The technology choices involved and
the likely routes by which 3D will emerge
Executive summary
Mankind has always been fascinated by the idea            This brochure from Ericsson is intended to hel...

Looking into the future from the
reaLities of the present day

› BLu-RAy
› ...
Looking into the                                         In all, around 18 3D films are scheduled for release
3D broadcasting                                           through a specialized 3D channel – separate to its
                            Complementing activities in the broadcasting space,
                            the in...
Early on in 2010, Insight Media predicted that 3D          Similarly, the emergence of social networking sites -
products ...

Challenges for                                             A profusion of choices
the 3D industry
Customer decisions and                                      Some specific technical factors need to be taken into

the technology
options in
delivering 3D
Television broadcast differs greatly from pre-packaged   ...
Additionally, this solution does not allow existing          There is also a legacy issue with deployed STBs that
2D TVs t...
3D-in-2D + enhancement
The principle here involves transmitting the same 3D
image as used in early-to-market deployments (...
Contribution 3D                                                       For universal open contribution, the 3D content

                            Solution Area
                            TV p...

given the inherent complexity of the associated           applications standards:
Ericsson Television Inc.
4500 River green parkway
Duluth, gA 30096
Tel: +1 678 812 6300
Fax: +1 678 812 6400
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

3DTV Taking Television to a New Dimension


Published on

3DTV Taking Television to a New Dimension: The technology choices involved and the likely routes by which 3D will emerge into the mass market. A brochure from Ericsson.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

3DTV Taking Television to a New Dimension

  1. 1. 3DTV TAKING TELEVISION TO A NEW DIMENSION The technology choices involved and the likely routes by which 3D will emerge into the mass market.
  2. 2. Executive summary Mankind has always been fascinated by the idea This brochure from Ericsson is intended to help you of making the real ‘more real’. From prehistoric as a broadcaster or service provider to better cave paintings, where our ancestors used natural understand the current realities and options with 3D, features in the rock to give an impression of depth the technology choices involved and the likely routes and movement, to the development of formal rules by which 3D will emerge into the mass market. of perspective by Italian painters in the 15th century, It’s a complex picture to understand, with many there seems to have been an inherent drive to draw different facets to it. Throughout the history of the the viewer ever deeper into 3D worlds of artists’ convergence sector, various discontinuities have own making. More recently, over the last hundred impacted on our abilities to make things work years or so, various emerging technologies have successfully on a true end-to-end basis. We might been employed to enhance these effects – first with have had the processing power – but we didn’t have stereoscopic photography and then, more recently, the bandwidth. We might have had the bandwidth with cinematography. – but we didn’t have the applications. And so on… The focus of various interlinked industries across Standards were often incompatible, regional variations the world is now on continuing that journey further abounded and legacy infrastructure and thinking still – but with a much greater emphasis on delivering sometimes slowed innovation to a crawl. a high-quality experience across multiple platforms, That said, the number of players then involved enjoyable anywhere from the cinema, over mobile in the tricky work of ‘joining things together’ handsets and, finally, into the home on gaming was comparatively small – essentially the IT and devices and televisions. Attempts in the past to Telecommunications communities. With 3D, that deliver a 3D experience through these media all too complexity has grown almost exponentially and now often foundered on gaps in some part of the delivery includes the satellite, broadcast, cable, film and media and value chain. Display or viewing technologies production, and consumer electronics sectors – as were primitive, content was less than compelling well as a host of supporting communities such as and supportive business models had yet to evolve. sport, advertising, news gathering and gaming. In the fast-merging worlds of communications, Just as critical in this context for 3D are the final parts consumer electronics and content, those gaps have of the delivery chain – the family home and the human been steadily shrinking over the last two decades or eye and brain. While the telecommunications industry so. A ‘perfect’ – and largely benevolent storm has has invested billions to solve the ‘last-mile’ problem, been sweeping across multiple industry sectors, driven 3D necessarily involves a great deal of complex in part by technology change, but also by major shifts engineering to solve the ‘last-meter’ problem – getting in the regulatory and commercial environments in the right signals into the consumer’s eyes at the right which those companies operate. time to ‘fool’ the brain into perceiving depth. These The latest development – 3D – has been slowly are non-trivial issues, both in engineering and human creeping into the headlines over the last few years, terms and many human factors need to be taken while more recently a handful of films or special into account if we are to optimize the entire 3D events have made it a ‘must-see’ experience for viewing experience. adults and children alike at cinemas and other The prizes are certainly worth aiming for. Research venues around the world. from Ericsson’s ConsumerLabs clearly shows But what’s the actual substance behind the surface? that consumers are willing to pay a premium for a Are we on the brink of a major change in the ways that high-quality viewing experience, while feedback we make, distribute, display and consume media, with both directly from box-office takings and from wider these first announcements just being the early ripples industry analyst reports shows a growing wave of that warn of a fast-gathering tidal wave of change? interest in 3D – emphasized in a CES poll of 19,000 Or is this just a lot of hype? people where 50 percent said that they wanted 3D in some form. 02 END-TO-ENDLESS TELEVISION
  3. 3. CONTENTS SECTION 1 Looking into the future from the reaLities of the present day › CINEMA › 3D BROADCASTINg › BLu-RAy › TV AND DEVICE MANuFACTuRERS › 3D gAMINg AND OThER AppLICATIONS SECTION 2 ChaLLenges for the 3d industry ‘extended famiLy’ › A pROFuSION OF ChOICES › BACkWARDS COMpATIBILITy › CuSTOMER DECISIONS AND ThE gLOBAL MARkET › CONSuMER ExpERIENCE AND uSABILITy › SuppORTINg BuSINESS MODELS SECTION 3 understanding the teChnoLogy options in deLiVering 3d › FRAME COMpATIBLE › 2D BACkWARDS COMpATIBILITy › 2D + DELTA › 3D-IN-2D + ENhANCEMENT › IMpLEMENTATION TIMEFRAMES › CONTRIBuTION 3D › CONTRIBuTION IMpLEMENTATION TIMEFRAMES SECTION 4 eriCsson soLution area tV produCts SECTION 5 important standards bodies 03
  4. 4. Looking into the In all, around 18 3D films are scheduled for release in 2010 and the infrastructure required to show them is being constantly upgraded. Digital screens now future from the account for about 15 percent of the world’s modern cinema screen with over 55 percent of them equipped realities of the with digital 3D. This deployment also seems to be accelerating, with 3D screen deployments in 2009 present day having grown by 255 percent when set against 2008 levels. Cinema owners are also discovering that they can Industry momentum is building behind 3D. Many charge a substantial premium for a high-quality 3D observers – partisan and otherwise –increasingly experience, with ticket prices rising by around 25 seem to see the distribution and display aspects percent over standard features. of 3D as essentially an enhancement to existing hD investment and innovation - and not the major In addition, there are other 3D opportunities that technological discontinuity that some might expect. cinema owners may wish to exploit to expand their revenue-generating base beyond the traditional Let’s start by looking at some communities that offering from the hollywood machine. A market are already having a central role in the current 3D does exist for significant documentaries and jigsaw puzzle, including cinema and entertainment nature and science programming as well as content producers; broadcasters; consumer event-based programming in sport, music and electronics manufacturers; manufacturers of possibly even religion. 3D Blu-ray content; and the wider gaming, mobile and applications players. 17 Cinema Whatever the underlying facts and figures are, parents around the planet will currently be suffering from ‘pester power’ at the hands of their children as each 11 new 3D blockbuster like Avatar or Alice in Wonderland reaches their cinema – even though the latter film actually had to be repurposed for 3D. At the start of 2010, Avatar had already broken all world records as the highest grossing film of all time – and that was only 41 days after its release. While 3 3 only around a quarter of the cinemas around the world 2 2 2 were actually showing the film in 3D, takings from 1 these accounted for over half of the revenues earned in the first weekend. In the longer term, “Avatar: The game” shows the potential for 3D gaming spin-offs, An ey* n x r m e Pa ony nt ne Fo at io ea ou at sn sg ar S Dr m with the 3D-ready pC platform version scoring high im W Di on ra Li ratings for customer satisfaction when set against ks or other gaming systems without that graphics ability. W m ea Dr Figure 1 - Number of upcoming 3D releases scheduled by uS studios * includes pixar productions Source: IDATE 04 END-TO-ENDLESS TELEVISION
  5. 5. 3D broadcasting through a specialized 3D channel – separate to its normal hD channel – to take maximum advantage While a few channels around the world have of the differences in production grammar and camera experimented with 3D content for particular programs positioning required to optimize the 3D viewing and specific episodes, these have used necessarily experience. key events that ESpN will be supporting primitive viewing technologies and have been mainly during 2010 include 25 FIFA World Cup matches based on sheer novelty value. and the college football ACC Championship, while BSkyB in the uk has announced ambitious plans for programming for 2011 will also cover the BCS its 3D strategy over 2010 and onwards, exploiting national championship game, plus college basketball its existing strengths, capacity on Astra satellites, and NBA games. investments in hD infrastructure and its already well- More broadcasters are also lining up and carrying established 1.3 million base of hD-equipped premises out 3D trials and announcing firm plans for the and households. In January 2010, the company carried coming months – such as Discovery Channel, out a successful 3D trial, broadcasting a premier Cablevision, Verizon, Comcast and DIRECTV, with the League soccer match to nine uk pubs and this service last offering three dedicated 3D channels to its uS will be rolled to other pubs which already have hD subscribers for free. subscriptions with BSkyB. Its 3D channel will initially A flurry of announcements at the CES show in Las be offered free to existing hD customers, while Vegas in January 2010 shows the breadth of this BSkyB is simultaneously pursuing an aggressive momentum – a stark contrast to the very flat market content acquisition strategy, including the production in consumer electronics in 2009. The Discovery of 3D content itself. Channel announced its intention to partner with Sony In Belgium, Belgacom is also adopting BSkyB’s trial and IMAx to deliver 3D channels, while panasonic is strategy and will be broadcasting national league also partnering with DIRECTV to launch three hD 3D matches to selected cafes and pubs fitted with TV channels by June 2010. Samsung 3D TVs. Continuing this focus on sport as an important crowd-puller in the short term to help spread the word about 3D’s potential, ESpN announced in March 2010 that it planned to cover around 85 events over the year 05
  6. 6. Blu-ray Complementing activities in the broadcasting space, the introduction of Blu-ray-based 3D content also looks set to spur customer interest still further. At the end of 2009, the Blu-ray Disc Association announced that it had finalized its Blu-ray 3D™ specifications, allowing every player and movie supporting it to deliver full hD 1080p resolution to each eye. Importantly, this specification is agnostic as far as the display technologies involved are concerned, supporting 3D across LCD, plasma and other platforms, irrespective of which 3D technology is actually used in the viewing glasses. It is widely expected that 3D capability will become a standard integral part of all Blu-ray consumer devices within a few years, following a similar expected path for Set-top boxes (STBs). A number of films – such as Avatar – are already scheduled for release in 2010 in 3D Blu-ray format, while DreamWorks announced at the CES show that it will issue its “Monsters vs. Aliens” film as a 3D Blu-ray disk in an exclusive promotion with Samsung and Technicolor. TV and device manufacturers While content makers and broadcasters begin to navigate their way out of the maze of 3D technology choices, things are already starting to speed up at the display end of the delivery chain with over 20 3D TV models planned to reach market in 2010. historic scepticism about the readiness of consumers to invest in 3D TVs and STBs is being rapidly eroded, partly by the huge revenue-driving success of recent 3D launches in the cinema but also – and perhaps more importantly in the long run – an expected rapid fall in the actual costs of purchasing the required hardware. 6 END-TO-ENDLESS TELEVISION
  7. 7. Early on in 2010, Insight Media predicted that 3D Similarly, the emergence of social networking sites - products would only carry a price premium of around from the avatar-inhabited ‘real’ world of Second Life to 20 percent against a standard 2D hD device – and the more two-dimensional environments of Facebook that, based on experience with other consumer and MySpace – could provide additional demand at electronics devices - that premium would erode the viewing end. over the next two to four years. In hard terms, that Finally come wider developments in the networked translates into a fall in price for a 3D set from the home. Increasingly being seen as the next battleground current average of $1770 to $825 by 2015. At the for customer loyalty by telecommunications service same time, market sales are estimated to rise from providers, ISp and broadcasters, is use of the an annual figure for 2010 of 3.3 million to nearly 50 customer’s control interface on the TV to brand and million by 2015. enhance interactions with an increasingly wide range of In terms of the actual viewing technologies that home applications such as entertainment, security and will be used, most TV manufacturers see wireless- energy management will become ever more important. enabled, active shutter glasses as the optimum route In this context, the ability to support 3D graphics in for domestic use. The circular polarized glasses these interfaces and displays will increase service currently used in cinemas are not suited to the home provider stickiness and loyalty. environment and active glasses offer a number of enhancements to the viewing experience, such as brighter colors, a wider viewing angle and sharper contrast. 3D gaming and other applications As already stated, pC-based games have an advantage over other platforms that use standard TVs in terms of the graphic engines used which do allow users to convert 2D games to 3D. It is currently estimated that there are already around 300 existing games that can be readily adapted to 3D through the use of comparatively straightforward re-purposing technologies. Indeed, there are even products already available on the market that promise to do this in real time, in the home for games, films and TV – though these do require the use of wirelessly-linked ‘active’ glasses, another highly important technology choice that will be covered later in this document. Nintendo, for example, recently announced that it will be launching a new, glasses-free 3D-capable portable platform into the mass market early in 2011 that also offers full backwards-compatibility with existing games. Around and beyond the more traditional gaming applications lie other significant market opportunities. Adult services, for example, have played a major role in the mainstream success of first video technologies and, later, the internet itself and many in the adult content market expect 3D to play a similar role. 07
  8. 8. SECTION 2 Challenges for A profusion of choices the 3D industry As will be covered in more depth in a later section, broadcasters have a number of different options available to them in terms of the technologies that they ‘extended family’ can use to distribute 3D content. Some may already have invested heavily in hD platforms, while others are still at a greenfield stage. While the predictions from industry analysts are being echoed by real and tangible investment in programming content and broadcasting technologies Backwards compatibility by the major players in those sectors, there are Integral to the technology choice issue comes the numerous issues that remain to be addressed. Just as question of implementing 3D on legacy infrastructure. all hardware and software in communications and IT Which options can give the fastest payback on relies on shared clocks and synchronized activities, so investment – while simultaneously protecting too must the many different parts of the 3D value fall future flexibility? into line – and fit into the wider swings and changes in As highlighted earlier – and as is explored in more customer purchasing behaviors, consumer confidence depth in the following technical sections – everyone and domestic viewing patterns. involved must adopt a truly holistic perspective that encompasses the entire value chain if 3D is to reach market quickly and cost-effectively. Fortunately, a series of first and second order standardization and industry groups are well advanced in both developing and coordinating the required content capture, management, compression, security, transmission and display technologies involved. A number of the most important of these are profiled at the end of this document. 08 END-TO-ENDLESS TELEVISION
  9. 9. Customer decisions and Some specific technical factors need to be taken into account when delivering 3D, such as guaranteeing that the global market frames and phase are correctly aligned across both On one hand, customer purchasing decisions may be right and left channels. delayed while there is apparent uncertainty amongst mass market consumers about the appropriate technology choices to be made – and the current Supporting business 20 percent premium involved when compared to hD hardware. On the other, the huge publicity generated models by headline grabbing 3D sporting events and releases So far, all the services being offered by broadcasters of films like “Avatar” – and the fact that broadcasters – or those in the planning stage – are being made actually own a powerful promotional tool themselves available as part of an existing hD service subscription – seem capable of eroding that market inertia fairly or on a pay-by-event basis. The ability of broadcasters quickly, especially given the rapid falls in device costs to offer live-to-air 3D events is a valuable differentiator mentioned earlier. when set against their competitors using other delivery mechanisms. As far as the wider economic picture is concerned, it must be remembered that experience so far shows that consumer spending on communications and entertainment focused around the home either stays stable – or actually increases – during a downturn. Costs for entertainment expenses through a single subscription or device are amortized across multiple family or community members, while associated costs for food and drink during an ‘entertainment experience’ remain far more containable and controllable than during a typical night out. This in turn makes family budgeting much more straightforward and stress-free. In terms of the variations in the eventual shape of the global market, the penetration of hD in North America and Western Europe will raise some legacy technology issues, while other markets will benefit from ongoing standardization work. Consumer experience and usability The appearance of any new, radically different technology often throws up unexpected issues when it comes to ensuring that the end-user’s experience is a consistently high-quality one – and this is where broadcasters with hD platforms can ensure their strategic dominance against competitors in IpTV and cable who may be lagging behind in technology deployments. 09
  10. 10. SECTION 3 Understanding the technology options in delivering 3D Television broadcast differs greatly from pre-packaged An example of ‘3D-in-2D’ subsampling and multiplexing, using cinema or Blu-ray content, having to contend 1080i image format and frame-compatible side-by-side packing. with an infrastructure containing numerous, often independent, stages of content repurposing. The advantage of a frame compatible or “3D-in-2D” Essentially, there are two methodologies for delivering solution is that it allows the service provider to use 3D content: frame compatible 3D (“3D-in-2D”) and 2D existing content storage, play-out, and broadcast compatible 3D. transmission equipment and - most importantly - their existing deployed hD STB population to support 3D services. Of course, the consumer needs to purchase Frame compatible a 3D TV set and view the images using the included Broadcast and Direct-to-home (DTh) 3D services 3D glasses (unless it’s an auto-stereoscopic display, being launched in 2010 will be based on 3D content which will not be common for many, many years) in that has been created from pre-processing separate order to see the picture in 3D. Existing 2D TV sets left and right eye images in such a way as to appear to will render two separate 2D images (side-by-side in existing broadcast equipment and consumer STBs as the example used in the above figure) with or without if the 3D content is standard 2D hD content. the consumer donning any 3D glasses that happen This is known as frame compatible 3D - or 3D to be in the home which is clearly not an acceptable delivered in 2D infrastructure (‘3D-in-2D’). In the viewing option. majority of cases, this will be done by using horizontal resolution sub-sampling (spatial compression) and The disadvantages of this solution are: then multiplexing the “half resolution-per-eye” images The image has only half the resolution of normal hDTV. together. The reverse process is employed in the newly In the example above, horizontal resolution is reduced announced 3D TV sets, where the TV set is aware that - but other methods would reduce vertical resolution the received 2D-compatible content involves, in fact, instead or a combination of vertical and horizontal left eye and right eye multiplexed images and internal resolution reduction. While resolution reduction post-processing (including up-sampling and left/right has not had a major impact on current 3D movie polarization) is done to render the images as 3D. presentations in cinemas which use a similar method, There are many possible spatial sub-sampling the industry is still actively studying this issue. While methods defined, but the two most common are this may be acceptable at the consumer’s end of the side-by-side (half-resolution horizontally) and broadcast chain, reduced resolution is not acceptable over/under (also known as “top-and-bottom” or for production, post-production, editing, storage etc. “half-resolution vertically”). At the Consumer More details on this aspect are covered in the Content Electronics Show (CES) in January 2010 at least Contribution section later in this document. six major TV manufacturers announced that they will be shipping 3D TVs that support frame-compatible side-by-side packing during 2010. 10 END-TO-ENDLESS TELEVISION
  11. 11. Additionally, this solution does not allow existing There is also a legacy issue with deployed STBs that 2D TVs to display a compatible 2D image and such do not support MVC or the higher resolution 3 gbps+ a service is 3D TV compatible only. A separate 2D hDMI (in particular hDMI 1.4 or later) that would be service or program must be simulcast if the service required for full resolution hD 3D TV signals to be provider wishes 2D TV users to view a full-resolution delivered from the STB to the 3D TV. hD 2D version of the same content. The two most commonly discussed 2D backwards compatible methods are “2D+delta” (stereoscopic The advantages of this solution are: MVC) and “3D-in-2D+enhancement”. Operators can start to offer 3D services as soon as they can source 3D content and have a 3D pre-processor, a standard (2D) hD encoder, and 2D + delta sufficient bandwidth for a hD service. The principle used here is that a 2D image - for Operators can offer 3D services via deployed hD example, the left camera image only - is transmitted STBs and do not need to wait for new decoder for use on 2D TVs, with a delta signal also transmitted silicon to reach new STB designs before launching that contains additional view information with which to 3D services. Note that some operators have create a 3D image (i.e. create the right camera image announced that their deployed STBs will have their from the left camera image and the delta data). As left firmware upgraded to support 3D, and such upgrades and right images are very similar, the bit-rate cost for will be performed in the background through the the delta stream may be only 40-60 percent more than existing transmission channel with no consumer the 2D image, as opposed to double the bit-rate. The involvement or negative impact. advantage of this solution is that a service provider can offer a single service that can be displayed by In the future, operators will be able to enhance their both legacy 2D TVs as well as new 3D TVs. While service offering by providing full resolution hD 3D this may appear to be a good solution for greenfield (Full 3D) to new STBs based on new decoder silicon, deployments where 3D-ready STBs will be deployed, while still providing 3D to their customers using some factors need to be considered: current STBs (3D-in-2D), by deploying a new 3D video encoder. For more information on this please The production values and grammar of 3D and 2D are see the 3D-in-2D+enhancement section later on. very different. Contrast the typical camera set-up at a sports stadium for 3D - low angle, long distance shots for good 3D effect – versus that for 2D - in closer, 2D backwards camera panning, and so on. As a result, the industry is presently questioning the likelihood of a 2D production compatibility being the same as either the left or right image of the There are also industry efforts to deliver full resolution 3D production. If it turns out that separate productions hD 3D TV to the home, as well as methods that are required in the majority of cases, the practical use enable the same content to be used by both existing of 2D + delta is far less than ideal. TVs (all 2D) and the new 3D TVs. This is known as 2D Early-to-market deployments, based on the need to backwards-compatible or 2D-compatible 3D. use existing deployed STBs, will begin transmissions The existing standard for Multi-view Video Coding with 3D images spatially compressed into a single (MVC) – an amendment to the h.264/MpEg-4 2D image - or 3D-in-2D, as described earlier in this AVC standard - provides a potentially interesting document. As such, there will already be a legacy technology path for bit-rate efficient, full-resolution 3D deployment situation in the marketplace. hD, stereoscopic (3D) transmission. The latest generation of Blu-ray Disc players will have MVC-compatible chipsets capable of decoding full-resolution hD 3D TV, but the timelines for such silicon reaching DTh STBs is currently unclear. 11
  12. 12. 3D-in-2D + enhancement The principle here involves transmitting the same 3D image as used in early-to-market deployments (left & right 3D images with spatially-reduced resolution combined into a single 2D image), as well as the additional information from an enhancement layer. This contains the spatial information not present in the base layer feed and delivers increased spatial resolution of the two images that are finally presented An MVC example where the right eye images reference the left to the user as the 3D image. Due to a high level of eye images, so that either the delta or the enhancement stream correlation, the enhancement layer bit-rate cost is requires less bandwidth than sending separate left/right streams. The left eye temporal references are the same as in a typical 2D substantially less than double the 3D-in-2D base AVC-encoded bitstream. layer image. Further standardization of 3D, including improved This solution will allow early adopter 3D customers MVC, is in progress as well, but the results of this (3D-in-2D) to continue normal use, with no STB will be longer term, long after 3D services have been replacement required. launched to consumers. For new users, with new 3D-supporting STBs, then both the base layer and enhancement layer streams are processed together to provide “Full 3D”, involving Implementation discrete, full resolution hD left and right images, for use with displays that support full 3D. timeframes Frame compatible 3D solutions can be launched The service provider can therefore support both 3D today, as long as careful consideration is given to technologies (3D-in-2D and Full 3D) within a single interoperability issues. As noted earlier, all of the service. With the imminent implementation of new announced broadcast/direct-to-home (DTh) 3D 3D signaling techniques now in discussion within services that are planned to launch in 2010 will standards development organizations (a proposed be frame compatible 3D. production equipment 3D SEI message), there is a possibility that a legacy already exists, existing 2D broadcast equipment and STB will be able to recognize the 3D-in-2D format consumer STBs can be used, and new 3D TVs are and scale one of the views to 2D hD. The resulting already available for sale, with more models being image will be half hD resolution, of course, but at least rapidly added over the next 3-6 months. this would provide a 2D-compatible solution. If full resolution hD 2D is required, however, then a separate 2D compatible 3D will first appear in Blu-ray 2D service or program must be simulcast. Disc players, although not much content will be available in 2010. however, it’s likely that it will be Discussions are on-going with content providers to after 2011 before 2D-compatible 3D will be used determine what percentage, if any, of productions will for broadcast television for the legacy equipment be done with common 2D/3D in mind, and whether reasons explained earlier. Broadcasters launching live productions such as sports events and concerts frame-compatible services now will need to continue will require a rethink on camera placement. to provide frame-compatible 3D for the duration of the typical TV set swap-out cycle. 3D-in-2D + enhancement will therefore be more attractive to markets such as North America and Western Europe, while greenfield deployments will have more flexibility and choice available to them. As such, unless there is a break-through in common 3D/2D production, 3D-in-2D+enhancement will likely follow frame-compatible platforms in late 2011 or 2012. 12 END-TO-ENDLESS TELEVISION
  13. 13. Contribution 3D For universal open contribution, the 3D content must be transmitted with the highest fidelity and in The issues for Contribution 3D applications differ a format independent of the broadcaster’s chosen greatly from DTh, with the most important being the 3D DTh delivery method. One possible solution is to need for the best picture quality possible - defined deliver dual-stream left eye and right eye images, by as full spatial resolution, 4:2:2 chrominance, 10-bit synchronizing two encoders for transmission and two precision, and other factors - and not compromising receivers/decoders for reception. This method enables on these in the drive to reduce bit-rate or support full resolution hD 3D transmission of left and right legacy equipment as inevitably has to be done for images, while maintaining their input temporal and early DTh applications. phase alignment within an acceptable tolerance. For single operator content coverage, some operators may place a 3D pre-processing box on-site at the event and use normal, existing (2D) hD-capable Contribution DSNg equipment for backhaul. The 3D-in-2D pre- processing could even be embedded in the existing implementation encoder. This approach has the advantage of enabling timeframes 3D contribution cost-effectively using existing Dual stream (left eye + right eye) full 3D contribution equipment. however, pre-processing the content solutions can be launched in Q2 2010, as long at the source will limit its value in post-production, as careful consideration is planned for stream distribution and future repurposing, so many operators synchronization. Improvements in the synchronization will likely choose to deliver full resolution left and right method and equipment integration will follow in the channels as illustrated below. second half of 2010. Ericsson RX8200 Advanced Modular Receiver Sync Ericsson CE-xH42 Contribution Encoder Ericsson RX8200 Advanced Modular Receiver • Dual link HD-SDI • Dual link HD-SDI • Frame Aligned • Frame Alignment • Phase Aligned • Phase Alignment Contribution 3D Pre-processor Distribution-to-the-Home Ericsson EN8190 MPEG-4 AVC HD Encoder An example of an end-to-end 3D solution, showing dual-stream contribution backhaul and 3D-in-2D DTh. 13
  14. 14. SECTION 4 Ericsson Solution Area TV products 3D TV is a complex topic and early operator deployments will require a detailed investigation of need, market potential, legacy infrastructure and assets and will involve separating out the 3D “hype” from the “buzz”. While the industry’s desire will be to implement 2D backwards-compatible 3D in the immediate term and initial discussions may involve a discussion of MVC or other 2D backwards-compatible 3D options, Ericsson believes that early adoption of 3D for DTh eventually will end up with a frame-compatible 3D solution. Another important initial discussion is to determine clearly whether the 3D application is DTh or Contribution (whether back-haul or front-haul) or both, as the solution for each is very different. Especially important in the Contribution link section is the synchronization of left and right hand channels and Ericsson solutions already deliver unique capabilities in the receivers to deliver both frame-aligned and synchronized 3D TV. Regardless of the application, Ericsson has complete solutions to offer today for both DTh and Contribution parts of the value chain and is building on its existing successes and awards in hD technologies, creating a compelling road map for the future that will delight and entertain audiences around the world and deliver new revenues and strategic differentiators for broadcasters. 14 END-TO-ENDLESS TELEVISION
  15. 15. SECTION 5 Important standards bodies given the inherent complexity of the associated applications standards: capture, creation, management, distribution, delivery Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) and viewing elements within the 3D value chain, it’s no http://www.atsc.org surprise that multiple standards and industry bodies Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) are involved in both developing standards for specific http://www.blu-raydisc.com sub-sectors as well as in coordinating and integrating wider activities. Digital Versatile Disc Forum (DVD Forum) http://www.dvdforum.org Standards and industry bodies can perhaps be Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) classed into what might be called first and second http://www.dvb.org order roles – though each has an equally important part to play. Some concentrate on developing and International Telecommunications union (ITu) defining fundamental, global standards, while others http://www.itu.int may focus on specific application, industry or Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) regional sector work, interpreting wider developments http://www.scte.org and providing their members with a voice in the Society of Motion picture and wider debate. Television Engineers (SMpTE) While Ericsson obviously plays a major role both in http://www.smpte.org developing standards itself and in closely monitoring relevant activity on behalf of its customers, it is perhaps useful to chart out the significant groups in the 3D community: fundamental standards: Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) http://www.ce.org Ericsson provides award-winning TV solutions and Joint photographic Experts group (JpEg) services that enable global media companies and http://www.jpeg.org operators (cable, satellite, telco and terrestrial) to deliver TV content, either directly to consumers or Moving picture Experts group (MpEg) for professional digital video content exchange. http://www.mpeg.org With a broad suite of open, standards-based products, Ericsson offers the highest quality solutions for Digital TV, hDTV, VOD, IpTV, Mobile TV, connected home, content management and advanced advertising, based on industry leading technology and a strong heritage in television. www.ericsson.com/televisionary 15
  16. 16. americas Ericsson Television Inc. 4500 River green parkway Duluth, gA 30096 uSA Tel: +1 678 812 6300 Fax: +1 678 812 6400 Email: tvsalesamericas@ericsson.com apaC Ericsson Television Limited 12/F Devon house Taikoo place Quarry Bay hong kong Tel: +852 2590 2388 Fax: +852 2590 9550 Email: tvsalesapac@ericsson.com emea Ericsson Television Limited Strategic park Comines Way hedge End Southampton hampshire SO30 4DA united kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 23 8048 4666 Fax: +44 (0) 23 8048 4667 Email: tvsalesemea@ericsson.com The content of this document is subject to revision without notice due to continued progress in methodology, design and manufacturing. Ericsson shall have no liability for any error or damage of any kind resulting from the use of this document EN/LZT 138 0388 R1B/2 © Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson 2010