Th e following form may help you recall what happened in a lesson and remind you of your own thoughts at the time.This may be especially useful for post-lesson discussions with the teacher you watched.
For each box,note down a specific thing that you observe in the lesson and then record your own thoughts or questions or suggestions. I noticed…… and I thought…… I noticed…… and I wondered…… I noticed…… and I wanted to ask you…… I noticed…… and I wanted to say you ……
This may include personal qualities,teaching skills and
techniques,activities,classroom atmosphere,etc.Include notes to help you remember any important details.You may also want to record why you felt good about the stolen goods.
choose something you feel you would like to give this teacher in return for you many thefts. Stolen item 1: Description of item: I stole this because: Stolen item 2: Description of item: I stole this because: Stolen item 3: Description of item: I stole this because: I'd like to give you: I think you'd like this because: Stolen item 4: Description of item: I stole this because: Stolen item 5: Description of item: I stole this because:
The jargon bank 主讲： CHENSHA 制作：浙江第二师范学院外国语学院 08 英本 3 班 指导教师：高歌 教材： Learning Teaching Appendix
The jargon bank (1) activity A single exercise or game,etc. aims Things that you hope will be done or achieved during an activity or a lesson.(See objectives) ARC A simple categorization of EFL activities.ARC stands for Authentic use,Restricted use, Clarification and focus. Authentic use activities The language in these activities has not been restricted in any way (eg not by the teacher's Instructions,by the coursebook writer,etc). backchaining A technique for helping a learner say a different sentence by breaking it down into smaller parts and practising saying those Pieces,slowly building up again to the complete sentence.For example:n't you ？ aren't you?thirty,aren't you?You're thirty,aren't you?
The jargon bank (2) The chain An error correction technique that involves students passing corrections to each other across the classroom. Clarification and focus The part of a lesson in which learners become clearer about language system items, especially concerning how they are formed, what they mean and how they are used. classroom management The moment-by-moment decisions and actions concerning organization of the classroom and activities,eg seating and grouping arrangements,starting and stopping activities,etc. cloze procedure A gap-fill exercise with regularly-spaced gaps （ eg every seventh word). communicative activity An activity that has communication as its main aim (as opposed to practise of particular language items).A communication activity will normally involve an ' information gap '. concept questions Questions that focus on the meaning of a language item.
The jargon bank (3) context Language items do not exist independently. They might be found in a text,a piece of classroom conversation,a tape recording,etc. These are the contexts.Teachers often create example 'situations',perhaps using board pictures,in order to provide a context for a language item and give the students an illustration of a way that it would typically be used. Cuisenaire rods Small coloured rods of wood or plastic. diphthong A phoneme containing two vowel sounds,one gliding into the second. drills A common restricted use activity,involving students in repetition or very controlled oral practice.
The jargon bank (4) eliciting A much-used technique for involving learners more in lessons. echo Repetition of what a student has said.This may be ' aware ' echo,with a purpose(eg indicating that an error has been made),or ' unaware ' echo (eg the teacher is feeling the need to fill silences). exponent An item that is an example of a particular function.For example, Could you make me a cup of tea,please? is an exponent of the function of ' making polite requests'. extensive reading Reading or listening in order to gain a general /listening overview of the contents. function The purpose for which language is used in particular situations.
The jargon bank (5) groupwork Students working together with a number of other learners(rather than in pairs or as a whole class). icebreakers Activities to help learners and teacher get to know each other at the beginning of a course. information gap One person knows something that the other doesn't.Such gaps of information between people give us a need and desire to communicate with each other. intensive reading Careful and detailed reading of or listening to /listening sections of text or speech. intonation The musical patterns of speech.
The jargon bank (6) jungle path A lesson type based around working moment-by-moment with what is happening in the classroom. language skills There are four language skills:listening, speaking,reading,writing.Listening and reading are 'receptive' skills;speaking and writing are ' productive ' skills. language systems There are four language systems:grammar,lexis (vocabulary),phonology,function. lexical item A word or a number of words that could be considered to be a single item of vocabulary,eg house,Wellington boot,solar system,put up with. lexical set A set of words that are connected in some way (eg item found on a farm;words starting with ' head ';words that describe human qualities, etc).
The jargon bank (7) lexis =vocabulary logical line A type of lesson that has a clear,logical progression from one item to the next. metalanguage The language used to describe language items (eg ' present simple tense ')or used in class to give instructions,explain thing,etc.Metalanguage usually needs to be clear and concise and avoid complexity. monitoring When the learners are working on an activity where the teacher does not have an active role, the teacher can keep an active eye over what is going on,checking that instructions are being followed,collecting a list of language used for use later in the lesson,etc.
The jargon bank (8) objectives Intended student achievements in a lesson.A specific task to be done while an observer is watching another teacher in class. observation task A specific task to be done while an observer is watching another teacher in class. pairwork Students working with one other student.This may be to discuss something,to check answers,to do a communicative activity,etc. phoneme The basic unit of sound from which we build up words and sentences.For example,the word caught has six letters but only three phonemes: /k/,/ɔ:/and /t/. phonology The study of phonemes,intonation,word stress, sentence stress,rhythm and aspects of connected speech.
The jargon bank (9) practice Giving the learners chance to use the language being studied. presentation The ' giving ' of language to students. PPP =Presentation,Practice,Production.An approach to grammar lessons based on the idea of giving (ie presenting) small items of language to Students,providing them with opportunities to use it in controlled ways (practice) and finally integrating it with other known language in order to communicate (production). rapport The quality of relationship within the classroom. restricted use activities In these activities the language available for the learner to use,hear or read has in some way been restricted(eg a written exercise on the present Perfect).
The jargon bank (10) roleplay Learners take on a character or make use of given information or ideas in order to get speaking practice. scanning Reading with the aim of finding out items of specific information. schwa The phoneme/ə/.(The only phoneme with a name!) sentence stress The main syllables emphasized in a sentence. skimming Reading,usually done quickly,with the aim of understanding the general meaning or ' gist ' of a text. stage One distinct part of a lesson, usually a single activity. STT =Student Talking Time (the amount of time that students get to talk within the lesson).
The jargon bank (11) substitution tables A way of writing out grammar information as patterns that can allow for generation of further Sentences. syllabus A list of course contents. task Something the student is asked to do.Many tasks are in the form of questions requiring answers,but a task may require a student to do things like draw . a picture,choose an object from the table,etc. timetable The plan of work showing lessons as units and identifying what goes on in each one. topic umbrella A lesson type where a variety of work done is based around a single topic.
The jargon bank (12) TTT Teacher Talking Time(the amount of time the teacher talks within the lesson). weak form Vowel sounds in unstressed syllables tend to have a weak pronunciation.Compare for when you say it On its own(strong form)and when it comes in the Middle of a sentence,eg I came back for my books. The vowel sound has changed from /ɔ:/to /ə/(= the 'schwa',the most common weak form vowel). word stress The emphasized syllable(s) in a word.
There are hundreds of EFL books around.This is a short list of just a few books you might find helpful,inspiring,time-saving or life-saving during your first years of teaching.
Working with people Houston, G.1990 The Red Book of Groups(The Rochester Foundation) Hadfield, J.1992 Classroom Dynamics(OUP) The English laguage Close,R.A.1992 A Teachers' Grammar(LTP) Swan,M.1980 Practical English Usage(OUP) Speaking Klippel,F.1984 Keep Talking(CUP) Hadfield,J.1990 Intermediate Communication Games(Nelson) (elementary and advanced also available ） Ur, P .1981 Discussions that Work(CUP) Frank,C, Rinvolucri,M.and Berer,M.1982 Challenge to Think(OUP) Bibliography and references(1)
Listening Underwood,M. 1989 Teaching Listening (Longman) Reading Grellet,F.1981 Developing Reading Skills （ CUP) Hess,N.1991 Talking Texts (Longman) Writing White,R.and Ardt,V.1991 Process Writing (Longman) Hedge, T.1988 Writing (OUP ） Davis, p.and Rinvolucri,M.1988 Dictation (CUP) Grammar Ur,P.1988 Grammar Practice Activities (CUP) Rinvolucri,M.1984 Grammar Games (CUP) Hall,N.and Shepheard,J.1991 The Anti-Grammar Grammar Book (Longman) Bibliography and references(2)
Vocabulary Gairns,R.and Redman,S.1986 Working with Words (CUP) McCarthy,M.1992 Vocabulary (OUP) Pronunciation Bowen,T.and Marks,J.1992 The Pronunciation Book (Longman) Underhill,A.1994 Sound Foundations (Heinemann) Current issues in EFL (two books to get you thinking) Lewis,M.1993 The Lexical Approach (LTP) Cook,G.1989 Discourse (OUP) Reference books I have found the Collins COBUILD series of reference books very helpful,especially: COBUILD English Dictionary COBUILD English Grammar COBUILD English Usage Bibliography and references(3)