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Teaching English Consonants

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  • 1. TEACHING ENGLISH CONSONANTS VICTOR GAO ZHEJIANG EDUCATION INSTITUTE
  • 2. Sagittal section of the vocal tract text ©J.J. Ohala, September 2001 肺 气管 喉 / 声门 咽腔 鼻腔 支气管 口腔
  • 3. 发音器官图 齿龈 上齿 双唇 软腭 声门 口腔 咽腔 鼻腔 硬腭 声带
  • 4. 发音器官 Speech Organs 双唇 上齿 齿龈 齿龈后 / 硬颚前 软腭 小舌 咽腔 声门
  • 5. 发音器官 双唇 上齿 齿龈 齿龈后 / 硬颚前 软腭 小舌 咽腔 声门 硬腭
  • 6. Description of English consonants
  • 7. English consonants 英语辅音教学
  • 8. p b m t d n K g English consonants 鼻音和爆破音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 小舌 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 9. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 10. 鼻音 / m /
  • 11. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 12. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 13. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 14. Description of English consonants
  • 15. 爆破音 / t, d /
  • 16. 汉语拼音爆破音 / t /
  • 17. 爆破音 / t, d /
  • 18. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 19. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 20. p b m t d n k g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 21. 爆破音 / k, g /
  • 22. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 23. p b m t d n k g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 24. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 25. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 26. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 27. p b m t d n K g 英语辅音 爆破音和鼻音 发音部位 发音方式 双唇 齿龈 软腭 清辅音 浊辅音 鼻音
  • 28. 英语辅音
  • 29. 双唇爆破音 / p, b /
  • 30. 软腭爆破音 /k, g/
  • 31. 软腭鼻音 / /  The velar nasal occurs only syllable finally; it cannot occur in syllable initial position
  • 32. VOICE ONSET TIME values
    • Voice Onset Time can take various values (measured in milliseconds, ms), but they fall into three main categories
    Type of stop VOT length voiced stops very short or negative (i.e. voicing begins before release of the articulation) voiceless unaspirated stops short VOT voiceless aspirated stops long VOT
  • 33.
    • English voiceless stops are aspirated or unaspirated, depending on context
      • They are aspirated word-initially e.g. p at [p h ]
      • and when they are in the beginning of stressed syllables; potato [ t h ]
      • They are unaspirated when preceded by /s/; e.g. spat /p/
      • Or in the beginning of an unstressed syllable; e.g. paper /p/
    英语清辅音爆破音有两种
  • 34.
    • Voiced stops (and affricates) are not fully voiced 有限的声带振动
      • at the end of an utterance; c.f. my /d/a/d/
      • when utterance initial; e.g. b/ye
      • before a voiceless consonant; e.g. my da /d/ sings
      • So, how do we tell voiced and voiceless consonants apart?
      • Vowels are longer before voiced stops (and other voiced consonants); e.g. bead , beat , bid , bit
    英语浊辅音爆破音和破擦音
  • 35.
    • Voiced stops (and affricates) are not fully voiced 有限的声带振动
      • So, how do we tell voiced and voiceless consonants apart?
      • Vowels are longer before voiced stops (and other voiced consonants); e.g. bead , beat , bid , bit
    如何区分有清辅音和浊辅音
  • 36.
    • All stops are unreleased before other stops; e.g. ripped /p°/
    • Voiceless stops can be pronounced with a glottal stop /?/ in syllable final position; e.g. right /?t/
    • The glottal stop may replace the oral articulation altogether
    • /t/ is pronounced as /d/ when before [n]; e.g. kitten /dn/
    不完全爆破规则
  • 37.
    • English has nasal consonants in three place of articulation
    • Bilabial /m/ mat
    • Alveolar /n/ nap
    • Velar / / sang
    *Also known as engma 鼻音
  • 38. 摩擦音 上齿下唇 齿刃舌尖 齿 龈 龈 颚 英语辅音 Z
  • 39. 摩擦音 上齿下唇 齿刃舌尖 齿 龈 龈 颚 英语辅音 Z sound
  • 40. 摩擦音 / f, v /
  • 41. 摩擦音 上齿下唇 齿刃舌尖 齿 龈 龈 颚 英语辅音 Z sound
  • 42. 摩擦音 / /
  • 43. 摩擦音 上齿下唇 齿刃舌尖 齿 龈 龈 颚 英语辅音 Z so
  • 44. 摩擦音 / s , z /
  • 45. 摩擦音 / s, z /
  • 46. 摩擦音 上齿下唇 齿刃舌尖 齿 龈 龈 颚 英语辅音 Z
  • 47. 摩擦音 / /
  • 48. 摩擦音 上齿下唇 齿刃舌尖 齿 龈 龈 颚 英语辅音 Z
  • 49. 摩擦音 声门
  • 50.
    • Labiodental – /f/ /v/ f ine v ine
    • Dental – /t/ /d/ th igh th y
    • Alveolar – /s/ /z/ s it z it
    • Post-alveolar – /s/ /z/ * sh ape bei g e
    • Glottal – /h/ h eat
    英语摩擦音
  • 51. / f / & / v / 示意图
  • 52. / / & / / 示意图
  • 53. / s / / z / 示意图
  • 54. / // / 示意图
    • Slight lip rounding may be used by some speakers
  • 55. 英语破擦音
    • English has only Post-alveolar affricates
    • / / / / child, judge
    • These are produced by forming a closure as for an alveolar stop (/t/d/) but at the same time the front of the tongue is also raised towards the hard palate; the closure is release gradually so that friction occurs between the blade/front of the tongue and the alveolar/front palatal region of the palate
    • Although affricates can be considered as a sequence of two speech sounds, a stop and a fricative, in English we know that they behave as one unit (not as a cluster)
  • 56. 破擦音 tr dr ts dz 齿龈硬颚,扁唇 齿龈后,圆唇 齿龈,扁唇 English consonants
  • 57. 破擦音 tr dr ts dz 齿龈硬颚,扁唇 齿龈后,圆唇 齿龈,扁唇 English consonants
  • 58. 破擦音 tr dr ts dz 齿龈硬颚,扁唇 齿龈后,圆唇 齿龈,扁唇 English consonants
  • 59. 破擦音 tr dr ts dz 齿龈硬颚,扁唇 齿龈后,圆唇 齿龈,扁唇 English consonants
  • 60. 其他的音 Manner & position reference English consonants
  • 61. 其他的音 Manner & position reference English consonants j j 发音长度是一号元音的 1/4
  • 62. 其他的音 Manner & position reference English consonants j j 发音长度是九号元音的 1/4
  • 63. /j/ vs. /w/
  • 64.
    • /j/ is similar to /i:/ (the vowel of beat), but very short; it’s exact place of articulation depends on the following vowel
    *American symbol: [y] The palatal approximant /j/
  • 65.
    • The production of the labial-velar approximant involves two wide constrictions: one at the lips, which are rounded (hence labial), and one at the velum, with the back of the tongue being raised (hence, velar)
    • /w/ is an example of double articulation
    Labial-velar approximant /w/
  • 66. 其他的音 Manner & position reference English consonants j j
  • 67. English clear /l/
  • 68. English dark / l / Dark /l/: velari zed alveolar lateral approxi mant
  • 69.
    • Velarization is a secondary articulation, i.e. a constriction that is added to the primary constriction
    • The secondary constriction must be less narrow than the primary one to count as secondary articulation
    • If the two constrictions are of the same type, we talk of double articulation (not secondary articulation)
    What is a velarized /l/?
  • 70. Comparing clear & dark / l /s
  • 71.
    • Velarized /l/ occurs at the end of syllables; e.g. real and belt both have /l/
    • Clear /l/ is the articulation used when /l/ is found at the beginning of a syllable
    • However, in many dialects of American English velarized /l/ is the only pronunciation of /l/
    Where does /l/ occur?
  • 72. 其他的音 Manner & position reference English consonants j j
  • 73.
    • The exact articulation of /r/ varies from dialect to dialect
      • In most varieties of British English and many varieties of American English, /r/ is a voiced post-alveolar approximant /r/
      • There are however American English dialects in which /r/ is produced as a voiced retroflex approximant, /r/
      • Also, for a fair number of speakers the articulation of /r/ involves some degree of lip rounding
    The /r/ phoneme
  • 74. Another American /r/ U Maryland, Vocal Tract Visualization Lab A retroflex /r/
  • 75. Place of articulation for [tr]/[dr] /r/ after an alveolar stop
  • 76. A post-alveolar /r/ A British [r] (Gimson & Cruttenden,1994) ( One) American [r] (Gick, Kang & Whalen, 2002)
  • 77. 区别练习
    • Light
    • Right
  • 78. 其他的音 Manner & position reference English consonants
  • 79. 其他的音 发音部位和发音方式参照 English consonants
  • 80. 声门摩擦音 / h /
    • Herb
    • Hour
    • Her
    • Him
    • Gh
    • nite
  • 81.
    • No diagram here; during the production of [h] the vocal tract assumes the shape for the following vowel
    • /h/ has limited distribution:
      • it does not appear word-finally
      • it does not appear before other consonants
    The glottal fricative
  • 82. Organ awareness practice
  • 83.
    • English has five approximants
    • /l/ – alveolar lateral approximant,
    • e.g l ake
    • /r/ – post-alveolar (or retroflex) approximant, e.g. r ed
    • /j/ – palatal approximant, e.g. y ear
    • /w/ – labial-velar approximant, e.g. w orry
    • /h/ – voiceless labial-velar approximant, e.g. wh at
    English approximants
  • 84. Places of articulation