, wherepublications like the New Statesmanand The Spectator tend to bereserved for narrow political elitesand national newspapers tend tosee their role as helping to set thepolitical agenda.All Male Female 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Germany 54% 65% 44% 37% 42% 50% 58% 63%UK 33% 42% 24% 33% 28% 29% 32% 37%QS4a: How interested would you say you are in politics?Base: UK (n=2078); Germany (n=1062)Figure 1.5e: Interest in politics by age and genderOverall, interest in politics issignificantly higher in Germany thanin the United Kingdom. In Germany54% of our sample say they areeither extremely interested or veryinterested in politics, compared withjust 33% in the UK. In addition, twiceas many of our UK respondents(25%) said they were not veryinterested or not at all interested inpolitics compared with those inGermany (12%). The two countrieshave similar levels of internetpenetration and age profiles andthere were no significant electionsduring our survey.!1%4%25%17%15%13%32%51%36%72%2%4%7%9%10%16%25%27%52%72%Don’t knowNone of thesePolitically focussed magazines inclonlineEmail newsletters/alertsOnline specialist or political blogsSocial media eg FecebookFriends, relatives or colleaguesLocal newspapers (print or online)National newspapers (print or online)Broadcasters (TV, radio or online)UK GermanyFigure 1.5f: Sources of political news UK vs GermanyQS4b: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with political andgovernment issues?Base: Interested in political news: UK (n=1924) Germany (n= 968)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 33
    • 1. News Consumption and Access34Political engagementInternet news users in the UnitedKingdom show slightly morewillingness to engage online withpolitical activities than their Germancounterparts despite a lower level ofoverall interest.Although general levels of onlineengagement with politics are stillrelatively low, particular groups ofusers are adopting these newtechniques more enthusiastically. Ofthose who are interested in politicalnews (75% of the sample in the UKand 88% in Germany) at least aquarter had signed an onlinepetition on politics in the past year.A small percentage were following apolitician via social networks, butthis rises to one in four social mediausers and heavy multi-channel users(see Figure 1.2c for explanation ofthis group). 18–24s are four timesmore likely to follow a politician viasocial media than the over 55s inGermany and six times as likely inthe UK.!5%52%13%6%5%10%13%12%25%2%48%3%8%10%10%14%14%38%Don’t knowNone of theseVolunteered for political activityFollowed politician via social mediaJoined campaign via social mediaPosted on politics to news sitePosted on politics to social media siteSent email on political issueSigned online petitionUK GermanyFigure 1.5g: Online engagement and activism UK vs GermanyQS4c: In which, if any, of the following ways have you used the internet in the last year to get moreinvolved in politics or express a political opinion? Please select all that applyBase: Those interested in political news: UK (n=1924) Germany (n= 968)Germany UKAll 6% 8%18-24s 17% 19%55+ 4% 3%Social Media users 16% 26%HeavyMultichannel13% 27%Germany UKAll 25% 38%18-24s 28% 46%55+ 24% 41%Social Media users 35% 52%HeavyMultichannel47% 59%Figure 1.5h: Forms of online political engagementSigning an online petition Following a politician via social mediaQS4c: In which, if any, of the following ways have you used the internet in the last year to get moreinvolved in politics or express a political opinion? Please select all that applyBase: Interested in political news: UK (n=1924) Germany (n= 968)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 34
    • 351. News Consumption and AccessPolitical news is much more valuedoverall, but it is clear thatentertainment news is much morepolarised. People either love it orhate it. Interest is driven by womenfar more than by men and by theunder 45s.Entertainment newsOne of the most striking findingsfrom last year’s survey was that theUnited Kingdom had the lowestlevel of interest in political news butthe highest level of interest inentertainment and celebrity news.The UK stands out again in thisrespect in the 2013 survey (seeFigure 1.5a) against all our countriesapart from urban Brazil. This year wehave drilled down in more detail tosee what is driving these trends inthe UK.!11%5%22%11%42%32%18%27%7%25%Political newsEntertainment andcelebrity newsExtremely interested Very interested Somewhat interestedNot very interested Not at all interested Dont know16%33% 52%25%Figure 1.5i: Interest in entertainment vs political news in the UKQS4a/QS5a: How interested would you say you are in politics news/entertainment and celebrity news?Base: UK=2078Male Female 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Very/extremelyinterested10% 21% 21% 33% 22% 11% 5%QS5a: How interested would you say you are in entertainment and celebrity news?Base: UK=2078 , Extremely or very interested (n=323)Figure 1.5j: Interest in entertainment news by age and genderDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 35
    • In terms of sources of entertainmentnews, national newspapers and theirwebsites play a significant role andbroadcasters a less significant rolecompared with other genres. Forthose with the strongest interest inthe subject social media andcelebrity-focused magazines are asimportant as national newspapersand broadcasters. There is also asignificant role for online blogs andspecialist sites like TMZ and DigitalSpy. Together with the strongentertainment focus of sites like MailOnline, there is evidence that onlineis fuelling interest in this form ofnews, providing moreentertainment news at a greaterlevel of frequency than in a mainlyanalogue world.1. News Consumption and Access360%1%13%29%19%47%48%42%51%54%3%13%5%10%12%18%23%25%42%46%Don’t knowNoneof theseEmail newsletters/alertsOnline specialist sites/blogsLocal newspapers(print or online)Magazines (print or online)Social media eg FacebookFriends, relatives or colleaguesNational newspapers(print oronline)Broadcasters (TV radio or online)ALL Very or extremely interestedFigure 1.5k: Sources for entertainment and celebrity news (UK)QS5b: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with entertainment and celebrity news?Base: ALL Interested in entertainment news:1528 Net very and extremely interested (n=323)TOP BRANDS… for those interested in entertainmentnewsOffline•" Sun•" Star•" MetroOnline•" Mail Online•" Sun Online•" MSNSpecialistDigital SpyFacebookANDSOP BRTd in enteerest… for those int""""""inmentaterd in ent""""""swwsneOffline• Sun• tarS• oetrMnlineO• ail OnlineM""""""""""""• Sun Online• MSNecialistSpyital SpDigebookacF""""""!8%11%5%29%22%11%49%42%32%10%18%27%3%7%25%International newsPolitical newsEntertainment andcelebrityExtremely interested Very interested Somewhat interestedNot very interested Not at all interested Dont know13%25%52%Figure: 1.5l: Interest in international vs political vs entertainment newsQS4a/5a/6a: How interested would you say you are in politics news/entertainment and celebrity news/international news?Base: UK(n=2078)Interest in international news inthe UKInternational news has the smallestnumber of people who say they arenot interested, compared with theother two categories. This may bebecause this category covers such awide range of stories or because it isless socially acceptable to say youare not interested in events outsideyour own country.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 36
    • 37In terms of sources for internationalnews, one striking finding is howforeign broadcasters andnewspapers have become animportant part of the media mix inthe UK, with a combination of multi-channel TV and the choice providedby the internet. This is particularlythe case for those who are mostinterested in the subject.Comparing the influence of UKnewspapers on different types ofnewsThere has been much written aboutthe importance of UK newspapers inproviding information and definingthe agenda around subjects likepolitics and international news,together with a diet of scoops aboutthe royal family and televisioncelebrities. By looking at those mostinterested in these different types ofnews (see Figure 1.5n overleaf) wecan see that newspapers in the UKhave not lost influence in the moveto online. Broadsheet newspapers,like The Times, the Daily Telegraph,and the Guardian, play if anything amore important role online whereusers tend to be more promiscuousand interested news users will oftengravitate towards the mostdistinctive content. We see the sameeffect with entertainment news. Inthis case, though, the distinctive andexclusive content is produced bymid-market and popularnewspapers and interestedaudiences are more likely to find thiscontent than is the case offline.B!10%19%28%13%14%19%26%56%73%5%12%17%7%8%14%17%47%67%Email newslettersNon UK newspapers and websitesNon UK broadcasters and websitesInternational Magazines and websitesOnline only international sites or blogsSocial media eg FacebookFriends, relatives or colleaguesNational newspapers (print and online)Broadcasters (TV, radio and online)ALL Very or extremely interested!!!!!!!!ers (oadcastBr!adio and online), rVV, rTers (ALL emely intrxy or eerV!73%47%67%edestertemely in!!!!!ertOnline only inocial media eg FS, riendsrFspapers (prtional newNa!es or blogstional sitnaebookacocial media eg Folleagueses or ctivela, rt and online)inspapers (pr!14%19%26%56%8%14%17%47%!!!!!wenKUnoNdaorbKUnoNagazines and wtional MnaertnI!5%7%ersslettEmail newsetisbewdnasrepapswsetisbewdnasretsacdesebsitagazines and w!10%19%28%13%5%12%17%7%!!!!!!!!!!Figure 1.5m: Sources for international news (UK)QS5b: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with international news?Base: Those Interested in international news (n=1998), Extremely and very interested (n=678)International news providerstional neernatnI vidersos prwtional ne1. News Consumption and AccessDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 37
    • 1.6 Partiality andPolarisation of NewsIn most democratic countries,broadcast media have historicallybeen required to adhere to strongstandards of impartiality in news.This is because of the perceivedpower of television and thelimitations in broadcast spectrum,which inevitably restrictedcompetition. In contrast,newspapers have largely beenallowed to follow a more partialnews agenda, especially in opinionpieces and political reporting. But inthe past decade, in the UnitedStates, a new breed of partial newschannels such as Fox News havegained popularity and a number ofsenior media figures have suggestedthat rules on impartiality ontelevision are now outdated.10Our data indicate that there isstill strong support for impartialnews, particularly in countries withstrong public service traditions(Japan, Germany, France, UK) butthere are very different attitudes inBrazil, which has largely followed anAmerican commercial model. TheGermans (1%), French (4%), andJapanese (4%) in particular don’t likenews media – of any kind – tochallenge their viewpoints,compared with people in Denmark,Brazil, and the UK.3858%52%10%44% 40%18%32%26%21%38%33%16%International Political EntertainmentBroadsheet Midmarket Popular ALL56% 58%12%39%37%24%36%38%29%38%33%16%International Political EntertainmentBroadsheet Midmarket Popular ALLOffline sources Online sources1 !!!!!!!!!58%Offline sour!52%escine sour!56%nline sourO!58%escnline sour!!!!tional%naertnI!52%%oliticalP tainmenertEn!%ttainmen tional%naertnI!oliticalP tainmenertEn!%ttainmen!!!tionalnaertnIoadsheetBr!oliticalP tainmenertEnketidmarM opularP!ttainmenALLtionalnaertnIoadsheetBr!oliticalP tainmenertEnoadsheet ketidmarM opularP!ttainmenALL!!!!!!!!Figure 1.5n: Interest in three categories of news by readers of different types of newspapers (UK)QS4a/5a/6a: How interested would you say you are in politics news/entertainment and celebrity news/international news?Base: UK (n=2078) ALL = all those net interested - very, extremely -, International (n=789) Politics (n=685), Entertainment (n=332), Broadsheet (n=570, 324), Midmarket(n=756, 349), Popular (n=623, 161)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanShare your point ofview19% 23% 31% 25% 18% 13% 24% 43% 15%Have no particularpoint of view70% 76% 58% 65% 78% 60% 68% 28% 81%Challenge your view 10% 1% 11% 11% 4% 27% 8% 29% 4%Figure 1.6a: Preference for impartial news, compared with news that shares or challenges your point of viewQ5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do you prefer? (choice of statements)Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)% agree1. News Consumption and AccessOffline sources Online sourcesDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 38
    • 39When analysing UK data, where wealso have written comments whererespondents explain their choices, itbecame clear that people who arevery interested in the news find ithard to answer this questionbecause they like impartial newsAND a wider range of perspectives.Casual users are happier to defaultto one or two sources, which in theUK tends to be an impartialbroadcast news source like the BBC.People who are‘intenseparticipators’(heavy and proactiveusers of social media channels) areno more likely to consume newsthat shares their point of view thanpeople who are generally interestedin news. If anything they are alsoslightly more likely to look for newsthat challenges their point of view.This tends to contradict the‘virtualecho chamber’theory11 (at least inthe UK), which suggests that digitaland social media might lead peopleto take more entrenched views andmiss out on a more balancedperspective.See Essay: Paolo Mancini onwhether digital news is contributing toa more polarised media system, p. 105In the United Kingdom, the presstends to support one of the twomain parties, Labour or theConservatives. It is striking, but notsurprising, that our data show thatsupporters of these parties are morelikely to consume news that sharestheir point of view compared withsupporters of smaller parties like theLiberal Democrats and nationalistparties in Wales and Scotland.10www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/17/mark-thompson-bbc-fox-news. See R. Sambrook,Delivering Trust: Impartiality and Objectivity in theDigital Age (RISJ, 2012) for a discussion of the issue.11First proposed by Professor Cass Sunstein in 2001.31%50%19%26%59%15%25%62%13%18%72%10%18%74%8%News that shares yourpoint of viewNews with no particularpoint of viewNews that challengesyour point of viewPolitics lovers Intense social News loversDaily briefers Casual usersFigure 1.6b: Preference for impartial or partial news by segment (UK)Q5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do you prefer? (choice of statements)Base:UK(n=2078),NewsLovers(n=448)DailyBriefers(n=1059),CasualUsers(n=572)Intenseparticipators(n=201),Extremely interested in politics (n=227)22%67%10%24%67%10%12%78%11%6%81%13%News that shares yourpoint of viewNews with noparticular point of viewNews that challengesyour point of viewLabour Conservative Lib Dem SNP, Plaid CymruFigure 1.6c: Preference for impartial or partial news by political party allegianceQ5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do you prefer? (choice of statements)Base: (UK=2078)% agree1. News Consumption and AccessDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 39
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 40
    • 412.1 Newspaper Purchase across CountriesThis is the first year we have collected data on newspaperpurchase so the most interesting findings are around thedifferences between our surveyed countries. We haveremoved Italy, Spain, and Brazil because the relatively lowlevels of internet penetration are likely to lead tomisleading results when measuring an offline activity.Theremaining results are broadly in line with officiallypublished readership figures in these countries, which alsosee Japan topping the league for newspaper purchase.Section 2. Paying For NewsDenmark and France are leastlikely to have paid for a printednewspaper. In the case of Denmarkthis is partly due to substitution withfree newspapers and online. Paidnewspaper circulation has halved inthe past 15 years in Denmark.12InFrance, paid newspaper circulationhas been historically lower withoutthe mass market‘tabloid’papersfound in countries like Germany andthe United Kingdom. On the otherhand, France does have a number ofsuccessful free newspapers like 20Minutes, DirectMatin-Plus, and Metro.When looking at where peoplebuy newspapers (see Figure 2.1boverleaf), Italy, Spain, UK, and urbanBrazil are more likely to use a newsstand or shop. In Germany, Denmark,US, and Japan home delivery is moreprevalent – suggesting thatnewspapers may be able to buildfurther on a continuing relationshipwith customers in digital or print. It isno coincidence that Germany andJapan, which have seen the mostresilience in newspaper sales, are thecountries with the highest level ofhome delivery (a proxy for asubscription relationship).68%56%54%42% 39%33%Japan Germany UK US France Denmark!Figure 2.1a: Weekly newspaper purchase by countryQ6: Have you bought (paid for) a printed newspaper in the last week?Base:AllmarketsUK(n=2078)US(n=2028))Japan(n=978)Germany(n=1062)France(n=973)Denmark(n=1007)12www.newspaperinnovation.com/index.php/category/circulation.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 41
    • 2.2 Paying for Digital NewsWhilst 50% of our global sample saidthey had bought a printednewspaper in the last week, only 5%said they had paid for digital news inthe same time period. This is partlybecause the majority of onlinenewspapers still do not charge fornews – although that is changingrapidly with the erection of paywalls,combined subscriptions, and app-based purchases. In the UK, we haveseen a significant jump in thepercentage paying for news sinceour last survey – from 4% to 9%paying for some kind of digital newsin the last year.There are marked differenceswith countries where populationswere late adopters of online servicesor in which the legacy of free onlinenews provision is less pronounced.The highest rates of paying fordigital news are thus seen in Brazil,Italy, Spain, Japan, and France.2. Paying for News42!51%48%42%34%25%5%12%22%9%5% 4%9%13%10%24% 25%33%57%3% 2% 3% 4% 4%7% 5% 4% 4%Italy Spain UK Urban Brazil France Denmark US Germany JapanYes via news stand or shop Yes I have home delivery (for one or more days a week)Yes I have a combined print/digital subscriptionFigure 2.1b: Newspaper purchase by type (ad hoc vs ongoing commitment)Q6 : Have you bought (paid for) a printed newspaper in the last week? (Multiple answers allowed.)Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)9% 11% 16% 21%13% 10% 12%24%14%90% 88% 82% 76%85% 87% 85%73%84%1% 2% 2% 3% 2% 3% 3% 3% 2%UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanYes No, I’ve never paid for digital news content Don’t know- can be all columns or lose flag and make it two thirds!Figure 2.2a: Number paying for digital news in last yearQ7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digital news service?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 42
    • 432. Paying for NewsIn terms of who is prepared to payfor digital news, older groups aremost reluctant to pay for digitalnews, with 25–34 year olds the mostwilling to do so across all of ourcountries (see Figure 2.2b below).We also see an income effect(illustrated in France and Germany),with those households earning over€50K p.a. around twice as likely topay as those earning less than €30Ka year.In the UK, among those with apersonal income of £25K to £50K, aquarter are 25 to 34, suggesting thatthis age group is more affluent andtherefore willing to pay for digitalcontent.Two other important factors relate tointerest in news and deviceownership. Our News Lover segmentis twice as likely to pay as either DailyBriefers or Casual Users. Tabletowners are twice as likely to pay ascomputer users, but much of thisdifference is likely to relate to higherpersonal and household income ofthis group and their greater interestin news.!0%10%20%30%40%50%18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55+Paid for digital content by agebreakdownALL UK0%10%20%30%40%50%€0-€30K €30-€50K €50+Paid for digital content byhousehold incomeFrance GermanyFigure2.2b: Who is paying for digital news?Q7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digital news service?Base: UK 18 to 24 (n=269) 25 to 34: (n=286) 35 to 44: (n=321) 45 to 54 (n=383) 55+ (n=819)0 to €30k France, Germany(n=487,364) €25 to €50k (n=287,230) €50k+(n=100,226)Chart shows % yes!0%5%10%15%20%25%30%News Lovers Daily Briefers Casual UsersPaid for digital content byinterest segmentAll CountriesFigure 2.2c: Impact of interest in news and device to access newsQ7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digital news service?Base: All Countries (n=11004) News Lovers (n=2565) Daily Briefers: (n=5968) Casual Users: (n=2471) Tablet users (n=1639) Smartphone users (n=3156) Computer users(n=7444)Chart shows % yes in last year0%5%10%15%20%25%30%Tablet Smartphone ComputerPaid for digital content bydeviceAll CountriesPaid for digital content byhousehold incomePaid for digital content byage breakdownPaid for digital content bydevicePaid for digital content byinterest segmentDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 43
    • 44Types of digital paymentNotable differences in patterns ofpayment are evident across nations,with distinct differences appearingbetween nations where one-day orsingle-article, or single-apppurchase is predominant (Spain,Italy, France) and those wheresubscriptions to digital news aremore common (US, Denmark).64%58% 58%52% 50%47%40%32% 33%28%37% 37% 35%46%40%42%60%63%16%22%12%21%16%24%21%17%22%France Italy Germany Spain Japan Urban Brazil UK US DenmarkNet: One-off payment2 !Net: Subscription OtherFigure 2.2d: Types of digital payment by countryQ7a: You said you have accessed paid for digital news content in the last year, which, if any, of the following types of payment have you used?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)!12%3%4%21%4%8%29%4%16%EverLast monthLast weekTablet+SmartphoneNews LoversAll!!!!!!!!eekLast w!tphoneablet+SmarTTablet+Smarersvos LNewllA!tphoneo!!!thLast mon!!!!!ervE!12%21%!29%!!!!!!!!!Figure 2.2e: Paying for news by device and by interest – the USQ7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digital news service?Base: (US=2028) Tablet and Smartphone users US (n=187) News Lovers US (n=557), iPhone (n=277)Other smartphone (n=337), iPad (n=206), Other tablet (n=149)2. Paying for NewsThe most popular type of one-offpayment in all countries is fordownloading and using an app ormaking an in-app purchase. InFrance, Spain, and Italy, around one-third of those who said they paid fornews made an app purchase in thelast year. The figures were slightlylower in the US, UK, and Denmark,perhaps because a number of newspublishers have moved to makingapps an ongoing subscriptionpayment or part of aprint/subscription bundle.Looking specifically at those whouse both tablets and smartphonesin the United States, we can see thisgroup is four times more likely topay than the average American inour sample. They are also twice aslikely to pay as News Lovers (Figure2.2e).Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 44
    • 45In the United Kingdom, we do notsee quite such a pronounced effect.Smartphone and tablet users areonly a little more likely to pay fornews than online news users. Andwhen running our model,controlling for demographicvariables, we do not find anystatistically significant positivecorrelation with device. This mayrelate to the lower levels of paymentin the UK generally and to the factthat some of the most popular newsapps (BBC, Sky and Metro) areprovided free.Testing for the impact ofplatform on paymentThese differences could beexplained by device functionalityand the eco-system of paid newsthat has grown up around thesedevices or they could relate the factthat smartphone and tablet ownerstend to come from higher incomesand have a higher interest in news.To explore this further, we identifieda number of demographiccharacteristics such as gender, age,education and income that mayplay a role in influencing a person’slikelihood to pay for news. By takingthese variables into account, alongwith the interest in the news, we caninclude them in a regression modeland‘control’for their relationshipwith device usage and paying fornews. Figure 2.2f summarises theresults which show that in theUnited States, these devices aresignificantly encouraging paymentfor news when controlling for thesefactors. It also suggests that users ofApple devices are more likely to paythan those who use othersmartphones and tablets. Users ofiPads are 147% more likely to pay fornews and iPhone users are 77%more likely to pay.Apple iPad Other tablet iPhone Other smartphonePaid for digitalnews in last year+147% +75% +77% +54%Figure 2.2f: Impact of device after controlling for demographic and usage factors USQ7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digital news service?Base: (US=2028)% difference compared with general digital users after controlling for gender, age, education level, income andinterest in news!9%3%4%12%3%7%11%2%6%EverLast monthLast weekTablet+SmartphoneNews Lovers All!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!eekLast wtphoneablet+SmarTTablet+SmarsrevoLsweN A!tphonellA!!!!!!ervEthLast mon!9%12%11%!!!!!!!!!!!Figure 2.2g: Paying for news by device and by interest – the UKQ7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digital news service?Base: (UK=2078) Tablet and Smartphone users (n=143) News Lovers (n=448)2. Paying for NewsDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 45
    • 46For those who aren’t currentlypaying for digital news, a significantpercentage expects to pay at somepoint in the future. Urban Brazil hasthe highest willingness to pay in thefuture but consumers in Italy andSpain show more willingness thanNorthern European countries. NewsLovers (around 20% of the sample inmost countries) are much morelikely to pay. Men say they are muchmore likely pay than women.See Essay: Robert G. Picard askswhether consumers will eventually payfor digital news, p. 89!58%19% 17%9% 9% 9% 9% 7% 5%60%24% 24% 23%18%14% 13% 12%8%Urban Brazil Italy Spain Japan France Germany US Denmark UKAll News LoversFigure 2.2h: Likelihood to pay for digital news in the future by countryQ7b: You said you have not paid for digital content in the last year, how likely or unlikely would you be to pay IN THE FUTURE for online news fromparticular sources that you like?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)Chart shows net very likely or somewhat likely2. Paying for NewsDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 46
    • 47In this section we look in more detail at onlineconsumption habits; which devices people use to accessonline news, what they access, and how they find andshare the content they enjoy.Section 3. Online News In Detail3.1 The Growth ofMulti-Platform NewsDevices for accessing the newsand the impact of tablets andsmartphonesOverall we find that more people areaccessing news through a greaternumber of devices than ever before.The computer remains the mostimportant device for online news,but for many this is nowsupplemented by heavy usage ofsmartphones and tablets. Across allour countries 46% of our sample usea smartphone and 31% say theyused the device for news at leastonce in the past week. One in four(25%) use a tablet, with 16% onaverage using it for news. Incountries like the UK, tablet usagefor news has doubled in 10 months.Denmark has the highest weeklynews usage of smartphones at 43%,with Japan showing the lowest levelat 19% – though this is largelybecause it also provides mobileaccess to the internet via platformssuch as iMode which are stilldominated by feature phones. Interms of European countries, we seeFrance and Germany showing thelowest level of online news accessvia tablets and smartphones.UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanComputer 67% 71% 56% 58% 50% 58% 71% 81% 68%Smartphone 29% 22% 35% 25% 24% 43% 28% 23% 19%Tablet 16% 10% 13% 14% 11% 25% 16% 14% 6%E-book reader 2% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1% 2% 4% 1%Smart TV 3% 5% 10% 10% 9% 7% 4% 12% 4%Figure 3.1a: Online news access by device by countryQ8b: Which, if any, of the following devices have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)NOTE: Data has been rebased to account for the total sample size but is not an accurate indication of ownership levels and will not be wholly comparable with last year.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 47
    • Demographic effects of differentdevicesSmartphone news usage across allour countries is heavily focused onthe under 45s. Older groups arelargely sticking with computers. Interms of age, tablets show a moreeven spread, with a significant bulgewith the 25–44 age group.The laptop or desktop remains themost important single device foraccessing news but smartphonesand tablets are not far behind interms of the proportion of usersaccessing news each week.E-readers are used far less for newscontent, even though a number ofpublishers have created digitaleditions for them. Connectedtelevisions, which have access totext and video on-demand servicesin a number of countries, arebecoming increasingly popular,although the definition and use fornews is hard to explain with asurvey.3. Online News in Detail48Apple devices in particular are moreheavily used for news than thoserunning other operating systems.This will be related to the slightlymore upmarket demographics forthese devices but also because ofthe wide availability and promotionof news apps and mobile websitesfor this platform. In general,however, Apple devices are now aminority in most countries,particularly in Spain and Brazil whereAndroid and Blackberry are far morepopular. In Northern Europe and theUnited States the iPad remains thedominant tablet for news,particularly in Denmark where itoutperforms other manufacturers bya ratio of more than four to one.85%63% 60%51%17%70%64%56%50%Computer Smartphone Tablet Smart TV E-readerAll Apple Other Smartphones/tablets85%AllA elppA O stelbat/senohptramSrehtOeromputC SmartphoneSmar abletTTablet VTtSmar eaderE-rFigure 3.1b: Most important devices for news – weekly percentage useQ8a/Q8b:Which, if any, of the following devices have you ever used/have you used to access news inthe last week?Base:All marketsUK(n=2078)US(n=2028)Spain(n=979)Japan(n=978)Italy(n=965)Germany(n=1062)France(n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)71%44%14%68%46%19%71%39%21%76%27%16%76%16%13%Computer Smartphone Tablet18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Figure 3.1c: Accessing news per device by age (all countries)Q8a /Q8b: Which, if any, of the following devices do you ever use?/ have you used to access news inthe last week?Base: Those who use a digital device for any purpose (n=10182)13In fact slightly over one-third, at 39%Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 48
    • 493. Online News in DetailMulti-platform usage extendsoptionsThe growth of smartphones andtablets has not generally come atthe expense of other media, but isinstead increasing the range ofoptions. Looking at tablet owners inthe United States and the UK, forexample, around four out of fivecontinue to access news ontelevision, with a healthy numberstill reading printed newspaperseach week.There is some evidence ofsubstitution of print in the UnitedStates where the average use bytablet users (37%) and smartphoneusers (36%) is considerably less thanthe sample average (49%). In theUnited Kingdom, however, tabletusers are just as likely to read aprinted newspaper as the average(57%).!0%20%40%60%80%100%Less than$35,000$35-$60,000 Over $60,000United StatesComputer Smartphone TabletFigure 3.1d: Accessing news per device by household incomeQ8b: Which, if any, of the following devices have you used to access news in the last week?Base: US Computer (n=1515) Smartphone (n=594), Tablet (n=337) Household income 0-$35K (n=579), $35-$60K (n=426), $60K+ (n=598)UK Computer (n=1394), Smartphone (n=612), Tablet (n=340) Household income 0-25K (n=585), £25-£50K (n=560), £50-£100K (n=245)0%20%40%60%80%100%Less than£25,000£25-£50,000 £50-£100,000United KingdomComputer Smartphone TabletUnited States United Kingdom!45%60%82%37%38%77%RadioPrinted newspaperTelevisionUS UKFigure 3.1e: Other news sources accessed by tablet and smartphone usersQ3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news?Base: UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Tablet users UK (n=340) US (n=337) Smartphone users UK (n=612) US (n=594)41%52%78%39%36%72%RadioPrinted newspaperTelevisionUS UKSmartphone users also get news from...Tablet users also get news from...Tablet and smartphone news usersare generally to be found in highereducation and income brackets,which may explain the greaterinterest in news. In the UnitedStates, the richest one-third of oursample13– earning over $60,000 –account for 60% of smartphonenews usage, 53% of tablet newsusage, and 40% of computer newsusage. In the UK we also seesmartphones showing a biggerincome effect than tablets, whereascomputer news use is spreadrelatively equally across income.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 49
    • Looking specifically at those whouse online news across all oursampled countries we can see that aquarter of our sample (26%)accesses news on a computer and asmartphone each week. There arealso strong overlaps between thecomputer and the tablet (15%),while a growing number of people(7%) say they access news on allthree devices on a weekly basis.Smartphone usage increasesfrequency but not depthOur data show that mobile phonesare used more frequently foraccessing quick news updatesduring the day (79% net agree in theUK and 77% in the US), with only asmall proportion agreeing that themobile is frequently accessed for in-depth news. Tablets on the otherhand (see Figure 3.1h) are valued forquick updates and in-depth news.Fewer than one in five mobilephone users agree that theexperience is better than a PC – notsurprising given the small screensize and often poorly formattedcontent. The advantages are morearound convenience thanexperience (see Figure 3.1g).On a tablet, a significantproportion (43% in the UK) agreethat the experience – which oftenincludes optimised touch and swipeinterfaces – is better than acomputer. Tablet users are also morelikely to pay for news thansmartphone users.509%17%%%98Figure 3.1f: Device overlaps (all countries)77%29%16%10%79%19% 18%12%I use mobile forquick newsupdatesI use mobile for indepth newsI find mobile newsbetter experiencethan via acomputerI am more willingto pay for news ona mobileUS UK!Figure 3.1g: Mobile phone preferences (US and UK)60%51%35%18%62%42% 43%16%I use tablet forquick newsupdatesI use tablet for indepth newsI find tablet newsbetter experiencethan via acomputerI am more willingto pay for news ona tabletUS UK!Figure 3.1h: Tablet preferences (US and UK)QS7a/b: You’ve told us that you read news on a MOBILE/TABLET, with that in mind, please could youtell us how much you agree or disagree with the following statements.Base US : Read news on a mobile (n=583); Read news on a tablet (n=329) Base UK Base: Read news on a mobile(n=585); Read news on a tablet (n=331)QS7a/b: You’ve told us that you read news on a MOBILE/TABLET, with that in mind, please could youtell us how much you agree or disagree with the following statements.Base US : Read news on a mobile (n=583); Read news on a tablet (n=329) Base UK Base: Read news on a mobile(n=585); Read news on a tablet (n=331)3. Online News in DetailBase: All those who have used computers, tablets or smartphones for news in the past weekDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 50
    • 51These preference statements aresupported by quantitative data thatshow both smartphone and tabletusers access news more frequentlythan those using computers. Themore devices people access, themore frequently they access news.On the other hand these devices areused for many other things, such asemail and social networking – so thescope for distraction is inevitablygreater than that with traditionalplatforms like a printed newspaper.Average time spent on news with atablet is lower than for a computerand considerably lower for asmartphone.Figure 3.1i: Frequency of access grows with devicesQ1b: Typically, how often do you access news (in any way).Base: US (n=2028) Denmark (n=1007)Device Several times a dayALL News users 56%Computer 65%Smartphone 76%Tablet 77%Tablet and smartphone 90%Device Several times a dayALL News users 76%Computer 79%Smartphone 83%Tablet 84%Tablet and smartphone 93%United States Denmark3.2 Type of News AccessedOnlineIn terms of online content in generalwe can see articles and story lists(e.g. a news front page) remain themost accessed on a weekly basis.Some countries seem to have takenfaster to video and audio newscontent, in particular the UnitedStates, Spain, and Brazil. Pictures andgraphics are also popular in Japan,Germany, Italy, and Spain.Figure 3.2a: Types of online news content accessed by countryUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanLists, articles andblogs52% 58% 63% 71% 46% 58% 64% 66% 67%Video and audio 47% 43% 52% 48% 48% 39% 55% 64% 35%Live pages 11% 8% 16% 16% 19% 8% 11% 15% 35%Pictures and graphics 15% 24% 21% 23% 15% 16% 23% 32% 27%Apps 19% 13% 24% 17% 17% 25% 19% 20% 13%Other 1% 0% 2% 1% 2% 1% 2% 3% 0%None of these 15% 17% 7% 6% 14% 13% 4% 4% 8%Q11: Thinking of the way you looked at news online in the last week, which of the following ways of consuming news did you use?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 51
    • Over the past year, video hasincreasingly been a component oflive pages, for example, in thecoverage of the Leveson Inquiry inthe UK and the 2012 Olympics in anumber of countries. Video is oftencombined with live updates inchronological order and commentsand pictures from social media sites.These‘Live Pages’have become afeature of many news sites and this‘web native’format has become anattractive alternative to an articlewhen covering a breaking newsstory. Live pages are particularlypopular in Japan, where the biggestnews site, Yahoo, regularly coversbreaking news in this way, and alsoin France.52A!18%38%22%15%17%12%29%18%17%14%14%24%13%13%10%News clips (short)Live TV newsLive radio newsOn demand TV programmesOn demand radio programmesTablet (main)Smartphone (main)All!!!!!!!!Newablet (maiTTatphone (main)SmarllA!t)s clips (shorNewablet (main)tphone (main)!%!!!!!Liv!sV newTeLivsadio newe rLiv!!!!!!V prTOn demandadio prOn demand r!ammesrogV prammesrogadio pr!!!!!!e!!!!!Figure 3.2b: Type of video and audio content consumed in last week (UKQ11: Thinking of the way you looked at news online in the last week, which of the following ways ofconsuming news did you use?Aggregated lists from a longer setBase: UK (n=2078) Main smartphone (n=152), Main tablet (n=89)!35%65%Use live pages Do not use live pages86%12%Heavy consumers (several times a day)Non-heavy consumers!!!!!!!!65%!65%!!12%!!!!e pagesse livU!e pages35%e pageso not use livD!onsumers (sev86%y cvHeay cvNon-hea!y)86%12%al times a daeronsumers (sevonsumersy c!y)!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Figure 3.2c: Use of live pages (Japan)Q11: Thinking of the way you looked at news online in the last week, which of the following ways ofconsuming news did you use?Base: Japan (n=979) ; Use live pages (n= 341) Access several times day (n=784)Use of live pages (Japan) Frequency of accessLive pages are accessed mostheavily on a computer at work andby those who are most interested innews.See Essay: Neil Thurman,‘How Live Blogs Are ReconfiguringBreaking News’, p. 853. Online News in DetailVideo usage of short news clips onnews websites is still relatively low atjust 14% in the UK, but watching livenews video seems to be on theincrease, at 24% compared with 18%last year. The tablet, which is oftenmarketed for its multimediacapabilities seems to beencouraging more videoconsumption in particular, with 38%watching a live TV news channel orlive video news feed in the pastweek.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 52
    • 533.3 Online News SourcesWhilst TV, radio, and print remainlargely the preserve of traditionalnews organisations, the onlinesphere has opened up huge newcompetition. Lower barriers to entryand the ability to operate acrossnational boundaries has encouragedthe growth of new players likeYahoo, Google News, and theHuffington Post (which nowoperates in five European countries).We’ve also seen the emergence oflocal pure players like Mediapart andRue 89 in France and Politico andBuzzfeed in the United States. Andblogs and social media areincreasingly being seen as a regularsource of news.The extent to which these newplayers have taken market share andadvertising revenue has dependedon many factors, including thestrength of existing media, theirwillingness to innovate, as well asthe structure of the media market ingeneral.Either way the overall pictureremains uneven, with traditionalmedia most dominant in countrieslike the UK and Denmark.Aggregators and new playershave had the biggest impact inJapan and the United States, whilesocial media have the strongestfoothold in Brazil, Spain, and Italy.the flags if going two thirds!87%85%81% 80%74% 74% 74%71%65%32%22%32%48% 47%56%38%31%78%31%41%44%57%44% 43%30%43%30%UK Denmark Spain Urban Brazil Italy US France Germany JapanTraditional news brand Aggregators Social Media & BlogsFigure 3.3a: Strength of traditional news brands online compared by countryQ3: Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: Online users in each market (UK=1534 ; US=1470; Germany=698 ; France=658 Denmark=816 ; Urban Brazil=892; Italy = 775; Spain=776; Japan = 831)As we saw in the ExecutiveSummary, in the UK and Japanbroadcaster brands make up themajority of this traditional newsbrand usage. In Denmark and Spainand a number of other countries, itis former newspapers that havepicked up majority market share.Driving further into the detail wecan see very different media storiesthat lie behind this top-level view.3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 53
    • Brand performance has remainedlargely stable since our survey 10months ago. One new entrant is theHuffington Post which, with 7% ofrespondents citing it, has in lessthan two years built an onlineaudience as large as the Sun, one ofBritain’s most successful newspaperbrands.54UK: Bastion of strong mediabrandsThe BBC and a few other traditionalbrands dominate the UK onlinenews market. More than half of ourinternet-based sample said theyaccessed BBC News via its websiteor mobile and tablet applications.BBC News has an even highermarket share offline (66% of oursample). Even so it has successfullytransitioned most of its naturalaudiences to the newer media,unlike long-term rival ITV News.feel free to lose flags on these if you think works better!52%14%13%13%9%8%7%7%6%6%5%BBC NewsMail OnlineSky NewsYahooA local newspaperThe GuardianGoogle NewsHuffington PostMSNDaily TelegraphSun OnlineFigure 3.3b: Top UK online and offline brands comparedQ5: Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week UK (n= 2078)66%33%24%23%15%13%13%12%11%10%7%BBC NewsITV NewsLocal newspaperSky NewsThe SunDaily MailChannel 4 NewsDaily MirrorFree city paperCommerical radio newsThe TimesTop offline brandsTop online brands3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 54
    • 55Japan: The power of aggregationIn sharp contrast to the UK, the topJapanese online media sites are pureplayers and aggregators. Unlike theBBC, public broadcaster NHK hasbeen unable to turn its TV and radiosuccess into online audiences.Instead it was the US pioneer Yahoo– together with Japanese partnerSoftBank – that invested early andhard and has reaped the rewards.63%21%12%12%11%10%9%Yahoo NewsGoogle NewsMSNNikkei ShimbunAsahi ShimbunNHKYomiuri ShimbunFigure 3.3c: Top Japanese online and offline brands comparedQ5. Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week Japan (n= 955)50%37%34%37%36%22%21%NHKTBSAsahi TVNippon TVFuji TVAsahi ShimbunYomiuri ShimbunTop offline brandsTop online brands3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 55
    • United States: A mixed picture ofpure players and traditionalbrandsYahoo is also the most used onlinenews brand in the United States(32%) but television news brandslike Fox, CNN, and NBC also have astrong online presence.We can also see how the internethas created a larger and morevibrant national media. The costs ofoffline distribution across vastdistances had tended to create amore locally based media culture,particularly in print. Now anypublisher can gain access to a vastmarket at marginal cost. One of thebiggest beneficiaries has been theHuffington Post – now owned byAOL - which in just a few short yearshas gained a bigger national reachthan the New York Times and theWashington Post and is nowinvesting heavily in online video andtelevision news output.1456!32%22%17%17%17%15%15%14%13%9%9%8%YahooFox NewsHuffington PostA local newspaperCNNNBC/MSNBCGoogle NewsLocal television newsMSNThe New York TimesABC NewsThe Washington PostFigure 3.3d: Top US online and offline brands comparedQ5.: Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week US (n=1973)42%33%33%28%23%23%22%20%13%11%Local television newsFox NewsA local newspaperNBC/MSNBCCNNLocal radio newsABC NewsCBS NewsNPRCity paperTop offline brandsTop online brands14www.themediabriefing.com/article/2013-03-18/Huffington-post-live-cable-tv-deal.3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 56
    • 57France: Fragmented onlinebrandsAs we’ve noted elsewhere in thisreport, France remains an unusualcase in its reliance on traditionalmedia and especially televisionnews. Online news usage is lowerthan in other countries but is alsohighly fragmented. Newspapers leadthe way but no single brand hasbeen able to drive significantnational audiences. At the sametime there is very little interest inimported US brands like Yahoo orthe French version of the HuffingtonPost. In sharp contrast to the US andUK, television brands have failed tomake much of an impact online. Themost successful online news site is afree newspaper (20minutes) butother innovators include online-onlyproviders like Rue89 andinvestigative journal Mediapart.!18%13%12%11%11%9%9%7%7%6%6%5%5%4%20 MinutesLe MondeLe FigaroTF1BFM TVL’ExpressLe PointLe Nouvel ObservateurM6Dautres sites en lignefrançaisLes chaînes du groupeFrance TélévisionsLibérationSites des radios privéesRue89Figure 3.3e: Top French online and offline brands comparedQ5: Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week France (n= 965)48%43%35%30%22%18%17%16%13%9%9%8%TF1BFM TVFrance TélévisionsM6Radios privéesRadios publiques20 MinutesItéléCanal+LCIMetroLe FigaroTop offline brandsTop online brands3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 57
    • Germany: Traditional mediaIn Germany, we see a similar picturewith strong traditional brandsachieving significant market shareoffline but a much more fragmentedpicture online. This is partly becausepublic broadcasters have beenrestricted in the level of investmentthey have been able to make inonline services; meanwhile printpublications such as Spiegel and Bildare doing quite well online,alongside the new entrant GoogleNews. In general, the strong regionalstructure of the German media mayhave contributed to the lack ofnational players of scale able topush online innovation andconsumption.58Q5: Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All wh!17%16%15%14%12%11%10%9%7%7%7%7%6%Spiegel OnlineGoogle NewsBild.deN24.den-tv onlineFocus OnlineInternetangebote von Regional-/LokalzeitungenZdf.deWelt OnlineSueddeutsche.deStern.deArd.de bzw. Daserste.deZEIT OnlineFigure 3.3f: Top German online and offline brands comparedQ5: Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week Germany (n= 1048)55%45%37%32%29%23%20%12%12%11%10%TagesschauZDF heute-journalEine Regional- oderLokalzeitungRTL aktuellÖffentlich-rechtlicheRadionachrichtenPrivate RadionachrichtenSat.1 NachrichtenBild / Bild am SonntagDer SpiegelEinen unabhängigenStadtanzeigerProSieben NewstimeTop offline brandsTop online brandsSee Essay: Uwe Hasebrink AndSascha Hölig on the hold traditionaltelevision programmes such asTagesshau and ZDF Heute-Journal stillhave in Germany, p. 813. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 58
    • 59It is possible to discern some overallpatterns in these very differentstories. In general, traditional brandscannot expect to achieve the samelevel of reach online as they deliveroffline. They are no longer protectedby high barriers to entry and facemuch wider competition. This hasbeen especially true for broadcastbrands as they move to the web(see Figure 3.3g).On the other hand, a very fewbrands have been able to deliververy significant market share (theBBC in the UK and Yahoo in Japanand the US). Here, early moveradvantage has set down patternsthat may persist for years to come.And a small number of strongernewspaper brands has also gainedmarket share by consistentinvestment in online news.In general, broadcasters havetended to lose most market shareespecially those who had privilegedaccess to limited spectrum. Whilstmost newspapers have also lostmarket share, some with strongbrands have been able to find newaudiences at home and abroad.Figure 3.3g: Brand winners and losersQ5: Which, if any, of the following have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All who have used news sources in the last week (various)Brand Offline Online GainGuardian 4% 10% +6%Der Spiegel 12% 17% +5%NY Times 6% 9% +3%Le Monde 6% 13% +7%Newspaper winners Broadcasting losersBrand Offline Online GainZDF (Germany) 45% 9% -36%TF1 (France) 48% 11% -37%NHK (Japan) 50% 10% -40%ITV News (UK) 33% 3% -30%3.4 The Importance ofBrand and the Role of TrustDespite almost unlimited newsoptions online, most people stilltend to use a small number ofsources. Our findings suggest thatnews brands continue to play animportant role in all our countries,particularly in Brazil, Spain, Italy, andthe United States, where over 80%said they accessed news from sitesthey know and trust.We also asked if online newsusers noticed which sites they wereusing when they clicked on newslinks. In some countries, significantnumbers say they just look at thenews that interests them, but brandmatters more in some countries thanothers. In the UK only 16% said theydidn’t notice what sites they wereusing.77%16%75%30%81%30%82%30%76%37%73%22%82%24%90%34%71%44%I tend to access news from sites that I know and trust I don’t really notice which sites I am using, I just look atthe news that interests meUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil Japan!Figure 3.4a: Preference for accessing news via trusted sites (all countries)Q9 : Thinking about the different kind of news available to you online, to what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements:Base: UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)% agree3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 59
    • Looking at our segments across allcountries, people who are mostinterested in news say that theyvalue trusted brands most strongly.In contrast, casual users are lesslikely to notice which site they areviewing.6087%25%79%28%68%31%I tend to access news from sites Iknow and trustI don’t really notice which sites I amusing, I just look at the newsNews Lovers Daily Briefers Casual UsersFigure 3.4b: Preference for accessing news via trusted sites by segment(all countries)Q9 : Thinking about the different kind of news available to you online, to what extent do you agreeor disagree with the following statements:Base: All markets (n=11004)% agree!33%17%3%2%1%2%46%43%18%9%7%8%12%22%38%37%26%25%2%5%11%20%25%22%1%1%2%5%18%17%7%12%29%28%22%27%Sites from UK broadcastersSites from UK newspapersNon UK news providersNews related blogsFacebookTwitterVery trustworthy Quite trustworthyNeither trustworthy nor untrustworthy Not very trustworthyNot at all trustworthy Don’t knowFigure 3.4c: Trust in different types of online news providers (UK)Q9a: Thinking about the types of sites, mobile sites or apps where you get news online, in broad terms how trustworthy do you find the news content ofthe following?Base: UK=2078Trust in online news sourcesIn the UK – where there has beenmuch discussion about the ethics ofthe press and broadcasting in recentyears – we asked people to rate trustin different types of online news,including traditional media, foreignmedia, as well as social media andblogs.Overall, online news fromnational broadcasters is most trusted(79% quite or very), followed bynational newspapers (60%). Incontrast, Facebook (8%) and Twitter(10%) are least trusted, with foreignbroadcasters somewhere in themiddle (21% trustworthy).3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:13 Page 60
    • 61Levels of trust tend to declineamongst the oldest groups for allmedia types. The 25–34 year oldsshow greater trust than othergroups in social media and foreignbroadcasters. This suggests that thisgroup of digital natives is moreopen-minded when it comes totrying alternative sources of onlinenews.0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Sites from UK broadcastersSites from UK newspapersWebsites apps from news providers outside the UKNews related blogsFacebookTwitterFigure 3.4d: Trust in different types of online news providers by age (UK)Q9a: Thinking about the types of sites, mobile sites or apps where you get news online, in broadterms how trustworthy do you find the news content of the following?Base: UK=2078 18 to 24 (n=269) 25 to 34: (n=286) 35 to 44: (n=321) 45 to 54 (n=383) 55+ (n=819)Chart shows net: very/quite trustworthyFigure 3.5a: Top ways of finding newsUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanDirectly via abranded site34% 32% 38% 35% 16% 55% 20% 47% 28%General searchengine like Google24% 40% 40% 49% 45% 30% 33% 44% 39%Specialist newssearch engine10% 16% 23% 40% 22% 1% 14% 34% 29%Sites that aggregatenews links17% 16% 17% 16% 12% 7% 26% 37% 43%Newsreader‘app’e.g. Flipboard3% 3% 11% 4% 3% 4% 6% 7% 3%Social network -e.g. Facebook17% 15% 45% 38% 14% 22% 30% 60% 12%Blog or personal site 2% 3% 9% 8% 3% 2% 9% 13% 8%Email newsletter 7% 22% 19% 20% 24% 22% 22% 25% 17%News alert 8% 12% 11% 9% 19% 16% 18% 19% 8%Alerted by friends,colleagues18% 20% 23% 21% 12% 15% 26% 33% 13%Q10 : Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across news stories?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)3.5 Gateways: HowAudiences Discover NewsOnlineAlthough in many countriesaudiences place the highest trust ononline news from familiar providers,they are using an increasingly variedset of ways to find that content.Google, Facebook, and Apple havebecome – to a greater or lesserextent – intermediaries for a largeproportion of news journeys online.As a result, they have been able totake a significant share of theavailable advertising revenue aroundnews, making the funding of trustedcontent arguably more uncertain.Our data show brand, search, andsocial media the most importantdiscovery mechanisms, with searchparticularly important in Europeancountries like France and Germany.3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 61
    • But perhaps the biggest trend in thisdata is the growing importance ofsocial discovery. For the under 35s –looking at the aggregated dataacross all of our countries – this isnow the most important way inwhich people find news stories.For older groups, other ways ofnavigating to news, such as search,remain more important than socialmedia.6244%33%36% 34%29%36%23%38%19%38%Social Search18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+Figure 3.5b: Top gateways – social media vs search by age (all countries)Q10 :Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across newsstories?Base: All markets (n=11004)39%24%27%31%24%9%Brand Search SocialUnder 45s Over 45s23%31%38%18%36%23%Brand Search SocialUnder 45s Over 45sFigure 3.5c: Top gateways to news (UK and US compared)Q10 :Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across newsstories?Base: UK (n=2078) US (n=2028)Within this average, though, we seesignificant differences in behaviourby country. In the UK strong brandsremain the main way of findingnews for all age groups, but in theUnited States search and socialmedia are more important. In allcountries, younger groups are farmore likely to use social media fornews discovery.3. Online News in DetailUnited KingdomUnited StatesDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 62
    • 63Smartphones and tabletsstrengthen brandsOur data also suggest that thosewho use smartphones and tabletsare more likely to go straight to anews brand. To some extent this is afunction of their greater interest innews. But the data also indicate thatcertain mechanisms – like socialnewsreading apps and‘push’newsalerts – are disproportionately usedon these devices to discover newscontent.31%36%20%33%44%12%Brand Search SocialTop gateways to news(Germany)Under 45s Over 45sFigure 3.5d: Top gateways to newsQ10 : Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across news stories?Base: Brazil (n=986; ) U45 (n=649), O45 (n=336) Germany (n=1064) U45 (n=445) O45 (n=619)7%3%24%17%8%17%34%12%4%22%19%11%21%44%4%6%27%21%11%28%59%EmailSocialnewsreaderSearchAggregatorsNews alertSocial mediaBrandPercent finding news by …Tablet+Smartphone News lovers AlltencerP fifi y …s bwnding neocial mediaSandBrtencerP fiablet+SmaTTablet+Smarfi y …s bwnding netphoneablet+Smar ersvs loNew59%llAchSorstegarggAts alerNewEmailocialSeadersrnewchearSFigure 3.5e: Impact of device on the discovery of news (US and UK compared)Q10 : Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across news stories?Base: All UK=2078; US=2028 Tablet and Smartphone users UK (n=143) US (n=187) News Lovers UK (n=448) US (n=557)22%6%33%26%18%30%20%27%7%38%32%27%34%27%18%22%36%40%45%47%48%EmailSearchAggregatorsNews alertSocial mediaBrandPercent finding news by …Tablet+Smartphone News lovers All!Socialnewsreader3 !!!!!!!!andBrcerPablet+TTablet+Smar!andtenc fi y …s bwnding netphoneablet+Smar ersvs loNew!48%y …llA!!!!!s alerNewocial mediaS!ts alerocial media!%45%47%!!!!!chearSorstegarggAocialSeadersrnew!chorsocialeader!%!!!!!Email!Email!!!!3. Online News in DetailGermanyUnited Kingdom United StatesGermany relies on a mixture ofsearch and brand, with 18–44s twiceas likely to use social media as theover 55s (Figure 3.5d). The Braziliansuse more gateways in total –reflecting their higher interest innews – but uniquely all age groupssay social media is their mostimportant way of finding newsonline.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 63
    • Apps or mobile websitesThe growth of news apps on tabletsand smartphones has raisedquestions about the newgatekeeping role of Apple andGoogle in particular. Our UK datasuggest that news apps are moreimportant for smartphones than fortablets. This may be because appsmake better use of the smallerscreen size available on asmartphone, although it will beinteresting to see how this changeswith the roll out of more‘web apps’and responsively designedwebsites.15Apple users in the UK aresignificantly more likely to downloada news app from a store (52% vs31% for non iPhone users).We also asked our UK smartphoneand tablet users whether theyaccessed news via branded link oran aggregator like a search engineor social network. On both devices,respondents said the desktop iconwas the most important route tonews, suggesting that strong newsbrands may be benefiting from thehistoric shift to mobile.6441% 42%11%28%53%14%I mainly use news apps Idownloaded from an appstoreI mainly use news websitesvia the standard webbrowser on my deviceI use apps and mobilewebsites about the sameSmartphone TabletFigure 3.5f: Percent using news apps and web browsers by device (UK)QS11a/b Thinking specifically about when you look for news on a MOBILE/TABLET, which of thefollowing statements most applies to you?Base UK : All who have accessed news via a smartphone in the last week (n=612) All who have accessed news viaa tablet in the last week (n=340)50%25%15%48%26%17%I mainly access newsdirectly via a branded link(logo) of a news providerI mainly access news via asearch engine, socialnetwork or other brandthat aggregates newsIaccess news using bothmethods about the sameSmartphone TabletFigure 3.5g: Accessing news via a branded link (UK)QS12a/b Thinking specifically about when you look for news on a MOBILE/TABLET, which of thefollowing statements most applies to you?Base UK : All who have accessed news via a smartphone in the last week (n=612) All who have accessed news viaa tablet in the last week (n=340)15Many news sites (e.g. Guardian, BBC, BostonGlobe) have developed a single output that formatsitself automatically to fit a range of mobile andtablet screen sizes. The Financial Times hasdeveloped an html5 web app that is notdependent on Apple and can store content on thego.3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 64
    • 65To explore this further, we askedpeople specifically which brandsthey used on which device across arange of countries. There are threebroad conclusions:• Brands that grew up with theweb browser, helped in manycases by default browsersettings – Yahoo and MSN –are losing out on tablet andsmartphone in the UK andUnited States at least.• Brands that have built areputation for breaking news –Sky News, CNN, and DerSpiegel – have gained marketshare on mobile, but notnecessarily on the tablet.• Other strong brands – NewYork Times, Fox News, DailyMail, the Guardian – tend topick a similar market shareacross platforms. People tendto use the brands they arecomfortable with elsewhererather than change preferencebased on platform.One other explanation for some ofthese differences is that theaggregator brands in the US and UK(Yahoo, MSN, etc.) appeal more tolower income households that havenot acquired these new devices. Itwill be interesting to see if thesedifferences in market share even outas tablet and smartphone usebecomes more mainstream.Q8b :You say you access news via a computer, smartphone, tablet, when using that device which ofthe following news sources have you used in the last week?Base: US Computer (n=1311), Smartphone (n=556), Tablet (n=312) UK Computer (n= 1394), Smartphone(n=612), Tablet (n=340) Japan Computer (n=605), Smartphone (n=170), Tablet (n=51), Germany; Computer(n=612), Smartphone (n=212), Tablet (n=105)Brand Computer Mobile TabletBBC 68% 69% 63%Sky 15% 25% (+10%) 21% (+7%)Daily Mail 18% 14% 16%Guardian 12% 11% 11%Yahoo 20% 8% (-12%) 9% (-11%)MSN 10% 4% (-6%) 4% (-6%)United KingdomFigure 3.5h: Brand winners and losers: impact of device on market shareBrand Computer Mobile TabletYahoo 37% 25% (-12%) 27% (-10%)Fox 22% 21% 23%CNN 16% 19% (+3%) 16%New York Times 11% 9% 12%USA Today 5% 8% 13%MSN 14% 10% (-4%) 10% (-4%)United StatesBrand Computer Mobile TabletBild 21% 21% 16%Spiegel 22% 27% (+5%) 22%NTV 11% 15% (+4%) 15% (+4%)Yahoo 7% 6% 5%MSN 7% 4% 4%GermanyBrand Computer Mobile TabletYahoo 74% 70% N/ANikkei.com 15% 13% N/ANHK 9% 6% N/AYomiuri.co.jp 9% 7% N/AMSN 13% 10% N/AJapan3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 65
    • 3.6 Participation andEngagement OnlineThere are significant differences inthe level of participation in the newsacross countries. At a headline level,Brazil, the US, Spain, and Italy aremost likely to post comments, sharelinks, and talk about news. TheJapanese and Germans are leastlikely to do so. Americans, forexample, are twice as likely tocomment on a news story online or‘like’a news story, compared withthe Germans or the British.66Figure 3.6a: Types of online (and offline) participation around newsUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanShare a news storyvia social network11% 8% 30% 33% 14% 13% 22% 44% 8%Share a news storyvia email10% 10% 24% 19% 18% 10% 23% 32% 4%Rate (or Like) anews story6% 9% 26% 29% 11% 12% 14% 41% 10%Comment on a newsstory in a socialnetwork (likeFacebook or Twitter)10% 8% 27% 26% 10% 11% 21% 38% 7%Comment on anews story on anews website7% 8% 8% 16% 8% 5% 16% 22% 4%Write a blog on anews or politicalissue1% 2% 3% 5% 2% 2% 4% 5% 4%Post or send a news-related picture orvideo to a socialnetwork site4% 5% 10% 10% 6% 5% 12% 21% 3%Post or send a pictureor video to a newswebsite/newsorganisation2% 2% 5% 6% 4% 1% 3% 6% 3%Vote in an onlinepoll via a news siteor social network11% 16% 21% 24% 11% 14% 30% 31% 7%Take part in acampaign or groupbased around a newssubject4% 4% 5% 7% 5% 3% 8% 7% 2%Talk with friends andcolleagues about anews story online16% 11% 30% 30% 16% 10% 31% 39% 9%Talk with friends andcolleagues about anews story44% 39% 55% 50% 34% 49% 51% 43% 17%TOTAL* 63% 60% 84% 85% 62% 66% 74% 93% 40%Q13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)3. Online News in Detail* Total of all those who participated with news (online or offline) using one of the 12 listed techniquesDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 66
    • 67At a fundamental level, we see verydifferent‘participatory cultures’around news. 60% of our Japanesesample says they did not participatein any of the 12 ways suggested tothem in our survey in the past week,compared with only 8% in Brazil and15% in Italy.One interesting change sincelast year is a decline in onlineparticipation in France. The numbertaking part in online polls aboutnews for example has fallen from40% to 11%. Last year’s surveycoincided with the run-up to theFrench presidential elections andthese data suggest that a politicalcampaign can significantly increasethe amount of online participation.It should be noted that Italy was alsoin a pre-election period during our2013 survey, which may explain thehigher than average figures in anumber of categories.11%10%8%6%40%21%16%11%Vote in news pollNews comment(social network)News Comment(news site)Post picture orvideo to SN2013 2012b g e as polle in newotVotommens cNewk)orw(social net201311%40%2013 2012tommens CNewe)s sit(newe orturost picPo SNvideo tQQ s s cwFigure 3.6b: The impact of elections on online participation(France 2012 v 2013)Q13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate innews coverage?Base: France (n=972)24%9%24%14%22%15%19%17%15%21%Social Network Email20%11%21%12%19%10%17%10%13%11%Commenting on socialnetworkCommenting via a newssite18-24 25-34 35-4445-54 55+Figure 3.6c: Young prefer sharing and commenting via social networksQ13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage?Base:: All markets (n=11004)% sharing by social network vs email % commenting via social network vs news siteA number of types of onlineparticipation are strongly correlatedwith age. In general, we see higheronline participation with youngerage groups and amongst men.Specifically, young people are morelikely to share a news link, commenton news, or post a picture in a socialnetwork, whereas older groups aremore likely to use traditionalmethods like email or commentingvia a trusted news site. In general, wesee higher online participation withyounger age groups and amongstmen.3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 67
    • Across our countries, around one infive share a news story via email(17%) or a social network (20%) eachweek. Amongst those who sharenews, our UK data allow us to drilldown into which networks are mostimportant. Facebook, email, andTwitter account for the vast majorityof activity, though other networksare popular elsewhere, e.g. Reddit inthe US, Orkut in Brazil, and a rangeof other networks in Japan.68Figure 3.6d: Most important social networks for sharing news (UK)QS8b/8c Thinking about how you share news, in the last week have you passed on a link to an online news story, video etc. via email, social networkingor other means?/Through which of the following means?Base: UK=2078; Share news (n=377)1%2%4%1%3%3%26%40%56%Dont knowNone of theseOtherRedditLinkedInGoogle+TwitterEmailFacebookShared news via….!75%18%7%% Sharing newsNo Yes Cant rememberMale Female 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+% sharingnews21% 16% 27% 29% 19% 16% 11%3. Online News in DetailPercent sharing newsShared news via...Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 68
    • 69Looking again at devices, thoseusing smartphones and tablets areparticipating more heavily in newsthan the general sample. They domore of everything.!12%14%21%22%30%24%26%35%38%42%Post picture via SNRateComment via SNShare via SNVoteTablet+Smartphone All!!!!!!!!otVVotabTTablet+Smar!eottphoneablet+Smar llA!42%!!!!!t via SNommenCe via SNShar!t via SNe via SN!%8%!!!!!e via SNturost picPtaR!e via SNe!!!!!!!!!!!Figure 3.6e: Participating in news (tablet and smartphone users)Q13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage?Base: (UK=2078; US=2028) Tablet and Smartphone users UK (n=143) US (n=187)4%6%10%11%11%9%10%17%16%13%Post picture via SNRateComment via SNShare via SNVoteTablet+Smartphone AlleotVtphoneablet+SmarTTablet+Smar%tphone llAt via SNommenCe via SNShareotV17%16%e via SNturost picPetaRUnited States United KingdomIn explaining these differences, weagain ran our regression model tosee if we could separate the impactof device from other factors like age,gender, education, income andinterest in news. In the United Stateswe found a significant relationshipwith Apple smartphones, whereusers were 41% more likely to sharenews than other digital news users.Tablet usage does not seem to havean impact on sharing news whencontrolling for these other variablesand in the UK neither tablets norsmartphones showed a significantrelationship.3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 69
    • New model of participationIn the UK we have attempted thisyear a new classification of howpeople participate with online news.This was created by codingresponses to questions aboutcontributing to the news accordingto levels of proactivity (e.g. posting acomment, writing a blog) andreactivity (liking a news story, voting,etc.). We then combined this withthe frequency with which eachactivity takes place. Offline activitiesrelate to the question we askedabout discussing news with friendsor colleagues.70PassivetoproactiveFrequency of participationPassiveOffline occasionalOffline heavyIntenseEasy proactiveEasy reactorsFigure 3.6f: Model of participation – Segmented by ways participated in newsand frequency of participationUK participation model – Indicative onlyveissPa%73einfflO3%23%6eveoitcaeR%14yasE%30noitapicitraplyekeweveevitcaoPr%16nilno enstenI%10Figure 3.6g: New model of online participation – UK16Holly Goodier, ‘The Participation Choice’, BBCOnline,http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/2012/05/bbc_online_briefing_spring2012_participation.pdf.3. Online News in DetailThis model draws on researchpublished by the BBC in 2012, whichdemonstrated that a significantmajority of the population is nowactively participating online16– evenif most of the proactive discussion isstill confined to a minority. When weapplied these techniques to ouronline news sample, we also foundthat the majority (63%) isparticipating in some way eachweek, with 40% doing so online.Easy participation – such asliking, sharing and voting – turns outto be the most popular set ofactivities driven by the increasingavailability of these tools on websitesand social networks. But we havealso identified a group of‘intenseparticipators’who drive much of theproactive online engagement,especially around politics andentertainment/celebrity news.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 70
    • 71If we drill further into the data, wecan see that the 25–34 group isparticularly proactive (35% of allintense participators). The intensegroup is also heavily male.In contrast, the majority of thosewho are passive or contributeoccasionally offline come from oldergroups, particularly the over 55s.People who like to talk about newsoffline tend to be female.In years to come, we can expectmore of the offline participators tocome online. It will also beinteresting to see if the widedifferences between countriespersist in terms of adoption of newsocial and participatory techniques.Intense Easy Proactive Easy Reactors Offline Heavy Offline Occasional Passive18 to 24 17% 17% 13% 10% 9% 9%25 to 34 35% 20% 19% 20% 11% 13%35 to 44 18% 18% 15% 20% 15% 17%45 to 54 17% 19% 18% 26% 20% 17%55+ 13% 26% 35% 25% 45% 42%Male 61% 53% 48% 41% 37% 49%Female 39% 47% 52% 59% 63% 51%Figure 3.6h: Types of user segmented by age (UK)Q13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage?Base: UK (n=2078) Intense (n=182) Easy Proactive (n=284) Easy Reactors (n=327) Offline(n=494) Passive (n=791) Offline Heavy (n=125) Offline Occasional (n=369)3. Online News in DetailDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 71
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 72
    • EssaysThe Digital Revolution Remains Unevenly DistributedRasmus Kleis NielsenLagging Behind or Choosing a Different Path? Information Behaviour in GermanyUwe Hasebrink and Sascha HöligHow Live Blogs are Reconfiguring Breaking NewsNeil ThurmanThe Bottom Line: Do and will Consumers Pay for Digital News?Robert G. PicardSmart TVs – the Final Frontier for Interactive News?Dan BrilotDemographic Divides: How Different Groups Experience Online NewsAlison PrestonPartiality and Polarisation of NewsPaolo ManciniDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 73
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 74
    • 75This year’s Digital News Report documents that thedigital revolution continues to make uneven progress.First, progress continues to be uneven betweencountries. Most obvious in our nine-country survey arethe digital divides between on the one hand middle-income Brazil with less than 50% of the populationonline and on the other hand the eight high-incomecountries, all of which have more than half thepopulation actively using the internet (and many ofwhom have 80% or more online).Second, progress remains uneven within countries.Even in affluent, developed democracies like France,Germany, and the United States, about a fifth of thepopulation are not regular internet users, let alonesmartphone or tablet owners.Third, progress takes different forms from country tocountry, and the 2013 Digital News survey gives usdetailed, comparative data to start mapping the differentways in which people in different countries use digitaltechnologies to access, share, and interact with news.The results reported here make immediately clear thateven countries with similarly high levels of internet useand mobile web access in some cases have developedquite different patterns of use, perhaps reflectingdifferent‘participatory cultures’– at least when it comesto news.In this essay, I will highlight some of the mostimportant and interesting similarities and differences interms of the different forms the digital revolution hastaken, focusing in particular on three aspects. First, theglobal rise of a small number of US-based digitalintermediaries in the form of Google, Facebook, and – toa lesser extent – Apple. Second, differences in terms ofthe importance of brand names, search engines, andsocial networking sites as gateways to news in differentcountries. Third, the more pronounced differences interms of how actively people in different countries –even different countries with similarly high levels ofinternet use and the like – share news, comment onnews, or otherwise engage online with current affairs.The rise of global digital intermediariesGoogle and Facebook, a fifteen-year-old search enginecompany and a social networking service that has onlyjust turned nine, have become key parts of the newsmedia ecology in every country covered in this report. Inthe growing markets for smartphones and tablets andaccompanying application distribution platforms (likethe App Store and Google Play), Apple plays a dominantrole in several countries, though competing devicemanufacturers like Samsung and competing operatingsystems like Google’s Android means that the mobilemarket is significantly less concentrated than search orsocial networking services.Given the central importance of search and socialnetworking services as gateways to news, and thegrowing importance of mobile platforms, thesedominant digital intermediaries occupy increasinglyimportant positions as new gatekeepers online.17(Muchtalk of disintermediation aside, much of the success ofthese companies is based precisely on their role as someof the most significant intermediaries between mediausers and the content and services they access.)Reliable data on the market share of Google,Facebook, and Apple in various countries is not easilyavailable, but estimates produced by market intelligencecompanies tracking the search, social networking, andmobile markets gives an indication of their position, andour survey adds new details. The search engineoptimisation company webcertain, for example,estimates that Google’s search engine market share isbetween 87% (Italy) and 97% (Denmark) in the sixWestern European countries covered here.18In Brazil, thecompany is equally dominant. On its home turf in theUnited States, Google accounts for about two-thirds ofThe Uneven Digital RevolutionBy Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, RoskildeUniversity and the Reuters Institute for theStudy of Journalism, University of Oxford17Robin Foster, News Plurality in a Digital World (RISJ, 2012).18http://globalcentral.net/assets/cb757434/Search-Social-2012-Done.pdf.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 75
    • search and faces competition from both Microsoft’s Bing(16%) and Yahoo (13%). Only Japan is an outlier in thisrespect, as Yahoo Japan continues to be the largestsearch engine there with a market share ofapproximately 50% – well ahead of Google’s 40% share.(Since 2010, however, Yahoo Japan has actually usedGoogle’s search engine to power its search results.)Google has thus come to dominate market for searchacross the world, and as a consequence attracts a verylarge share of global online advertising – more than 40%according to a recent estimate.19Though overall growth in the number of active usersseems to have tapered off in many developeddemocracies, Facebook seems to be approaching asimilarly dominant position in the market for socialnetworking services. With the exception of Germany,where Facebook penetration is only about 36% of theonline population, the social media monitoring andmarketing company Socialbakers estimates that theCalifornia-based social networking site in early 2013served between 49% (France) and 66% (Italy) of theonline population of the six Western European countriescovered here.20Reach is similarly high in Brazil, where anestimated 72% of the online population are activeFacebook users and in the US, where about 62% of theonline population are active users. Again, Japan is anoutlier, with the local network Mixi as the market leaderwith about 25% of the online population as active usersand Facebook number two with about 15%. With thisone exception, Facebook is by far the most importantsocial networking site in the countries we cover.The markets for smartphones and tablets are so farless concentrated than the markets for search and forsocial networking services. Figure 4.1 provides data onthe percentage of the population in each of the ninecountries covered here who are internet users, who aresmartphone users, and who are tablet users. In italics, thetable includes the share of smartphone and tablet userswho report they use Apple devices.(Interestingly, the smartphone + tablet market is theonly sector mapped here where one of the globallydominant US-based companies has as strong a positionin Japan as elsewhere.) Apple continues to be a hugelyimportant player in mobile markets and its tight controlover its App Store and iTunes platforms continues torepresent content providers, including newsorganisations, with a range of strategic challenges. Butthe company’s early near-total dominance of both thesmartphone and the tablet markets has been broken bycompetition in terms of hardware from companies likeSamsung and in terms of operating systems andapplication distribution platforms by Google’s aggressivemove into mobile.7619http://zenithoptimedia.blogspot.dk/2011/12/quadrennial-events-to-help-ad-market.html.20http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics.Figure 4.1: Internet, smartphone, and tablet use (with Apple market shares)UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanInternet users 84% 83% 67% 58% 80% 90% 78% 46% 80%Smartphone users 42% 36% 37% 24% 33% 55% 36% 20% 21%Tablet users 24% 15% 15% 13% 16% 32% 22% 14% 10%Apple s/phonemarket share40% 26% 25% 33% 34% 48% 43% 29% 58%Apple tablet marketshare64% 50% 41% 43% 53% 81% 57% 40% 69%Data on internet use from YouGov. Percentages of smartphone use and tablet use are calculated as parts of the total population. Data on percentage ofsmartphone users, tablet users, and Apple’s market share from the 2013 Digital News Survey (Q8a) ‘Which, if any, of the following devices do you everuse for any purpose?’(Multiple answers allowed).4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 76
    • 77How many people are on the internet, how many peoplehave mobile web access, and what people do onlinevaries in important and sometimes pronounced waysfrom country to country. But a limited number of US-based digital intermediaries have, through a combinationof powerful algorithms, shrewd harnessing of economiesof scale and network effects, and good design, come tooccupy key positions online across the globe.Varying gateways to newsThe rise of new global digital intermediaries like Google,Facebook, and Apple influence the flow of traffic onlineand increase the competition for digital advertising,often putting pressure on industry incumbents likenewspapers and broadcasters historically accustomed toexercising considerable market power as keyintermediaries between advertisers and audiences. Inparticular in the European Union, where these US-basedcompanies are frequently more dominant than they areat home, their rise has worried publishers’associations,advocacy groups, and various regulators concernedprimarily with competition, data protection, and privacyissues.But how important are these new digitalintermediaries actually, compared to established players,when it comes to how people find news online? Thisyear’s Digital News Report provides useful comparativedata on this question, summarised in Figure 4.2 below.Figure 4.2: Brands, search, and social as gateways to news onlineUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanBranded sites 34% 32% 38% 35% 16% 55% 20% 47% 28%Search engines 24% 40% 40% 49% 45% 30% 33% 44% 39%Social networks 17% 15% 45% 38% 14% 22% 30% 60% 12%Q10: Thinking about how you find news online, which are the main ways that you come across news stories? (multiple answers allowed, only someresponses included here)Base: VariousThe survey results reveal a number of similarities but alsointeresting and important differences in terms of howpeople find news online. In general, there is no questionthat search and social media are becoming increasinglyimportant gateways to news, supplementing usersgoing directly to branded sites – but they are not equallyimportant in all countries.First of all, branded websites (of news organisationslike broadcasters, newspapers, or online-only providers)remain an important gateway to news. In most ofWestern Europe, about a third of the respondents reportthat going directly to sites like the BBC or the Daily MailOnline in the UK or El Mundo or El Pais in Spain isamongst the main ways they come across news online.In France, branded sites are particularly weak, whereas inDenmark branded sites, most notably those of the publicservice broadcaster DR and the country’s leading tabloidEkstrabladet, draw large numbers of online news users. InBrazil, our urban survey respondents rate branded sitesone of their main gateways to news, whereas brandedsites appear weaker in both the US and Japan.Second, there are some clear differences in terms ofhow many online news users name search engines asamongst their main gateway to news, and thesedifferences do not correlate in any simple way witheither the market share of a given search engine (likeGoogle) or the overall ICT development index of thecountry in question. Search engines (by virtue of itsmarket share almost invariably Google) represent themost widely named gateway to news online acrossmuch of Central and Southern Europe, with between40% (Germany) and 49% (Italy) of online news usersnaming search as the main way in which they comeacross news stories. (It is noteworthy that publishersfrom these countries are also amongst those who havebeen most vocally concerned about Google’s dominantposition.) Amongst urban online Brazilians and Japaneseinternet users, search engines are equally important,whereas they are slightly less so in Denmark, the UK, andthe US.Third, the differences between the nine countries areeven more pronounced when it comes to socialnetworking sites as gateways to news. Social networks(predominantly Facebook) represent the most widelyused way of finding news online for urban Brazilianinternet users, and a widely used gateway in the US4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 77
    • First of all, it is striking that, even amongst our surveyrespondents (online news users) and in countries like theUK or the US, where about two-thirds of all internet usersare also Facebook users, talking with friends andcolleagues about news in offline social settings is far andaway the most widespread form of‘participatory newsuse’. (Going beyond our sample of online adults, this isarguably even more so.)Second, it is clear the online forms of sharing,commenting on, and writing about news remainminority pursuits in every single one of the ninecountries covered here – even amongst our sample ofonline news users, and even in countries like Denmark,Germany, Japan, the UK, and the US, where internet usehas been a majority phenomenon for a decade or more.Most of our respondents presumably use emailroutinely, yet only between 4% (Japan) and 32%(amongst urban Brazilians online) use email during anaverage week to share news stories with others. In a fewcountries (Brazil, Italy) sharing and commenting on newsvia social networking sites is more widespread, butgenerally, this is not the case, though between half andtwo-thirds of the online population are Facebook usersin many of these countries. Moving up the ladder of(30%), Italy (38%), and Spain (45%). In all these countries,social networking sites, a signature‘web 2.0’-phenomenon, are by now significantly more importantthan more‘web 1.0’-like phenomena like aggregatorsand portals such as Yahoo and MSN as ways of accessingnews.In contrast, only between 14% (France) and 22%(Denmark) of respondents across the rest of WesternEurope name social networking sites as one of the mainways of accessing news online. (Comparison across agegroups suggests, however, that different generationshave partially different approaches to finding newsonline – branded sites and search seem about equallyimportant for all but younger demographics use socialnetworking sites more, also for news.)See Alison Preston essay for more on the impact ofdemographics, p. 97Different participatory culturesOne question is how people access news online, anotheris what they do with it. The digital revolution has beenaccompanied by much speculation about the interactiveand participatory potentials of new technologies thatallow people to share, comment, and create their owncontent. So far, it has been less clear who – and howmany – actually embrace and realise these possibilities,and whether they do it when it comes to newsspecifically.Here, the findings from this year’s Digital News Reportare particularly interesting as they document a muchlower level of overall engagement than some mighthave expected, as well as significant differences fromcountry to country, suggesting the existence of different‘participatory cultures’.21Figure 4.3 collects the mainfindings regarding how people share, comment on, andcreate news online.78Figure 4.3: Sharing, commenting, and creating newsUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil JapanShare a news storyvia email10% 10% 24% 19% 18% 10% 23% 32% 4%Share a news storyvia a social network11% 8% 30% 33% 14% 13% 22% 44% 8%Comment on newsvia social network10% 8% 27% 26% 10% 11% 21% 38% 7%Write a blog on anews issue1% 2% 3% 5% 2% 2% 4% 5% 4%Talk with friends andcolleagues44% 39% 55% 50% 34% 49% 51% 43% 17%(Q13)‘During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage?’(Multiple answers allowed, only some responses included here.)21Henry Jenkins, amongst others, has offered the notion of ‘participatoryculture’as a complement to existing notions of‘consumer cultures’to capturecultural practices that combine low barriers to expression and engagement,high levels of sharing and user-creation, and a shared feeling thatparticipation makes sense. Needless to say, such cultures can be rooted inmany types of social communities and need not follow national boundaries,even though our data show that national differences exist in participatorypractices concerning news use online. See e.g. Henry Jenkins et al.,Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture (NML, 2006),http://www.newmedialiteracies.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/NMLWhitePaper.pdf.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 78
    • 79participation to more individual and typically more time-consuming forms of content production like writing apersonal blog, only a small minority engages in suchactivities on a regular basis.Looking at these numbers in light of standardindicators of ICT development like the InternationalTelecommunications Union’s IDI, it is clear that onlineparticipation is not related in any simple way to thedomestication and ubiquity of digital technologiesthemselves. Denmark has higher levels of internetpenetration, broadband access, smartphone usage, andtablet ownership than, for example, the US, and yet alsohas significantly lower levels of people sharing,commenting, and producing news online.Indeed, the US stands out in this year’s survey, as itdid in the RISJ Digital News Report 2012, as having a farmore widespread participatory culture online than mostWestern European countries, even those with higherlevels of internet access. Japan, by contrast, hasparticularly low degrees of popular participation insharing, commenting on, and creating news contentonline, despite being one of the most technologicaladvanced countries in the world (in a way, this should beno surprise as the low number of Japanese reportingthat they talk with friends and colleagues about newsoffline suggests low levels of interest in sharing at theoutset). The results from Brazil, Italy, and Spain all pointto more widespread participation online, though thenumbers in all these countries have to be treated withsome caution due to the lower levels of overall internetpenetration in each, suggesting our respondents differmore from the general population there than elsewhere.ConclusionThe results reported here document that the digitalrevolution is making uneven progress in several respects.While the rise of a few US-based digital intermediarieswith global reach is a phenomenon that cuts across allthe countries covered here, there are some significantdifferences in what people do online, both in terms ofhow people in different countries find news and in termsof the proportion of the online population in eachcountry who actively engage with news by sharing it,commenting on it, or creating it themselves.Throughout, it is important to keep in mind thatdespite decades of ongoing digitisation, news media useremains overwhelmingly cross-platform, a mix of digitaland analogue, of broadcast, internet, and often also print– even amongst the youngest demographics surveyedhere (18 to 24 and 25 to 34), online-only news use is aminority phenomenon and mixed-media use the norm.But the overall direction of travel is clear. Digital isgrowing ever-more important, analogue less so, moreand more‘old media’are being rapidly digitised not onlyin production but also in terms of transmission and use.In the process, they are often transformed – even ifsometimes in unexpected ways.Assessing the democratic implications of thesedifferences and explaining the different ways in whichonline news usage has developed in different countrieswill be a central part of understanding how journalismand democracy function in an increasingly digital mediaenvironment. Clearly, technology alone does not drivethese developments. In future reports, we will continueto track both the similarities and differences in howthese tendencies develop across the world.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 79
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 80
    • 81As the Reuters Institute Digital News Report in 2012 and2013 both show, Germany is a quite specific case withregard to information behaviour. Germans seem to bemore loyal to established (mass media) news sources,and they are less likely to embrace new andindividualised news services. This essay starts with asynopsis of the characteristics of Germans’informationbehaviour and discusses potential reasons for theseparticularities. This discussion will provide a basis onwhich to answer the question whether these resultsindicate that Germans are lagging behind theinternational trend in the development of newsconsumption or whether Germans are rather choosing aparticular path into the new media environment.Specific patterns of news consumption in GermanyAccording to the Reuters Institute news survey, newsconsumption in Germany is characterised by thefollowing pattern. General interest in news is quite highamong Germans; regional news in particular is moreimportant than in any other market, and there is muchhigher interest in political news than in say the UK.Consistent with last year, traditional media (TV, radioand newspapers) are particularly strong in Germany:news from newspapers 63% (highest with Japan), radio51% (second highest after Denmark, clearly above all theother countries), and TV 82% (third highest afterDenmark and France) are used by the majority of theGerman population. On the other hand Germans areleast likely to use online news (66%) and second lowest(21%, after France) in social media and blogs. In additionGermany is lowest in tablet use for news as well as inmobile usage for news, and Germans are least likely topay for digital news. The relatively low level of use ofmobile and other online services that are rathercharacterised by short headlines might be the reason forthe finding that Germans are most likely to read longerstories or articles than people in other countries.In terms of the Reuters Institute user typology, 58%of the German population belong to either the‘traditional only’(33%, highest percentage of allcountries) or‘mainly traditional’(25%, second highest)segments of news users. As in other countries thispercentage is lower among the youngest age group(20%‘traditional only’, 21%‘mainly traditional’). The mostfrequent segments in the youngest age group are thosewho combine some traditional and some online sources(in sum 78%); this is an indicator for a pattern of newsconsumption which represents a balanced functionalcombination of established mass media and newindividualised digital services.The role of regional information in newsconsumptionThe German information environment (for a recentoverview see Schroeder et al., 2011) is characterised bythe pre-eminent role of regional communication spaces.Starting with the four military zones after the SecondWorld War, the 16 states (Länder) of the Federal Republicof Germany still form a constitutive framework forpolitical and cultural life today. This has been mirrored bythe development of a highly regionalised newspaperlandscape with a dominant role of regional or even localnewspapers published by regional or local publishingcompanies. Over recent decades, and particularly duringthe recent crisis of newspapers, a major process ofconcentration has taken place, leading to a landscapethat is dominated by a few strong publishing houses;however, this process has not changed the fact that themajority of Germans read‘their’regional newspaperevery day. Among the nine countries surveyed, Germanyis the European country that comes out highest both interms of those buying a newspaper once a week (56%)and those with a subscription that includes homedelivery (33%).Lagging Behind or Choosing a DifferentPath? Information Behaviour in GermanyUwe Hasebrink and Sascha HöligHans Bredow Institute for Media Research,HamburgDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 81
    • The development of radio in the western part of thecountry – until the middle of the 1980s exclusivelyoffered by public broadcasters – reflected the regionalstructure, too. Public broadcasting stations werefounded for each state or in some cases for two or morestates. After unification in 1990 this regional structurewas applied to the eastern part as well. The legalframework for commercial radio is also defined by eachof the single states; thus the most relevant commercialradio stations are acting at a regional level. As a result,apart from a few special interest channels in news,culture and classical music the German radio landscapeis almost completely regionalised.The role of national public televisionBesides the strong role of regional information providedby regional newspapers and radio, television establisheditself as the dominant news source for national andinternational affairs. This was supported by the strongposition of public service television. The main newsshow of the first national channel (Tagesschau on ARD)that has just celebrated its 60th anniversary is by far themost renowned source of information in Germany; this isalso true for the younger age group between 14 and 29years (Hasebrink and Schmidt 2013). For the Germantelevision industry the end of this news show at 8.15p.m. marks the beginning of primetime for almost allchannels. In addition, the main news show of the secondpublic channel (heute on ZDF) is also established as amajor news source. Given these long establishedbenchmarks for television news and some unsuccessfultrials with popular news formats, the bigger commercialchannels in Germany have also invested considerableefforts in their main news programmes. As aconsequence TV news in Germany still stands for highjournalistic standards and trust and has a significantimpact on public and political debate.The limited role of public service media in theonline worldIn some countries relevant established news providershave been the pacemakers of online development. Thisis particularly true for the UK where the BBC – as theReuters Institute data show – successfully transferred itsleading role as a trusted traditional news source into theonline world. In Germany, despite their leading roleamong the traditional sources, public broadcasters havebeen seriously limited by European and nationalregulation in the development of new services. Instead anumber of print media publishers and even commercialnews channels have become, at a relatively low level, themost important online sources. One can assume that anearlier and more determined engagement of publicservice broadcasters in the area of online news wouldhave increased the number of users of online news.The role of early cable and satellite infrastructureAnother specific factor that shaped the development ofthe German media environment was the early decisionto invest heavily in cable infrastructure. As aconsequence, as early as the 1990s German televisionhouseholds were able to receive a large number of freeGerman language channels (30–50) while viewers inother European countries like the UK, France, or Italy hadfar fewer options to choose from. This offers oneexplanation as to why the more recent developments inmedia technology and media services – such as pay TV,digital channels, online services – were less successful inGermany than in other European countries. Given thelarge amount of high-quality programming available itwas harder for new services to demonstrate their added-value.The role of cultural differencesWhenever we observe comparative findings aboutintercultural differences in communication behaviour itis tempting to attribute them to cultural differences or tospecific national‘mentalities’. However there is still noconsensus in academic research about how toconceptualise cultural differences in communicationbehaviour. In addition, given the multicultural structureof many of today’s societies, it might be misleading tolook for a‘typically German’form of communicationbehaviour. As comparative communication researchconsistently shows, differences within individualcountries are bigger than differences between countries.Nevertheless some findings from comparative researchcan indicate general patterns of media use andcommunication behaviour. One such observationsuggests that Germans are less likely than people inother countries to embrace new technologies and bewilling to experiment with all the options they mightoffer (Livingstone et al., 2011; Hasebrink, 2012); insteadthere is a certain tendency to emphasise the potentialrisks of a new technology. It is not possible to providemore than speculative reasons for this kind ofintercultural differences; at least it seems to be aplausible indicator within the general syndrome of824. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 82
    • 83German mentality, which might be characterised by astrong need for systematic and reliable structures –technical innovations tend to challenge traditionalstructures and thus cause some concerns. Thisinterpretation is supported by the finding that Germansare least likely (1%) to state that news should challengetheir own views; instead they expect news to beimpartial (76%) or to support their own view (23%). Theintercultural comparison reveals that Germans ratherprefer familiar structures that are not challenged by newexciting technical features or critical opinions.ConclusionsTaking into account these arguments regarding theGerman media environment, the specific pattern ofnews consumption reflected by the Reuters InstituteDigital News Report looks highly plausible. Given a well-established, diverse, and trusted set of informationsources, Germans seem to be less likely to change theirpatterns of news consumption than media users in othercountries and the leading information brands fromtelevision, newspapers, and radio are doing well inretaining their important role. However, this does notmean that new digital services are not being adopted;Germans tend to keep their loyalties to establishedmedia while enhancing and supplementing their rangeof information sources with digital services. This is eventrue for the youngest group who, while they are mostlikely to make use of online news, still combine this withinformation sources provided by established mediabrands.From a comparative point of view the level of digitalnews consumption is quite low; however, even in thiscountry, the general trend towards digital news sourcesis obvious. Most Germans integrate online news intotheir everyday lives; as in other countries almost allmembers of the younger generations use a wide rangeof online services and combine these with traditionalsources. In this way, established media brands play animportant role as indicators of professional journalism –be it online or offline. The low readiness to pay for onlinenews might be a consequence of the fact that mostnews media are offering their online news for free. SinceGermans do actually spend quite a lot of money onnewspaper subscriptions and the broadcasting licencefee, one can expect that there will be a shift from payingfor these media to new services.ReferencesHasebrink, U. (2012)‘Young Europeans’Online Environments: ATypology of User Practices’, in S. Livingstone, L. Haddon,and A. Görzig (eds), Children, Risk and Safety Online: Researchand Policy Challenges in Comparative Perspective (Bristol:Policy Press), 127–39.— and Schmidt, J.-H. (2013)‘MedienübergreifendeInformationsrepertoires: Zur Rolle der Mediengattungenund einzelner Angebote für Information undMeinungsbildung‘ (Cross-Media Information Repertoires:On the Role of Media Types and Single Brands forInformation Behaviour and Opinion Building), MediaPerspektiven, 1/2013: S. 1–12.Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., and Ólafsson, K. (2011)Risks and Safety on the Internet: The Perspective of EuropeanChildren (London: EU Kids Online),http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/33731.Schröder, H. D., Hasebrink, U., Dreyer, S., Loosen, W., andSchröter, F. (2011) Mapping Digital Media: Germany, a reportby the Open Society Foundation,http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/mapping-digital-media-germany-20111028.pdf.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 83
    • 84Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 84
    • 85Live news pages, also known as live blogs (see Figure 4.4below), have become one of the most engaging formatsfor news online. According to the editor of the Guardian,Alan Rusbridger, who oversees the UK’s second mostpopular newspaper website, live blogs outperform allother modes of online journalism.22Such anecdotalevidence is supported by hard data showing that liveblogs receive more visitors for longer periods of timethan conventional articles or picture galleries on thesame subject (Thurman and Walters, 2012), and by theirincreasing prevalence at news sites worldwide, includingNYTimes.com, FT.com, and BBC News online.However, despite their popularity, live blogs havereceived scant attention from media researchers. TheReuters Institute surveys are helping to fill this gap byproviding – for the first time – data on theirconsumption across a number of countries, and on newsconsumers’attitudes to live pages.How Live Blogs are ReconfiguringBreaking NewsNeil Thurman, Senior Lecturer in ElectronicPublishing, City University LondonFigure 4.4: A live blog at  Guardian.co.uk, with some typical featureshighlightedSource: Thurman and Walters (2012).Reprinted by permission of thepublisher (Taylor & FrancisLtd, http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals)22Bob Franklin, personalcommunication, Mar. 2013.Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 85
    • Both this year and last the surveys showed that 11% ofUK news consumers had followed a live news page inthe previous week. This year’s survey reveals that livenews pages are even more popular in the US, Brazil, Italy,Spain, and especially in France (19%) and Japan (35%).Because the survey took place at the same time as theFrench Parliament was considering whether to introducesame-sex marriage – a debate that was intenselyfollowed due to the increasing number of Frenchparliamentarians who are now on Twitter23– it could bethat this figure is a result of the survey’s timing. However,the French online news market is distinguished by therelatively high number of internet-only or‘pure players’–such as Slate, Rue 89, Mediapart, and Atlantico – whoseinnovations, including in their adoption of live blogs,have normalised the format in France.24In Japan too, pure-player sites appear to be drivingthe popularity of live pages. Yahoo News Japan – thecountry’s‘flagship’news website, used by 64% ofJapanese news consumers in this survey – carries a‘breaking news’tab leading to a live page. The popularityof Yahoo News Japan, combined with the ratherconventional approach to editorial presentation on therest of its homepage, are, according to Yasuomi Sawa ofKyodo News, the likely explanation for the popularity oflive pages in Japan.25Live news pages are popular then, but with whom?The survey results show distinct differences betweenSpain, Japan, and the US – where they are accessedmore or less equally by men and women; France, UK,and Brazil – where there is a moderate bias towards men;and Italy, Germany, and Denmark – where there is apronounced bias towards men with, in Germany, morethan twice as many men accessing live pages. InGermany live pages, known as‘news tickers’, are usedalmost exclusively to cover sport events, in particularfootball, which have a significant male bias in theiraudience profile.26It is unsurprising that live blogs are popular withheavy internet users. Typically running for six hours(Thurman and Walters, 2012), they demand repeatedvisits. Their reverse-chronological order and bite-sizedupdates – every few minutes or so – while essentialcharacteristics of their ability to convey information‘aslive’, also present usability challenges.This Reuters Institute survey shows that, in the UK,28% of live blog users felt they were hard to understand.Although news organisations have been improving theusability of their live blogs by, for example, allowingusers to read them in either chronological or reversechronological order, they are likely to remain harder tounderstand than traditional news articles because theylack a conventional narrative structure, often havemultiple authors, incorporate a range of external sourcessuch as tweets, and make extensive use of quotes from –and links to – secondary sources.8635%19%16% 16% 15%11% 11%8% 8%Japan France Spain Italy Brazil US UK Germany DenmarkFigure 4.5: Popularity of live blogs by countryQ11: Thinking of the way you looked at news online in the last week, which of the following ways of consuming news did you use?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)23Nicolas Kayser-Bril, personal communication, 10 Mar. 2013.24Jean-Christophe Pascal, personal communication, 11 Mar. 2013.25Yasuomi Sawa, personal communication, 10 Mar. 2013.26Christoph Neuberger, personal communication, 12 Mar. 2013.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 86
    • 87These characteristics are, of course, also an importantpart of the reason for their popularity. My own previousresearch (Thurman and Walters, 2012) showed thatreaders assessed live blogs’neutrality and balancepositively. This survey confirmed this finding, with 40% oflive blog users in the UK agreeing‘strongly’or‘somewhat’that they were more balanced than article pagesbecause they give a range of opinions and routinely linkout to sources and supporting documents. Only 12%disagreed.Because live news pages are produced at speed,there is little time for live blogging journalists toundertake factual verification. What journalists doinstead is work with trusted sources, for example, knownTwitter accounts, and involve the audience in factchecking. This survey shows that more readers (35%)than not (27%) are unconcerned about any lack ofaccuracy in live blogs. In addition to their balance, liveblogs’use of a greater range of primary sources and theirtransparent correction practices are also likely to havehelped instil a degree of confidence about theirobjectivity. However news organisations should not taketheir readers’trust as a given. Live pages’compressedand frequent deadlines and informal tone mayencourage the potentially dangerous publication ofunverified information. As the Guardian’s Paul Lewis says,‘the danger in the rush to do regular updates is that wewill make a really serious mistake’(Thurman and Walters,2012).The Reuters Institute survey also asked live blogreaders in the UK whether they found the format aconvenient way of following news at work. Anoverwhelming majority (62%) agreed‘somewhat’or‘strongly’, with only 10% disagreeing. Of thoserespondents who said they access news at work or in aplace of study, 17% use live blogs, significantly higherthan the figure (11%) for all respondents. Live blogs areparticularly suited to following news at work becausethey match readers’preferences for news consumptionin that setting, by providing easy-to-monitor updates ona single page in a discreet, text-based format.In this year’s Reuters Institute survey we wanted toinvestigate the popularity of different types of live pages.To do this we used my classification of live blogs(Thurman and Walters, 2012), which divides the formatinto four types: News, Sport, Series/Subject, and OtherScheduled Event (see Figure 4.7).More balancedthan article pagesbecause they givea range of opinionI worry about theaccuracy of theinformationDifficult to under-stand because thestory is broken upinto short updatesA convenient wayof following newswhile I am atwork40% agree 27% agree28% agree 62% agreeFigure 4.6: Consumer attitudes to live pagesType CharacteristicsNews• Scheduled well in advance, semi-scheduled orcompletely unscheduled.• Major breaking news stories, generally with a moreserious tone.• Examples include natural disasters, protests and riots,unfolding political scandals.Sport• Predictable• Casual in tone• High level of direct interaction with readers• Fewer multimedia elements• Links and multimedia elements often included forentertainment purposes, may not be directly relevantto storySeries/Subject• Cover a subject, not a single story• Usually public affairs topics• Examples include: Politics Live, Middle East Live, and aLive Blog on planned reforms to Britain’s NationalHealth Service.Other ScheduledEvent• Planned in advance and of finite duration.• Cover soft news, such as the Cannes film festival, theEurovision Song Contest, and television series such asThe Apprentice and X Factor, which are live blogged atthe same time each weekFigure 4.7: Typology of live blogsSource: Thurman and Walters (2012). Reprinted by permission of the publisher(Taylor & Francis Ltd, http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals).4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 87
    • In my study of live blogs at Guardian.co.uk, I observedthey were most regularly used to cover sport (37.6%),followed closely by the running, mainly public-affairs,news stories covered by series/subject live blogs (33.5%).Breaking news live blogs made up 21.9% of the total andscheduled events trailed at 6.8%. One might expectthen, given the preponderance of sport live blogs andsport’s popularity with online news consumers (see e.g.Boczkowski, 2010), for readers to favour sport live blogsover the other categories. This survey showed, however,that both news and series/subject live blogs are morepopular than sport live blogs with both US and UK newsconsumers.8854%74%58%12%1%33%80%75%13%6%To follow sports eventssuch as football or theOlympicsTo follow breaking newsstories like naturaldisasters, protests,shootings.To follow topics likeunfolding politicalstories like an electionsor budgetTo follow non-sportingevents like the OscarCeremony or TV showslike X-Factor.None of the aboveLIVE news page (short updates in chronological order) Thinking about this, please select the statements that apply to you.B!Figure 4.8: Types of live blogs consumed in the UK and USQS14a/14b: You said that you use LIVE news page (short updates in chronological order)Thinking about this, please select the statements that apply to you.Base: UK (n=2078) Use live pages (n=237) US (n=2028) Use live pages (n=213)Could it be, then, that live news pages are makingreaders more interested in hard news and public-affairscontent? While that may, for now, be an interpretationtoo far, what we can say is that, because the format hasdeveloped uniquely for the web, and matches so wellwith readers’consumption patterns, it seems to appeal asmuch through its form as its content.Live blogs’appeal is likely being reinforced by theincreasing consumption of news via mobile devices. 79%of mobile news consumers in the UK (and 77% in the US)say they use their mobile for accessing quick newsupdates during the day. Live blogs’short posts (whichaverage about 100 words) suit smartphones’relativelysmall screens, and the frequency with which they updatemean they warrant repeated daily visits. Some have beencritical of how such rivers of news are augmentingtraditional discrete articles – even going as far to accuselive pages of being symptomatic of the‘death ofjournalism’(Symes, 2011). However, although live newspages are meeting some readers’contemporarypreferences for snacking on news, often on the go, theymay simultaneously be delivering levels of participationand transparency, and an engagement with publicaffairs, that could contribute to journalism’s reanimation.ReferencesBoczkowski, Pablo J. (2010) News at Work: Imitation in an Age ofInformation Abundance (Chicago: University of ChicagoPress).Symes, John (2011)‘The Guardian Newsblog and the Death ofJournalism’, The Louse & the Flea (blog), 22 Feb.,http://louseandflea.wordpress.com/2011/02/22/the-guardian-newsblog-and-the-death-of-journalism.Thurman, Neil, and Anna Walters (2012)‘Live Blogging: DigitalJournalism’s Pivotal Platform? A Case Study of theProduction, Consumption, and Form of Live Blogs atGuardian.co.uk’, Digital Journalism, 1(1): 82–101.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 88
    • 89Providers of news are focused on increasing digitalrevenues to replace income lost because newspapers,news magazines, and news broadcasters haveexperienced declines in audiences and advertising. Datain the Reuters Institute Digital News Report revealconsumers have increasing experience makingpayments and suggest their willingness and expectationto pay for news in digital forms is also rising.The data indicate, on average, 10% of people have paidfor news in some digital form – about one-third higherthan last year. This growth rate is heightened because ofthe relatively low base from which it started, but it isclear that there is significant growth in consumers whohave paid for digital news in countries such as the UK,Germany, and US.The changing attitude towards payment is occurringbecause it is no longer a novelty and consumers areexpecting more news providers to require payments inthe future. Even among those who have never beforemade digital news purchases, willingness to pay fornews in the future averages 14% overall and rises to 19%among heavy news consumers.The primary reason that consumers expect to pay fordigital news in the future is the declining availability ofquality free news. This finding is seen in the UK datawhere 23 per cent of respondents cite it as the reason forexpecting to pay, triple the amount for any other reason.The Bottom Line: Do and WillConsumers Pay for Digital News?Professor Robert G. Picard, Directorof Research,Reuters InstituteUK Germany France Denmark USPaid for digital news 9% (+5) 10% (+4) 13% (+5) 10% (-2) 12% (+3)Figure 4.9: Payment for digital news is risingQ7: Have you paid for DIGITAL news content, or accessed a paid for digitalnews service?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973)Denmark (n=1007)Percentages that said yes in the last week, month, year or longer than a yearYou said you have not paid for digital content in the last year… How likely or unlikely would you be to pn14%9%5%19%13%8%All Countries US UKAverage News LoversFigure 4.10: Percent likely to pay in the futureQ7b: You said you have not paid for digital content in the last year… Howlikely or unlikely would you be to pay INTHE FUTURE for online news fromparticular sources that you like?Base: All (n= 11007); US (n=2028); UK (n=2078) Chart shows net very likely orsomewhat likely!23%8%8%6%6%5%4%2%59%If I am no longer able to accesssuitable digital news sources for freeA news brand I trustDistinctive journalism I can’t findanywhere elseWriters and columnists that I likeSpecial offers/activities/events/clubsnot available to non-paying readersGeneral newsA community I want to be part ofOtherNone of theseFigure 4.11: Motivations to pay for digital news sources inthe future (UK)QS18: You said that you don’t currently pay for digital news, but whatmight motivate you to PAY in the future for DIGITAL news sources that youlike?Base UK : Those that don’t currently pay for digital news (n=1862)4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 89
    • These data support the view that future digital newsreaders will be more committed to news and represent asmaller cross-section of the community than waspreviously served by print media in decades past. Digitalnews thus appears to becoming a product aimed at aniche audiences rather than a widely used consumerproduct. This is supported by the fact that an average of48% of respondents reported they have never paid for anewspaper and thus large portions of that group areunlikely to suddenly decide to start paying for digitalnews. That figure is particularly pronounced in Denmark,France, and the US.Of those who have paid for newspapers, two importantpatterns emerge: (1) payments are made at news standsor shops and (2) home delivery or home delivery plus adigital subscription are involved. The high retailerpurchases seen in Italy, Spain, UK, and Brazil indicatehigh single-copy sales methods; whereas the highprint/digital subscriptions and home delivery found inJapan, Germany Denmark, and US indicate habitualsubscription-based acquisition. These findings suggestthat the predominant pricing methods for digital newspurchases will also vary among nations, as publishersadjust to consumer payment preferences.There are some general lessons to be learned fromnews organisations’pay experiences and professionaland academic research to this point:1. Commoditised news does not create economicvalue because providing the same or similar news tothat of others provides no reasons for anyone to payfor it.2. Willingness to pay is a matter of tradition andconsumer expectation and platforms with betterpayment interfaces tend to have better paymenttake-up.3. Consumer payments are becoming more importantrevenue sources on apps for mobile and tablets thanfor general online payments.4. The presence of quality, free competitors affectswillingness to pay. If quality digital news is providedfree by newspapers or broadcasters in a market,there is reduced demand for paid news services.5. Larger legacy news players have advantages whenseeking digital payments because brand matters andonly a few large players in each market currently areable to produce sufficient numbers of consumers tomonetise digital activity well.Experience also teaches lessons about the effects ofinstituting pay systems and reveals that rigid paywallsreduce website traffic between 85 and 95%. The Times,for example, lost 91% of its traffic when it instituted itssystem. This can be an acceptable business outcome ifmore income is gained from consumers than advertisingrevenue is lost due to reduced traffic. As consumerpayments become the dominant revenue source,maximising audience is no longer the primary businessdriver; maximising income is.Where metered paywalls – systems that allowreaders to access some articles before requiringpayment – have been implemented, the decline in traffichas typically been between 5 and 15%, thus making itpossible to effectively generate both sales income andtraffic-driven advertising income.Cooperative pay systems are beginning to work fordigital news providers in some locations; especially forsmall and mid-sized companies, because they createeconomies of scale, spread costs, and create easy accessby new consumers. Two notable developments in jointpay systems have been Press+ in North America andPiano Media in Europe, which are now providing servicesto nearly 1,000 publications. Firms such as these providethe conditional access systems, payment infrastructure,subscription and single-payment management, anddata analytics to publishers, making it easier for them toimplement pay systems.Public-affairs magazines are also finding it easier toget the public to pay than newspapers, especially ontablets, because digital payments for magazines arebecoming the norm and they offer news analysis andcommentary in ways general news sources do not.Research is showing that users of digital services arenow expecting to receive more than offline contentwhen they use digital services. They expect to be incontrol of the experience, with the ability to make9049%54% 57%62%Average US France Denmark!Figure 4.12: Percentage who have NOT paid for anewspaper in the past weekQ6: Have you bought (paid for) a printed newspaper in the last week?Base: All markets (n=11007) France (n=972); US (n==2124) Denmark (n=1007)4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 90
    • 91choices and influence consumption. In addition, theyexpect more and different types of content than areavailable in print, such as access to backgroundinformation, more connections to original materials,more video, audio, and graphics, and better usabilitytools. Financial publications, such as the Wall StreetJournal and the Financial Times, are serving this lateraspect better than general news providers by providingvarious stock trackers, research reports, calculators, andinvestment analysis tools.Developments in paid news have significant strategicimplications for news providers. It is increasinglynecessary to focus on customer needs. Because digitalnews is more competitive than print news, its business isabout serving customers better than other providers, notjust about the revenue needs of the company. If newsproviders get the first aspect right, the second part willbe a natural outcome.Today, a number of large players are generating 15–25% of their total revenue from digital media. Inaddition, the sizes of audiences being served areincreasing 5 to 10 times because the digital platformsare attracting users who did not read the print newsproducts. Some mid-sized players are also starting toharvest benefits.These benefits are developing because the public isstarting to make clear how it wants to use digital mediaand news organisations are learning how to align theircontent and pricing practices to this new environment.Consequently, news providers are pursuing differentstrategies with regard to payments. Some (such as theSan Francisco Chronicle) are pursuing freemium models,with some general and promotional content offered freeand better or premium content behind the paywall;others a metered model, which allows limited access toa few articles as a marketing and ad revenue-generatingstrategy to irregular users. The majority of papersemploying the metered system have set the limit for freeaccess to 10–15 stories monthly. Others (such as TheTimes) employ‘hard’paywalls with payment required forall content.For those newspapers and magazines that haven’tyet begun charging, the key questions are when willthey implement digital pay systems, what content willthey charge for, on what platforms, under whatcircumstances, how, and at what price. Some maycontinue to pursue a free access policy for a time inorder to build digital audiences (such as the Guardian),but at some point most will switch to some sort of paysystem to remain economically viable.News organisations are increasingly offering separatepricing for print, web, tablet, and phone-based news,with many types of bundles for the services. Digitalpayments are scalable, allowing news providers toprovide a variety of sales options including singlearticles, one-day access, weekly access, or monthly,quarterly, or annual subscriptions at different pricepoints. Consequently, news providers will need todetermine which option, combination of options, orbundling of platforms will be best for their various digitaloperations.The most visible cases of publishers generatingsignificant digital sales – such as the New York Times –must be viewed as exceptional, however. They tend tobe leading national news providers in countries withlarge populations where digital sales become viableeven if they only attract a small percentage ofconsumers or from countries that have a language(usually English) that can be read widely by internationalconsumers. Digital products offered by Bild in Germanyare thus likely to attract more paying consumers than VGin Norway and the Washington Post is likely to attractmore international consumers than Kronen Zeitung inAustria. This does not preclude publishers in othernations, or smaller news providers, from pursuingopportunities and obtaining advantages from digitalsales, however, but they will need to pursue tailoreddigital strategies with different expectations.Paywalls alone are not to be expected to replace allthe advertising revenue that news organisations arelosing in the digital transformation process and userpayments will be just one of a widening array of revenuestreams: e-commerce, events, syndication, digitalservices, and income from non-media subsidiaryenterprises. Although employing a range of revenuestreams is new for many in the industry, it was commonfor news providers in the nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies before advertising revenue grew so large thatthey were able to reduce other revenue-generatingactivities.The data indicate improving prospects for digitalnews payments, but news providers will need to berealistic about financial expectations. The digital worldwill not yield income at the levels of the 1990s, butrevenues and profits do exist. As the digital revenues rise– at different rates on various platforms – many printnews providers will be increasingly pressured to shedthe assets and cost centres that support printproduction and switch to digital-only production that ismore readily supported by the rising revenue streams.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 91
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 92
    • 93An often quoted adage in the world of news and mediais that‘content is king’. This year’s Reuters Institute surveyhas provided plenty of evidence about the growingimportance of tablets and smartphones. However, it’salways worth remembering when looking through thiskind of data that in fact‘context is king’and thatultimately the majority of media (and specifically news)is still very much consumed at home on the‘first screen’:television.Television sets are still the only ubiquitous devices inthe UK, with 97%27 of the UK population with access todigital TV. We still observe the continued large-scaleconsumption of news on the big screen, with televisionnews still the source used by the most people acrossmost markets in the survey (the exceptions being Braziland Japan). This is changing, especially with youngeraudiences who clearly state that they prefer online news,with the choice, the control, and the participation thatthis provides.The arrival of connected or‘smart TVs’raises theintriguing possibility of bringing together the two thingswe love most - the TV and the internet - into a singledevice.We define smart TVs as televisions that can connectdirectly to the internet without the help of anotherdevice like a set-top box. This is normally done via anethernet or wi-fi connection. Penetration of smart TVs inmost markets in the study is above 10% and growing ata slow but steady rate. Though smart TV penetration isrising very slowly in certain markets (like the UK)penetration is in fact a lot higher in other markets likeDenmark (17%) and Brazil (22%).We can also see that news is widely used by smart TVowners, with over a third (34%) of UK owners accessingnews on their device, rising to nearly three-quarters(73%) of smart TV owners in France using it for thatpurpose.Smart TVs – the Final Frontier forInteractive News?Dan Brilot,Media Research Director, YouGov10% 11%16% 16%14%17%9%22%12%4% 6%11% 12% 11%8%4%13%5%UK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil Japan% ever used Smart TV % use Smart TV to access news!Figure 4.13: Smart TV usage and usage for news by countryQ8a/Q8b Which, if any, of the following devices do you ever use for any purpose/ have you used to access news in the last week?Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)27http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/nav.989Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 93
    • 94With a big push from consumer electronicsmanufacturers to make all large new televisions‘smart’, itis anticipated that penetration and usage will growrapidly. According to global technology specialistsGartner, 85% of all flat TVs produced by 2016 will besmart TVs.So what impact will this technology adoption haveon our consumption of news and specifically ontelevision-delivered news? YouGov has been trackingthe growing usage of linear and on-demand services onsmart TVs since the start of 2012.Our surveys show that video on-demand services(such as the BBC iPlayer, YouTube, Netflix, and Lovefilm)are the biggest factor driving both purchase and usageof smart TV devices. But we also find that news is thethird most common application (behind linear broadcastand catch-up TV) for smart TV owners in the UK, withwell over a third (38%) of UK smart TV owners accessingonline news services on a weekly basis.More specifically, throughout last year we have seensignificant increases amongst smart TV owners’usage ofa range of‘apps’27in the UK, in particular in the thirdquarter of 2012 where we saw large jumps in news (andsport) app usage, most likely associated with finding outnews and information around the Olympic (andpotentially the Paralympic) Games.18%22%28%37%30%30%36%42%50%25%29%49%42%44%41%49%40%57%18%27%28%32%34%36%37%41%52%FacebookCNBCUSA TodayYahoo NewsSky NewsITV PlayerBBC SportBBC NewsBBC iPlayerQ4 Q3 Q2!Figure 4.14: Most popular applications accessed via SmartTVs (UK)Source: YouGov Smart TV Tracker, Q2 & Q3, Q4 2012 – proportion of App users who access on a weekly basis(various base sizes).What this demonstrates is a desire to find out moreinformation related to‘live’events at that moment onthat device. Very often‘second screens’are used to‘digdeeper’into an event to find out more informationrelating to a TV event but it now seems that thatcapability also sits well on our‘first screens’.We also see global news brands such as Yahoo, USAToday, and CNBC gaining traction in UK living rooms onthe big screen – mirroring the kind of developments wehave seen with the internet over the past decade. Part ofthe picture could be the fact these are the kind of appsthat come preloaded with some TVs and also featureprominently in smart TV apps stores. However, that said,the increase in usage is also down to consumer appetitefor the content that they provide.The openness of smart/connected TV platform andthe ease with which apps can be created using webtechnologies opens up new opportunities for traditional27An ‘app’ refers to application software. This is a term used to describecomputer software that causes a computer to perform useful tasks beyondthe running of the computer itself.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 94
    • 95news brands across many markets. Last year, theGuardian launched a smart TV app in the United States,alongside its web and mobile portals aimed at Americanaudiences. Previously, getting carriage via the US cablenetworks would have been an expensive and tortuousprocess.We also notice this trend in other markets, especiallyin Germany where smart TV penetration is higher(already in Q2 2012 it was 11%) and where we see‘accessing new services’usage higher than any of theother smart TV applications, with just under a third (29%)using news services on their smart TV on a daily basis.France also appears to be a market where newsconsumption on smart TVs is particularly prevalent, with11% of the survey sample accessing news on their smartTV (this is a very high proportion of the overall 14% whouse a smart TV). Part of this may relate to the earlyadoption of interactive news on television in France,with a pioneering system called Antiope and laterversions of teletext.Whilst it might appear at first to be counter-intuitiveto have text-based content on a big screen, there are anumber of other successful precedents in Europe. TheBBC‘Ceefax’service ran from 1974 to 2012 in the UK andwas a text-based service delivered on a television with afocus on time-sensitive text-based information, such asbreaking news, financial stock prices, weather, TV listings,and sport. The BBC red button service now continues toprovide not only visual but text-based information, with45% of the UK population using the service on amonthly basis.But news providers are still uncertain whetherinternet-style content will work on a shared‘lean back’device with a large screen. To understand audiencedemand for different types of content, we asked a seriesof questions in both the UK and France (Figure 4.16).When asked about the specific appeal of internet-delivered news content, the most appealing conceptacross both markets was a breaking news alert (that ispushed to the corner of your screen for a short time),which appealed to just over half (56%) of the UKpopulation and almost two-thirds (64%) of the Frenchone.Weather-related services also fared well. Sports news(text and video clips) was popular with men but of verylittle interest to women. News lovers – those with a highinterest and frequency of access (20% of the sample) –were more likely to show interest in all these categories.Figure 4.15: The Guardian’s TV news app!64%55% 53% 51% 50% 48%43% 42%31% 31%56%37%41%33% 34%46%26%29%23%28%News alertto screenNews videoclipsWeathertextNews text Ticker newsand sportWeathermapNewspicturesInfographic Sport text Sport VideoclipsFrance UK6 !!!!!!!!!!F UK!!!!!64%!!eancrF UK!!%!!!ts alerNeweeno scrts videoNewclips!s videoclipsthereaWtxettxes tNew icker newTand spor!sicker newtand sporthereaWmapsNewesturpic!sesaphicrognfI txet tSpor Spor!ideoVtSporclips!!!!!!!!Figure 4.16: Interest in possible Internet news formats via a TV screenQS15 Thinking about the possibility of accessing internet news services via your television, how interested would you be in the following types of newsBase: France (n= 972),UK (n=2078)4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 95
    • The popularity of news alerts is in some way surprisingbecause it actively interrupts linear viewing, as opposedto other propositions which would require an activedecision to go to a menu system to access internet-based content. Even so, it seems that there is a genuineappeal for disruptive‘push’functions, in particular whenbreaking news is concerned, even when consumers arein‘pull modes’of consumption.We often hear of this‘pull mode’more commonlyreferred to as the television‘lean back’(passive) medium,where content is just consumed, versus internet-delivered‘lean forward’(active) media, where consumershave an opportunity to either make decisions aboutwhat content they want to receive (beyond merely theability to change channel or time-shift) or indeedcontribute towards that content or towards thediscussion around that content. The complicationaround internet-delivered services, whether on a smartor a connected TV, is to do with the device being ashared device (as opposed to laptops, tables orsmartphones which are mostly‘personal’individualdevices). However, for news (which could be relevant forall members of the household), this objection might notbe an issue (in the way that it is e.g. for social mediausage on shared devices such as the television). Weobserved that when asked if consumers wanted to‘be incontrol of my news experience’) almost half (46%) of theUK sample agreed, with this number rising to almosttwo-thirds (64%) of the French sample agreeing. Thisclearly shows the desire to move from a top–downmodel of news communication to one where userchoice (beyond merely being able to switch channels)will be a factor in the design and delivery of television-based news services in the future.Smart or connected television seems to be a natural fitfor the delivery of news content, particularly for‘push’notices of breaking news and also for in-depthreportage when consumer just don’t have enough fromtheir standard TV bulletin. This feeds into our basic desireto always be kept up to date and the ability to dig deepinto a story beyond the headlines. Interactive news andinformation content is now available on any screen and,as our homes become increasingly connected, thatnews passes more and more fluidly between the smalland the big screen.64%57%52%46%Wants to be in control Familiar face presenterFrance UKeancrF UK64%57%4eancrF UK46%o be in cts tanW oltrono be in c e pramiliar facF ertesene prFigure 4.17: Interest in‘internet style’news content on aTV screenQS16 : When thinking about getting internet news via your televisions towhat extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements?Base: France (n= 972) UK (n=2078)4. Essays96Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 96
    • 97This report has focused predominantly on providingclear analysis of how users in different countries vary intheir online news behaviour. This essay focuses on theUK in particular, and examines some key subgroups –age, socio-economic group,28and gender – to provide amore nuanced picture of the variations that can befound relating to news habits and attitudes.Do men and women have significantly differentnews consumption habits, and do they find the sametypes of news important? Are younger peopleconsuming more or less news than older age groups, anddo they interact with news in different ways? What roledoes socio-economic group play in consumption habits?The essay begins by setting out the importance thatpeople attach to different types of news. It describeswhich platforms are used for news, and shows thedifferent types of source people say they use for politicaland for entertainment news. It examines how differentgroups find online news – the gateways through whichthey navigate – and describes the types of online newsused and the extent of interactivity carried out.It is important to remember at the outset that thissurvey is based on online users of news – older peopleare less likely to have internet access by a considerablemargin (46% of 65+ compared to 90% of 16–24s in201229), and so differences in habit and attitude arecertainly even more stark than these findings suggest ifwidened out to the UK population as a whole. Theanalysis of differences by age can also offer an indicationof the possible direction of travel in news consumption,if younger people’s habits endure as they get older.30The importance of newsFirst of all, how personally important do people findvarious news topics? Figure 4.18 (overleaf) shows that,for almost all news topics, online users aged 65+ aremore likely to rate them as important than those aged18–24. The divergence is particularly great for local andregional news and economics news – and even newsabout the UK is something that 75% of 65+ say isimportant compared to 61% of 18–24s.This indicates a greater overall engagement amongolder users with news, which tallies with findingselsewhere,31as well as their more frequent newsconsumption.The three exceptions are science and technology,entertainment and celebrity, and arts news, whereyounger people are far more likely than older people tofind these personally important. Indeed, the 25–34 agegroup (not shown on the chart) is most likely to findentertainment and celebrity news important (37%)compared to 25% for 18–24s and 7% for 65+(see figure 4.18 overleaf).Turning to differences by socio-economic group,online users in C2DE households are more likely to findlocal and regional news important than those in ABC1households (59% of C2DEs say that local news isimportant compared to 44% of ABC1s). People from ABhouseholds are over twice as likely as DEs to findbusiness and financial news important – 28% vs 12%,and considerably more likely to find UK political newsimportant – 43% vs 33%.There are many gender differences, with womenfinding local and regional news more important, andmen business, financial, and economic news. Women aretwice as likely to find health news important (38% vs18%) and three times as likely to nominate entertainmentand celebrity news – 29% vs 10%. Men are three times aslikely to nominate sports (49% vs 15%) and twice as likely tonominate science/technology (29% vs 16%).Demographic Divides: How DifferentGroups Experience Online NewsAlison Preston, Head of Media LiteracyResearch at Ofcom28 Socio-economic group refers to the ‘common currency’ social classification(the‘ABC1’system) employed throughout marketing, advertising, and marketresearch. The classification assigns every household to a grade, usually basedupon the occupation and employment status of the chief income earner, butin some cases using other characteristics.29Ofcom, Communications Market Report (2012).30See Ofcom’s Communications Market Report (2012) for a discussion of the‘generation gap’in relation to communications media in general, and whetherthere are signs that media behaviour among younger people remains similaras they get older (cohort effect) or gets modified as their life stage shifts (life-stage effect).31See Kantar Media, MeasuringNewsConsumptionandAttitudes (Ofcom, June 2012).Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 97
    • 98Use of platforms for newsGiven the survey sample is one of online users, theinternet is a key news platform for most age groups, asFigure 4.19 shows. That said, television remains the most-used platform for news at an overall level (79%) and forthose aged 45+.Differences between age groups are substantial –57% of 18–24s said they’d accessed news on TV in thelast week, compared to 90% of those aged 55+. Thefigures are reversed for online news access, with 83% of18–24s saying they use the internet for news, comparedto 52% of those aged 65+. Newspapers are also muchmore likely to be used by older groups (70% of 65+) thanyounger groups (41% of 18–24s).Turning to socio-economic groups, there is nodifference for the use of TV across each individual group.However, there are considerable differences for radio:47% of people from AB households use the radio fornews, compared to 28% of those from DE households.61%46%36%30%18%32%25%30%19%25%37%43%75%64%53%49%28%57%7%33%7%28%46%18%18-24 65+Figure 4.18: Personal importance of types of newsQ2: Which of the following types of news is most important to you? Please choose up to fiveBase UK (n=2078) 18-24 (n=249), 65+ (n=379)79%57%37%70%57%41%25%83%67%42%32%79%78%52%37%79%84%59%39%73%90%69%44%64%90%70%41%52%Television Newspapers Radio InternetAll 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+!Figure 4.19: Use of platforms for newsQ3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news?Base: UK (n=2078) 18-24 (n=249), 24-35 (n=352), 35-44 (n=351), 45-54 (n=385), 55-64 (n=361) 65+ (n=379)4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 98
    • 99Sources used for different types of newsAs well as understanding which sources people saythey use in general, we wanted to see whether newssources differ for different types of news. When askedwhich types of ways they used to keep up with politicaland government issues, older people are more likely tosay they use broadcast and print sources. The pattern foryounger people is quite different – some two in five 18–24s say they use word of mouth, and social media, tofind out about these issues.Online news users from AB households are morelikely to say they use national press sources than those inDE households (60% vs 50%), and more likely to usespecialist magazine sources (11% vs 4%).72%52%27% 25%16%62%38%15%39% 40%57%40%22%27%23%70%50%18%26%19%73%56%33%20%10%83%60%35%22%7%85%62%33%22%5%TV and radio andrelated online sitesNational press andrelated online sitesLocal press andrelated online sitesFriends, relatives orcolleaguesSocial mediaAll 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+Figure 4.20: Sources used for different types of news – political and governmentQS4b: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with political and government issues? Please select all that apply.UK base sizes (as above)Turning to entertainment news, the picture is moremixed (Figure 4.21). TV and national press dominateoverall, but for younger groups, word of mouth andsocial media are as likely to be used as the national pressand TV. The national press is less likely to be used by 18–24s.46%42%25%12%23%38%24%39%7%47%45%39%32%11%37%43%44%26%14%29%46%43%23%10%15%54%46%18%16%11%49%51%14% 15%3%TV and radio andrelated online sitesNational press andrelated online sitesFriends, relatives orcolleaguesLocal press andrelated online sitesSocial mediaAll 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+!Figure 4.21: Sources used for different types of news – entertainment and celebrityQS5a: Which, if any, of the following sources of information do you use to keep up with entertainment and celebrity news? Please select all that applyUK Base sizes as above4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 99
    • 100Gateways to online newsThe ways that people find news is very important tomonitor – discoverability patterns are going to be anincreasingly important arena for competitive newsproviders.Figure 4.22 shows how different age groups say theyfind news online. Respondents could nominate up tofive ways, and so the higher overall numbers for thoseaged under 45 indicate they are more likely to use avariety of means, with those aged 35–44 most likely todo so. Branded news sites are the most popular meansfor all age groups. However, for over one quarter of 18–24s, search engines and word of mouth are used (28%and 27% respectively).In terms of socio-economic group, ABs are muchmore likely than DEs to use a branded news site (39% vs25%). Otherwise, there is little difference for mostelements including search engines or social media.People in DE groups are most likely to say they don’tknow how they find their news (25% compared to 12%of ABs).!34%24%17% 17%2%18%39%28%14% 14%4%27%39%18%20% 20%3%20%29%21%12% 12%1%14%Branded news site General searchengineAggregator Social networkingsiteBlog Family, friends,colleaguesAll 18-24 35-44 65+Figure 4.22: How users come across online newsQ10. Thinking about how you FIND news online, which are the main ways that you come across news stories? (Please choose up to five)UK Base sizes as aboveWhen these types of gateway are aggregated, at anoverall level a majority (54%) say that they mainly accessnews via a branded news provider. Each age group isalso more likely to give this response. However, one-thirdof 18–34s say that they mainly access news via a searchengine, social network, or aggregator, and this is alsotrue of one in five online users aged 45+.New ways of reaching news content are thus thenorm for a significant minority of online news users, andif younger people continue to use these newer forms ofdiscoverability as they grow older, then branded news asa core means of navigation looks set to diminish further.Types of online news sourceIn addition to understanding how people get to onlinenews, it is also important to identify which types ofonline news content they are using. As Figure 4.24illustrates,‘traditional’news media dominate in terms ofnews source, for younger groups as well as older groups.Nearly half of online news respondents (45%) say theyuse broadcast websites, and 35% that they usenewspaper websites. The dominance of broadcastwebsites is most probably attributable to the BBC Newswebsite.Younger age groups are more likely to say they usevarious types of online news source, with older agegroups being less likely to nominate a variety of newssources overall. Two in five 18–24s say they use socialmedia for news, and three in ten 25–34s.By gender, men are more likely than women to usemost online sources, although there is no difference inthe use of social media for news.4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 100
    • 10154%44% 48%57%62%56% 54%24%34%33%21%20%18% 19%15% 18% 13% 16% 10%19%14%All 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+Not sureAccess news using both methods about the sameMainly access news via a search engine, social network or aggregatorMainly access news directly via a news providerFigure 4.23: Main ways of accessing news onlineQS12c: Thinking specifically about when you look for news on a LAPTOP OR DESKTOP computer, which ofthe following statements most applies to you? Please select one answer.Base: All who have accessed news via a pc/laptop in the last week (n=1394 weighted, 1405 unweighted)45%35%24%20%6%57%48%31%40%14%49%42%28%29%11%49%37%24% 25%5%50%34%22%17%3%39%30%23%12%4%32%23%17%6%2%Websites of TV/radiostationsWebsites ofnewspapersWebsites of ISPs/aggregatorsSocial media BlogsAll 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+!Figure 4.24: Types of online news usedQ3: Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news?UK base sizes as above4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 101
    • 102We also asked online users to nominate the ways thatthey were accessing news content, to gauge the extentto which people are reading or watching news, or usingother means of consumption. As Figure 4.25 shows,print-based use is most common, with two in five sayingthey read news headlines and one in three saying theyread longer news stories. Around one-quarter say theywatch live TV news channels online, with those aged65+ more likely to do so than 18–24s. Conversely, 18–24sare more likely to use apps, and to read news blogs, thanolder users.It is of note that older users, despite being online, areemploying‘traditional’means of consumption on theplatform. It will be interesting to see whether thispattern changes as the older user base grows, orwhether this will endure for some time to come.People in AB households are more likely to look atheadlines (41% vs 33%) and read longer stories (36% vs24%) than those in DE households, although there is nodifference in terms of watching live TV online.39%32%24%19%15%11%6%41%38%17%26%16% 15%9%33%28% 27%10%12% 11%4%News headlines Read longernews storiesWatch live TVnews channelsUse apps Pictures andgraphicsLive pages Read newsblogsAll 18-24 65+!Figure 4.25: Types of online news usedQ11: Thinking of the way you looked at news online in the last week, which of the following ways of consuming news did you use?Base UK (n=2078) 18-24 (n=249), 65+ (n=379)Interaction with online newsFinally, this essay examines the demographic differencesin relation to how people share news online. Figure 4.26shows the extent to which news users are active interms of sharing news stories online. Three in ten (29%)online users aged 25–34 say they have passed on a linkto some type of online news story, and a quarter (27%)of 18–24s. This decreases to 10% of online users aged65+. Overall, nearly one in five (18%) of online newsusers say they have shared a story.Those from AB households are more likely to say theyhave shared a story than those in DE households (21% vs15%), and men (21%) are more likely than women (16%)to say they have done so.Online users were also asked to nominate the variousways that they share or participate in news coverage.Nearly half (44%) say they do this face to face or on thephone, while nearly one quarter (23%) of 18–24s saythey communicate online about a story. One in five 18–24s say they share a news story using social networking,and around one in eight of this age group say theycomment on stories. Online users aged 65+ are far lesslikely to comment or share stories in this way, althoughthey are more likely than 18–24s to share a story viaemail.There is little difference by socio-economic group, butmen are more likely than women to say they vote in anonline poll (13% vs 9%) and comment on a news storyon a news website (10% vs 5%). Women are howevermore likely to say they talk with friends and colleaguesface to face or on the phone (49% vs 39%).Figure 4.26: Whether shared news stories onlineQS8b: Thinking about how you share news, in the last week have youpassed on a link to an online news story, video etc. via email, socialUK base sizes as above4. Essays18%27%29%19%16%12%10%All 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 102
    • 103In summary, we have seen a variety of differencesbetween different ages, socio-economic groups, andgender. Younger people are, unsurprisingly, more likelyto be employing newer, less news-brand-oriented,means of navigation. That said, one in five older users saythey mainly access their news via these means. In termsof consumption, younger users are more likely to beaccessing news in a variety of ways, although overallolder people are more frequent consumers of news.Online usage for older users is more likely to be‘traditional’in focus than younger users. However, it isimportant to note that, across various measures, thereare three broad age groups where activity is largelysimilar – those aged under 35, those aged between 35and 54, and those aged over 55. In other words, while formuch activity 18–24s are at the vanguard, 25–34s areoften not far behind.There are differences by gender, particularly inrelation to the types of news that men and women findimportant, and to the use made of different types ofonline news source. While men are more likely to sharestories online, women are more likely to talk about themin person.Different types of news resonate by socio-economicgroup, with local and regional news being moreimportant to lower socio-economic groups, and political,business, and finance news being more important tohigher socio-economic groups. Branded news sites areused more by higher socio-economic groups, andreading news online is more prevalent in these groupsas well.These findings are an important reminder that newsconsumption and habits remain sharply divided forvarious groups within society. While some of thesedifferences may well become less stark in future years,others may endure – particularly around interest innews, and the continued preference for older users tonavigate via news brand.44%23% 21%16%9% 8%6%32%44%18%13% 13%7% 6%10%38%42%12%5% 5%11%6%11%45%Talk withfriends andcolleagues(face to face)Talk withfriends andcolleaguesdigital (e.g.email, IM)Share a newsstory via socialnetworkComment on anews story in asocial networkVote in onlinepollComment via anews websiteShare a newsstory via emailNone of these18-24 35-44 65+UFigure 4.27: How users interact with newsQ13: During an average week in which, if any, of the following ways do you share or participate in news coverage? (select all that apply)UK base sizes as above4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 103
    • Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 104
    • 105I am very happy to comment on the data emerging fromthe Reuters Institute Digital News Report. These dataconfirm, at least partially, what we wrote in ComparingMedia Systems (Hallin and Mancini, 2004). In particularthey confirm the accuracy of the definition of one of themodels we outlined there,‘the polarised pluralist model’,and its main constitutive elements.But first, let’s look at the data: in general, across all thecountries the majority of respondents say they prefernews with‘no particular point of view’. Such differencesas there are between the countries are relatively minor,other than for the urban Brazilian respondents whoappear to be outliers in this ranking. Indeed, theirbehaviour differs significantly from all the others:Brazilian consumers seem to be far less interested ingetting detached news.Partiality and Polarisation of NewsProfessor Paolo Mancini, Department ofInstitutions and Society, University of Perugia19%70%10%23%76%1%31%58%11%25%65%11%18%78%4%13%60%27%24%68%8%43%28% 29%15%81%4%Share your point of view Have no particular point of view Challenge your point of viewUK Germany Spain Italy France Denmark US Urban Brazil Japan!Figure 4.28: Consumer preferences around news by countryQ5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do you prefer news that…Base: All markets UK (n=2078) US (n=2028) Spain (n=979) Japan (n=978) Italy (n=965) Germany (n=1062) France (n=973) Denmark (n=1007) Urban Brazil (n=985)% agreeIn many respects the preference for more neutral news isobvious. Conventional wisdom favours neutral news andpredicts that the‘ideal’news consumer will also prefer it:journalists are supposed to produce neutral anddetached news and‘the good citizen’is supposed toseek it out. Even if this is indeed the dominant approach,the percentage of those who look for news‘that sharetheir point of view’is remarkable. In total, in all countrieswhere the survey has been conducted, 23% of therespondents stated a preference for‘news that share theirown point of view’, in face of 65.6% who look for neutralnews and 11.2% who prefer news that‘challenge theirpoint of view’. Combining together the answers of thosewho prefer partisan news (confirming or challenging apre-existing point of view), a total of 34.3% is reached.This is an important result that goes in the direction ofthe polarisation thesis that many scholars have alreadyoutlined. Markus Prior, in particular, has in several pieceslinked the development of partisan media to theImpartialnewsShare yourviewChallenge yourviewTotalpartial news65.6% 23% 11.2% 34.3%Figure4.29:Consumerpreferencesaroundnews(allcountries)Q5c. Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do youprefer news that ...Base: All markets (n=11004)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 105
    • 4. Essays106increasing polarisation of American political arena (Prior,2007). This trend is in particular linked to the rise ofcommercialisation and more recently to the advent ofthe web that together have progressively encouragedthe shift from the mass audience to a series of‘nicheaudiences’: Jomini Stroud has discussed thistransformation at length in her recent book (JominiStroud, 2011). Her point is very simple and confirmsmany earlier observations: because of the abundanceand the increasing commercialisation that characterisethe contemporary mass media system, the massaudience is replaced by‘niche’audiences.Each media outlet addresses a specific segment ofthe population defined on the basis of differentdimensions. Often these are ideological and politicaldimensions: liberal people look for liberal media,conservative people look for conservative media, etc. Inthis way existing opinions are just confirmed andreinforced as many people prefer to seek out familiar andrecognisable ideas.The internet seems to further strengthen thetendency towards segmentation of the public: amongstthe enormous number of possible sources madeavailable by the web, consumers are likely to tune in tosources that focus on their interests, that share theiropinions, that address problems and issues they arealready familiar with. In this regard Cass Sunstein hasproposed the idea of the‘Daily Me’: people are likely tolook more and more for their own image in the news.Sunstein’s words are useful in pointing out this particularbehaviour, mostly when it relates to news:Perhaps you have no interest at all in ‘news’. Maybeyou find ‘news’ impossibly boring. If so, you need notsee it at all. Maybe you select programs and storiesinvolving only music and weather. Or perhaps yourinterests are more specialized still, concentrating onopera, or Beethoven, or Bob Dylan, or modern dance,or some subset of one or more of the above (maybeyou like early Dylan and hate late Dylan). (Sunstein2007, p. 2)Media segmentation is mostly based on the attempt togive the consumer content and perspectives he issupposed to like and to agree with. The‘Daily Me’stresses this tendency of mass media consumers to lookfor their own image in what is offered by the increasingnumber of sources that are available today.Polarisation may be the consequence of audiencesegmentation: the various‘niches’are reinforced in theirpre-existing feelings and opinions. The distancebetween the different positions and attitudes thatalready exist within society is thereby increased. Ratherthan constructing a common sphere where differentviews can meet and negotiate their specific interests,new media for the most part, together with the moregeneral impact of the very crowded mass media marketdriven by market logic, fosters the division of the largemass audience into smaller niche audiences, each ofthem mostly interested in the strengthening of its ownidentity. In the Reuters Institute survey, 23% of therespondents agree that they prefer to tune in to sourcesthat share‘their own point of view’. The fact that 11.2% ofthe respondents state that they choose to getconnected with sources that‘challenge their own pointof view’confirms the acknowledgement of the existenceof‘partial’web sources and therefore the possibility ofchoosing among very clearly distinct sources.But I was also reassured by other results from theReuters Institute survey which tend to confirm thehypothesis that we stressed in Comparing Media Systems.The countries where the level of polarisation appearshighest (people are more willing to tune in to sourcesthat share their point of view) are those we labelled as‘polarised – pluralist’: namely Spain, Italy, and France. Inthese Mediterranean countries there are more onlinerespondents than in the other countries surveyed whostate a clear preference for news sources that share theirpoint of view. Actually the country with highestpercentage of these consumers is‘urban Brazil’, whichmany observers consider close to the‘polarised –pluralist’model, even if with some remarkabledifferences compared to the European version of thismodel (Albuquerque, 2012). Indeed, for this author, newsmedia in Brazil, as in many other Latin Americancountries (Waisbord, 2000), present a high level ofpolitical parallelism and instrumentalisation, the statealso plays an important role in affecting the media,professionalism in journalism is weak, deep cleavages ofa historical, social, and economic nature divide thecountry, so that citizens are more inclined to refer tothose sources of information that they perceive close totheir ideas and opinions. Ideological and politicalpolarisation seems to be a featuring characterisation ofthese countries even if, in South America, the influenceof commercialisation may appear stronger than inEurope also because of the more direct and closer roleplayed by the United States.In these countries behaviour on the web seemsperfectly consistent with widespread consumptionDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 106
    • 107attitudes where the affiliation to a particular point ofview or political perspective takes precedence overmembership of any wider non-partisan community.These countries present internal divisions of economicand cultural nature that also derive from historical habitsand that are deeper and more rooted than elsewhere.These divisions produce consumption patterns thatalign partisan content with partisan consumers.Consumers are not particularly interested in listening todifferent and contrasting voices, rather they seem to bemore inclined to separate themselves from alternativepositions and perspectives. In the end this particularchoice of consumption may widen the distance amongdifferent parts of the society, thereby reinforcing socialand political polarisation.The Reuters Institute Digital News Report offers anotherinteresting perspective on the theme of polarisation:young consumers are more likely to seek out sourcesthat‘share their point of view’: with 28.7% of those whoare between 25 and 35 years saying they prefer‘sourcesthat share their point of view’, compared to just 20% ofthose over 55. In part, this is unsurprising: young peopleare usually‘more extreme’in their behaviour, moreinclined and willing to be part of a specific group thanolder ones. The web reinforces this tendency: Facebookputs together old and new friends and blogs are mostlyaddressed to those who already share some specificinterests. Approaches to news consumption reflect thesame tendencies.ReferencesA. de Albuquerque (2012)‘On Models and Margins:Comparative Media Models Viewed from a BrazilianPerspective’, in D. Hallin and P. Mancini (eds),Comparing Media Systems Beyond the Western World(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).D. Hallin and P. Mancini (2004) Comparing Media Systems:Three Model of Press and Politics (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press).N. Jomini Stroud (2011) Niche News: The Politics of NewsChoice (Oxford and New York: Oxford UniversityPress).M. Prior (2007) Post-Broadcast Democracy (New York:Cambridge University Press).C. Sunstein (2007) Republic.com 2.0 (Princeton andOxford: Princeton University Press).S. Waisbord (2000)‘Media in South America: Between theRock of the State and the Hard Place of the Market’, inJ. Curran and M. J. Park (eds), De-westernizing MediaStudies (London: Routledge).29%59%27%61%26%65%19%70%20%68%Share your point of view Have no particular point ofview18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+!Figure 4.30: Consumer preferences by age (all countries)Q5c: Thinking about the different kinds of news available to you, do youprefer…Base: All markets (n=11004)4. EssaysDigital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 107
    • 5.6. Paying for news online and the rise of the app economy108Postscript And Further ReadingThe authors welcome feedback on this report and suggestions on how to improve our work viareuters.institute@politics.ox.ac.uk as well as potential partnerships and support for our ongoing work. In themeantime here is a list of further reading.Other Relevant SurveysWilliam Dutton and Grant Blank, Next Generation Users: The Internet in Britain in 2011 (Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute,2011)Ofcom, Measuring News Consumption and Attitudes (July 2012)— The Communications Market (July 2012)Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism, The State of the News Media (Mar. 2013):http://stateofthemedia.orgWorld Internet Report Fourth Edition (December 2012) http://www.worldinternetproject.netOther Relevant Publications from the Reuters Institute(all available from http://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/publications/risj.html)Nicola Bruno and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, Survival is Success: Journalistic Online Start-Ups in Western Europe (2012)Lara Fielden, Regulating for Trust in Journalism: Standards Regulation in the Age of Blended Media (2011)Robin Foster, News Plurality in a Digital World (2012)David A. L. Levy and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (eds), The Changing Business of Journalism and its Implications for Democracy(2010)John Lloyd, Truth Matters: The BBC and Our Need for It to be Right (2012)Nic Newman, Mainstream Media and the Distribution of News in the Age of Social Discovery— #UKelection2010, Mainstream Media and the Role of the Internet: How Social and Digital Media Affected the Business ofPolitics and Journalism (2010)— The Rise of Social Media and its Impact on Mainstream JournalismRasmus Kleis Nielsen, Ten Years that Shook the Media World: Questions and Trends in International Media (2012)Richard Sambrook, Are Foreign Correspondents Redundant? (2010)— Delivering Trust: Impartiality and Objectivity in the Digital Age (2012)— Simon Terrington and David A. L. Levy, The Public Appetite for Foreign News on TV and Online (2013)Digital Survey complete 5_Layout 1 07/06/2013 15:14 Page 108
    • Blank Page for HERC report 2010
    • REUTERSINSTITUTE for theSTUDY ofJOURNALISMReuters Institute for the Study of JournalismDepartment of Politics and International RelationsUniversity of Oxford13 Norham GardensOxfordOX2 6PSUnited KingdomTelephone: +44 (0)1865 611080reuters.institute@politics.ox.ac.ukhttp://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.ukwww.digitalnewsreport.org9 781907 384103ISBN 978-1-907384-10-3Supported by