Teachers Needs Analysis
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  • 1. Analysing Teachers’ Needs Victor GAO Zhejiang Institute of Education Sino-UK ELT Trainer Training Conference
  • 2. Analysing Teachers’ Needs ( 1 ) Victor GAO Zhejiang Institute of Education Sino-UK ELT Trainer Training Conference
  • 3. Outline
    • Education background in ZJ
    • Ways to identify teachers’ needs
    • Understanding teachers’ needs
    • Designing a training program
    • Reflections
  • 4. Topography of East China Jiangsu Zhejiang
  • 5. Population distribution 41,400,000 JIANGXI 42,380,000 LIAONING 67,440,000 HEBEI 59,860,000 ANHUI 92,560,000 HENAN 34,710,000 FUJIAN 60,280,000 HUBEI 64,400,000 HUNAN 86,420,000 GUANG DONG 90,790,000 SHANDONG 46,770,000 ZHEJIANG 74,380,000 JIANGSU POPULATION PROVINCE POPULATION PROVINCE
  • 6. Population growth in China
  • 7. Map of Zhejiang
  • 8. Map of Zhejiang
  • 9. Education in Zhejiang
    • General situation
    • Statistics in education in Zhejiang, 2004 浙江基础教育展示版 .doc
  • 10. Problems with teacher training
    • We always assume that teachers would like ways we want to them to be trained
    • When the result of a training program is not satisfactory, we blame the teachers or policy makers
    • We believe that we are doing an honest job and are a bit worried about the assessment of the training course
  • 11. Why to analyze needs
    • We know where to start the training
    • It helps to see teachers’ problems
    • It helps to understand what they want to learn /know when they are on a training course
    • We can know how they prefer to learn and in what way they don’t
  • 12. Ways to identify teachers’ needs
    • The major ways we use are:
    • questionnaires
    • direct observations
    • interviews
    • tests
    • work samples
  • 13. Ways to identify teachers’ needs
    • Questionnaires
    • Questionnaires can be very comprehensive and complicated both in the process and the contents 中小学英语教师现状调研问卷 .doc
    • Or can be a simple one with a few questions, which can be done fairly conveniently in an informal way
  • 14. Ways to identify teachers’ needs
    • Classroom observations
    • Many teachers can fail to identify certain needs they should have for their classroom teaching.
    • A video of classroom teaching can offer convincing information on teacher’s teaching methods, beliefs, language competence and problems existed 2004 高歌初中 105 课云和讲座最新版 .doc
  • 15. Ways to identify teachers’ needs
    • Interview
    • Interview can be carried out consciously or sub-consciously. Questions asked should be based on some major principles covering diverse areas. 教师访谈话题提纲 .doc 学生访谈问题提示 .doc
    • The interviewers should be trained, and rehearsals are needed.
  • 16. Map of Zhejiang
  • 17. Location of the survey Location
  • 18. The data collection
    • Usually before giving a talk on ELT methodology, I would ask the teachers to answer three questions related to their daily teaching and compulsory training.
    • The following is a collection of the teachers’ headaches, needs and preference
  • 19. Describing the questions
    • What are the top three problems in your daily teaching?
    • If you were on a short-term teacher training course, what do you want to learn?
    • In what ways do you prefer to learn, and in what ways you do not?
  • 20. Describing the subjects
    • 113 participants participated of whom 20 were primary teachers, 21 senior high school teachers, while the rest 72 were junior middle school teachers.
    • Their average years of teaching are over three and they are regarded as “a bit below average level” in teaching compared with their colleagues
  • 21. Describing the process
    • The reasons for the survey were given first and then the participants were asked to answer anonymously.
    • The host trainer demonstrated how to answer the questions
    • The teachers were given ten minutes completing their answers
    • The answer sheets were then colleted
  • 22. Categorizing the feedback
    • The variety of the answers was almost out of control as the 113 teachers listed altogether 100 problems for the first question, 22 suggestions on what they want to learn, and 5 ways about how they would like to study
    • These answers were then grouped into major and minor areas based on the number of each type
  • 23. Results from Question One
    • Major problems
    • How to motivate learners 49
    • How to use the 45mins efficiently 49
    • How to deal with underachievers 42
    • How to teach student to speak English 29
    • Analysis:
  • 24. Results from Question One
    • Language/study skill problems 38
    • How to teach spelling skills 15
    • How to teach grammar in an interesting way 9
    • How to teach writing 5
    • How to teach phonetics 3
    • How to improve learners’ reading skills 3
    • How to help learners pass exams 2
    • How to teach listening 1
  • 25. Results from Question One
    • Classroom management problems 27
    • Classroom management 8
    • How o teach a large-size class with students of mixed-ability 8
    • How to develop autonomy with learners 5
    • How to build up an English environment 4
    • How to assess learners 2
  • 26. Results from Question One
    • Minor problems 8
    • I teach too many classes to teach them all well 3
    • I need ICT skills and facilities 3
    • How to do action research and write a research paper 2
    • Analysis:
  • 27. Results from Question Two
    • What I want to improve:
    • language teaching skills 52
    • improve my spoken English 46
    • activity design and management 29
    • language acquisition theory 14
    • language skills and study skills 14
    • Analysis:
  • 28. Results from Question Two
    • What I want to learn/need:
    • Motivation strategies and individual differences 11
    • Research methods 11
    • Reflective lesson planning 11
    • Learn from successful and experienced teachers 5
    • Provision of practical teaching materials 5
  • 29. Results from Question Two
    • What I want to learn/need:
    • Classroom management 4
    • Analysis of reading texts 2
    • Classroom observation skills 4
    • English culture emersion 4
    • Analysis:
  • 30. Results from Question Three
    • How I want to learn:
    • Classroom observations followed by reflections and discussions 58
    • Application of theories into practice 25
    • Lectures on practical topics 18
    • Full-time training course 5
    • Language skill development 1
  • 31. Results from Question Three
    • The ways that I don’t like:
    • Long and boring talks addressed to an large audience on theoretical issues only 59
    • Correspondence degree course ( I feel that I learned little) 7
    • Mass training (千人大会式) 5
    • Analysis:
  • 32. 专家做空洞理论讲座的会场效果
  • 33. Strength of the survey
    • Easy to conduct
    • Easy to be accepted
    • Easy to train for use
    • Easy for analysis
  • 34. Limitation of the survey
    • Audience are less clearly targeted
    • Answers are less controlled
    • Confusions can be caused by the briefness of the questions
  • 35. Improving from this mini survey
    • Education and experience of the teachers
    • Motivation of the teachers
    • Learning style of the teachers
    • teaching requirements versus present skill levels
    • Specific interests or biases of teachers
    • Whether to design open or closed questions for the survey
  • 36. An ongoing progress design implement develop analysis evaluation
  • 37. Impact on training programs
    • Challenge our current training course to meet the teachers’ needs
    • Repeat the survey a couple of times for validity reasons
    • Present the survey result to teachers for their response
    • Work out a new training program
    • Help teachers to work out a self-development project
  • 38. Examples of teachers’ needs
    • What is learning? How does learning relate to teaching? (identified from the video)
    • What do we teach or focus on? Texts, grammar, vocabulary or language skills? (exam driven)
    • How do we teach them to pass tests well? (exam driven)
  • 39. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I have to prepare my students for examinations, which focuses on the language knowledge rather than communicative skills. Therefore the foreign ways of teaching does not work in my class. (exam driven, attitude to change)
  • 40. Example of teachers’ needs
    • The students rely heavily on me in their English learning. How can I encourage them to become independent learners? (teacher-centered, care-taker oriented)
  • 41. Example of teachers’ needs
    • My students are from the countryside. They do not seem interested in learning English. How can I motivate these students? (motivation)
  • 42. Example of teachers’ needs
    • Many students tell me that they find it extremely difficult to remember new words, and I don’t have any effective solutions. How can you help me with this? (vocabulary skills)
  • 43. Example of teachers’ needs
    • My students do not like to speak English in class. This is always my headache. (motivation and activity design)
  • 44. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I am a new teacher. My problem is that I cannot get the class under control. Does this mean that I am too bad a teacher to be able to make them interested in my teaching? If so, how can I improve myself? (classroom management)
  • 45. Example of teachers’ needs
    • In my class, there is a great difference in language levels between the good students and the poor ones. I cannot please them all at the same time. So I follow mainly the language achievers’ responses and progress.
    • The result is, of course, the underachievers are desperate and tend to give up, which causes discipline problems.
    • I know that I am to blame, but where is the solution? (teaching a large class)
  • 46. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I want to manage a change in my teaching towards to a skill-oriented approach. Bu the textbooks I use are very structural and boring. I have to adapt the activities in the textbook, but I do not now how. Reluctantly I return to the old way. (syllabus design)
  • 47. Examples of teachers’ needs
    • What are qualities that a good teacher must posses? (teacher factors)
    • What are qualities that a good learner must posses? (learner factors)
  • 48. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I can speak English but other teachers say my intonation is terrible and I do have a local accent. I feel embarrassed and discouraged and tend to speak less. Can you help me with this? (language acquisition and competence)
  • 49. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I believe that a good teacher is the one who can always answer students’ questions in English wherever and whatever.
    • But this is rejected by my teacher Mr. GAO who says getting answers from the students is a better way.
    • But my students do not want to speak in class, what shall I do? (learner development)
  • 50. Example of teachers’ needs
    • My students are very poor in grammar. I believe if they study grammar well, they won’t have any problems. (language acquisition and micro skills)
  • 51. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I want to do some research in my classroom that’s why I attended a number of ELT workshops.
    • But returning to my own classroom, I seem to be at lost again. Where and how should I start with my research? (classroom-based research)
  • 52. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I feel sorry for my students. They are always busy with all the subjects and never have time for themselves.
    • How can I reduce their burden without letting them fall behind in their English study? (learner autonomy)
  • 53. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I don’t have the confidence when I check the students’ compositions. How to mark the students’ writing? Do I need samples for all the papers I check? How can I improve students’ writing? (language proficiency and writing skills)
  • 54. Example of teachers’ needs
    • It is very hard for me to teach a long text. Both my students and I feel exhausted before we finish it. My question is how to teach reading? (reading strategies and teaching reading)
  • 55. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I wonder if it is very important to let the students recite all the texts. As this has been regarded as extremely important by the majority of teachers in China, therefore being able to recite all the texts is believed to be the guarantee for English language learning in China. What do you think of this? (learning English in a local and cultural setting)
  • 56. Example of teachers’ needs
    • The parents and the schools pay their major attention to examination results rather than skills or ability that students should acquire. This greatly discouraged me to manage any change in teaching. (external factors)
  • 57. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I have to spend a lot of time explaining grammar of the text, therefore I do not have time to teach them how to read. (teacher factors and teaching skills)
  • 58. Example of teachers’ needs
    • Some of my students keep looking out of window while others mocking or talking secretly in class. How miserable it is to be a teacher in a class like this! (motivation, reflection)
  • 59. Example of teachers’ needs
    • How to adjust the relationship between oral and written English? Some students are interested in speaking but their bad at writing and get bad scores. I cannot convince their parents that they are achieving in English. (fluency and accuracy)
  • 60. Example of teachers’ needs
    • Sometimes my students do not want to do anything in class. They cannot understand what I say and they cannot remember new words. What should I do then? (skills to teach a multi-level class)
  • 61. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I don’t know how to attract my students’ attention in class, because they are of different levels and the time for class is limited. (skills to teach a multi-level class)
  • 62. Example of teachers’ needs
    • My school is a private school in which the students’ levels are more varied than in a public school. If I divide the class into three groups, perhaps it will be easier to teach. But it is so difficult to carry it out. And it is very risky to do so. (Howto teach a multi-level class, and groupwork skills)
  • 63. Example of teachers’ needs
    • There are urban students and rural students in my class. They are separate in many ways. They are aware of their own groups. How can I narrow the gap between them? (regional culture conflict, people skills )
  • 64. Example of teachers’ needs
    • I want to encourage my students to read more in English after class, how can I do that? I told them to read more but they didn’t actually do it. (how to use readers )
  • 65. Example of teachers’ needs
    • What is the interesting way to teach grammar?
    • Grammar teaching is so boring but important for exams. (teaching grammar for meaning)
  • 66. Grouping the needs
    • Language acquisition theories
    • Language competence
    • Teaching methodology
    • Micro teaching skills
    • Designing activities
    • Classroom management
    • People skills
    • Dedication
  • 67. Grouping the needs
    • Language learning theories
    • Teaching methodology
    • Language competence Teaching micro skills
    • Designing activities
    • Classroom management
    • People skills
    • Dedication
  • 68. Further grouping the needs
    • Language learning skills or language proficiency improvement
    • Language teaching skills
    • Creativity and imagination
  • 69. Current major solutions
    • Our current approach:
    • Needs analysis based on trainers’ constant training of the in-service teachers
    • Design a program to target the needs
  • 70. Current major solutions
    • Our current approach:
    • Designing a program to the needs
      • Lectures on diverse areas covering mainly language teaching and with some on language learning
      • Research methods & essay writing
      • Teaching observations
      • Reflective discussions 2005 年浙江省第一期县级初中培训最新计划稿 .doc
  • 71. The Chinese solutions
    • Running training programs
    • Running ELT workshops
    • Giving lectures on ELT
    • Observing classroom teaching
  • 72. The Chinese solutions
    • Running training programs
      • Lectures by trainers on
        • professional development
        • cooperative learning
        • teaching micro-skills
        • observation skills
        • lesson planning
        • activity design 2005 年浙江省第一期县级初中培训最新计划稿 .doc
  • 73. The Chinese solutions
    • Running training programs
      • Research methods
        • Research paper seminar
        • Research paper workshop
  • 74. The Chinese solutions
    • Running ELT workshops
      • Lesson-plan pools
        • A lesson-plan share and discussions
      • Classroom teaching observations and discussions
        • Promoting school-based action research
  • 75. Current major solutions
    • ELT workshop/seminar Model: (by Trainers/ research fellows and model teachers)
    • Action Research Model: Research-fellow-led lesson-planning-teaching-evaluation group (not popular yet)
    • Reflective Model: Videoed / recorded lesson analysis, longitudinal (by Trainers)
  • 76. Reflections ( 1 )
    • We are still at a preliminary stage, a sound and systematic understanding of and research on teacher training is needed.
    • We need to learn from our British counterparts their valuable experience as well as lessons in their training programs.
  • 77. Reflections ( 2 )
    • We need to be trained to learn how to train teachers
    • Trainers need serious training
    • We need to share among trainers
  • 78. Reflections ( 3 )
    • Needs analysis in large scale is badly needed
    • Education authorities should be well-aware of its importance
    • Models of training programs need to be established
    • Access to and exchange with trainers overseas need to be promoted and formulized
  • 79. Reflections ( 4 )
    • Methodology and language proficiency complement each other. Without language proficiency, methods can be of little use.
    • Language skills training should be incorporated into a methodology program.
  • 80. Reflections ( 5 )
    • Action research following a training program should be formulized and developed
  • 81. Reflections ( 6 )
    • An analysis of such a research needs to be conducted
      • Implementation of approaches, methods and techniques
      • Improvement in language proficiency
      • Confidence and creativity
      • Research skills
  • 82. Reflections ( 7 )
    • Localize the current or imported materials through school-based teaching, training and research
  • 83. Reflections ( 8 )
    • How do trainer train/develop themselves constantly to catch up with the constant change and progress
  • 84. Reflections ( 9 )
    • Using a reflective approach in trainers’ training
  • 85. Reflections ( 10 )
    • We have to learn by doing it.
  • 86. Data from videos
    • Video available
  • 87. Themes for training
    • Management of a large, mixed ability class,
    • Quality and quantity of student to student interactions in the target language,
    • Introduction of communicative /interactive techniques
    • Development and maintenance of the motivation of students.
    • The action-research approach
  • 88. What we have being dong so far
    • Running ELT workshops
      • Classroom observations
        • Demonstration classes followed by refelctions and discussions and lesson share
  • 89. What we have being dong so far
    • Running training programs
      • Presentation by trainees
        • Trainees offer presentations on their class-based teaching and research
      • Assessing the program 第三次反馈表 .doc
  • 90. We are on a long march
    • Thank you all and you are welcome to contact Victor GAO to give you comment on this presentation
    • VICTOR GAO
    • Zhejiang Education Institute
    • Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China