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  • 1. Identifying the outline map in reading ( A ) Victor GAO Zhejiang International Studies University 27 March 2011
  • 2. How to read a passage Writer’s knowledge
  • 3. How to read a passage Writer’s knowledge
  • 4. Sharing with the writer Reader’s knowledge Writer’s knowledge
  • 5. Sharing with the writer Reader’s knowledge Writer’s knowledge
  • 6. 作者与读者的知识共享 Writer’s knowledge Reader’s knowledge
  • 7. The more we share, the easier our reading will be 作者与读者的知识共享
  • 8. What is skimming like?
  • 9. The eagle is the reader the landscape is the passage
  • 10. Skimming 就是轮廓阅读
  • 11. We usually read like this 1 2 3 4 9 5 6 7 8
  • 12. We usually read like this 3 2 1 4 5 6 7
  • 13. 1) People are always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one - which I take leave to doubt- then it is older people who create it, not the young themselves. Let us get down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings - people just like their elders. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is. 2) When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain -- that I was a new boy in a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be regarded as something so interesting as a problem. For one thing, being a problem gives you a certain identity, and that is one of the things the young are busily engaged in seeking. 3) I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. All this seems to me to link them with life, and the origins of things. It's as if they were, in some sense, cosmic beings in violent and lovely contrast with us suburban creatures. All that is in my mind when I meet a young person. He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect of elders -- as if mere age were a reason for respect. I accept that we are equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I think he is wrong.
  • 14. 1) People are always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one - which I take leave to doubt- then it is older people who create it, not the young themselves. Let us get down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings - people just like their elders. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is. 2) When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain -- that I was a new boy in a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be regarded as something so interesting as a problem. For one thing, being a problem gives you a certain identity, and that is one of the things the young are busily engaged in seeking. 3) I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. All this seems to me to link them with life, and the origins of things. It's as if they were, in some sense, cosmic beings in violent and lovely contrast with us suburban creatures. All that is in my mind when I meet a young person. He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect of elders -- as if mere age were a reason for respect. I accept that we are equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I think he is wrong.
  • 15. 1) People are always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one - which I take leave to doubt- then it is older people who create it, not the young themselves. Let us get down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings - people just like their elders. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is. 2) When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain -- that I was a new boy in a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be regarded as something so interesting as a problem. For one thing, being a problem gives you a certain identity, and that is one of the things the young are busily engaged in seeking. 3) I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. All this seems to me to link them with life, and the origins of things. It's as if they were, in some sense, cosmic beings in violent and lovely contrast with us suburban creatures. All that is in my mind when I meet a young person. He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect of elders -- as if mere age were a reason for respect. I accept that we are equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I think he is wrong.
  • 16. How do paragraphs relate to each other? 1 2 3 4 9 5 6 7 8 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  • 17. When we can’t find the map… we may only see paragraphs, but not the passage !
  • 18. When we can’t find the map… we may only see paragraphs, but not the passage !
  • 19. But there is a map in the passage 3 2 4 5 6 7 1
  • 20. An outline map of passage 6 2 7 5 3 4 1
  • 21. An outline map of passage 6 2 7 5 3 4 1
  • 22. If we find the outline map of a passage like this 6 2 7 5 3 4 1
  • 23. Or if we find the outline map of a passage like this 6 2 7 5 3 4 1
  • 24. Then we can see all the paragraphs as a whole piece we see how the paragraphs are related!
  • 25. Relationship between paragraphs 6 2 7 5 3 4 1
  • 26. When we can’t see the map, the passage is like this! We only see pieces of board!
  • 27. When we see the map, we see the passage structure
  • 28. Reading is like dismantling 拆卸 an ox 庖丁解牛
  • 29. Not only do we see the ox
  • 30. but its muscle
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33. Topic? Topic? Topic? Topic? Topic? Topic? Topic?
  • 34. The Cambrian Explosion 寒武纪大爆发 A reading passage for senior middle school learners 高 歌 浙江外国语学院 2011 年 3 月
  • 35. Cambria is in Wales, UK
  • 36. where lots of fossils were found
  • 37. where lots of fossils were found
  • 38. where lots of fossils were found
  • 39. The fossils were found under sediments 沉积体
  • 40. Let’s read for the outline map
  • 41. Paragraph One Cambrian Explosion
  • 42. 4 Topic? 7 3 2 6 5
  • 43.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago, the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago, the origin of eukary o tic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei 真核 ) about 1.5 billion years ago, and the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago. The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history. During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved. This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 44.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago, the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago, the origin of eukary o tic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei 真核 ) about 1.5 billion years ago, and the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period.
    • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history.
    • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved.
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 45.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events , including the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago, the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago, the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei 真核 ) about 1.5 billion years ago, and the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period.
    • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history.
    • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved.
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 46.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events , including the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago, the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago, the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei 真核 ) about 1.5 billion years ago, and the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period.
    • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history.
    • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved.
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 47.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events , including the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago, the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago, the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei 真核 ) about 1.5 billion years ago, and the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period.
    • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history.
    • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved.
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 48.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events , including the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago, the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago, the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei 真核 ) about 1.5 billion years ago, and the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period.
    • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history.
    • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved.
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 49.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including 大背景:时期的划分
      • the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago,
      • the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago,
      • the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei) about 1.5 billion years ago, and
      • the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. 引出背景下的主题
      • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history. 何时
      • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved. 发生了何事
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.” 叫什么
  • 50.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including 大背景:时期的划分
      • the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago,
      • the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago,
      • the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei) about 1.5 billion years ago, and
      • the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. 引出背景下的主题
      • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history. 何时
      • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved. 发生了何事
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.” 叫什么
  • 51.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including 大背景:时期的划分
      • the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago,
      • the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago,
      • the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei) about 1.5 billion years ago, and
      • the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. 引出背景下的主题
      • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history. 何时
      • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved. 发生了何事
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 52.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including 大背景:时期的划分
      • the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago,
      • the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago,
      • the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei) about 1.5 billion years ago, and
      • the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. 引出背景下的主题
      • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history. When 何时
      • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved.
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”
  • 53.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including 大背景:时期的划分
      • the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago,
      • the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago,
      • the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei) about 1.5 billion years ago, and
      • the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. 引出背景下的主题
      • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history. When 何时
      • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved. What 发生何事
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.” 叫做什么
  • 54.
    • The geologic timescale 地质年代 is marked by significant geologic and biological events, including 大背景:时期的划分
      • the origin of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago,
      • the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago,
      • the origin of eukaryotic 真核生物 的 life-forms (living things that have cells with true nuclei) about 1.5 billion years ago, and
      • the origin of animals about 0.6 billion years ago.
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period. 引出背景下的主题
      • Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last 10 percent of Earth’s history. When 何时
      • During a geologically brief 100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are now extinct) evolved. What 发生何事
    • This rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals is often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.” 叫做什么
  • 55.
    • The geologic timescale is marked by significant events,
    • The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period.
    • The last event Cambrian explosion is rapid origin and diversification 多样化 of animals
  • 56.
    • The geologic timescale is marked by significant events,
    • The last event Cambrian explosion is rapid origin and diversification of animals
  • 57.
    • The geologic timescale is marked by significant events,
    • The last event Cambrian explosion is rapid origin and diversification of animals
  • 58.
    • Cambrian explosion: rapid origin and diversification of animals
  • 59. 4 Cambrian explosion 7 3 2 6 5
  • 60. Paragraph Two Cambrian Explosion
  • 61. Cambrian explosion Topic?
  • 62.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century. Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multi ce llular 多细胞的 forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly? Paleon to logists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 63.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century.
    • Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth?
    • The origin of multicellular 多细胞的 forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself.
    • Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals?
    • Why did animal life evolve so quickly?
    • Paleon to logists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 64.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century.
    • Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth?
    • The origin of multi ce llular 多细胞的 forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself.
    • Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals?
    • Why did animal life evolve so quickly?
    • Paleon to logists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 65.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century.
    • Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth?
      • The origin of multicellular 多细胞的 forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself.
    • Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals?
    • Why did animal life evolve so quickly?
    • Paleon to logists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions .
  • 66.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century.
    • Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth?
      • The origin of multicellular 多细胞的 forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself.
    • Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals?
    • Why did animal life evolve so quickly?
    • Paleon to logists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions .
  • 67.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century. Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multicellular 多细胞的 forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly? Paleon to logists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 68.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century.
    • Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multicellular forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself.
    • Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals?
    • Why did animal life evolve so quickly ?
    • Paleon to logists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 69.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century . Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multicellular forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record no t document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly ? Paleontologists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 70.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century. Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multicellular forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record no t document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly ? Paleontologists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 71.
    • Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century. Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multicellular forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record no t document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly ? Paleontologists 古生物学者 continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions.
  • 72.
    • Scientist have questions and search for answers
    To summarize…
  • 73. Questions & search for answers
  • 74. Cambrian explosion Questions & search for answers
  • 75. Cambrian explosion Topic? Questions & search for answers
  • 76. Paragraph Three Cambrian Explosion
  • 77.
    • One interpre ta tion 解释 regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize 化石化 . Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals, but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by se diments 沉积体 that create an environment that discourages decompo si tion 腐烂 . In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.
  • 78.
    • One interpre ta tion 解释 regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize 化石化 .
    • Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals, but it does occur.
    • Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by se diments 沉积体 that create an environment that discourages decompo si tion 腐烂 .
    • In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.
  • 79.
    • One interpretation 解释 regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize .
    • Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals, but it does occur.
    • Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments 沉积体 that create an environment that discourages decomposition 腐烂 .
    • In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.
  • 80.
    • One interpretation 解释 regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize 化石化 .
    • Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals,
    • but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments 沉积体 that create an environment that discourages decomposition 腐烂 .
    • In fact , fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.
  • 81.
    • One interpretation 解释 regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize 化石化 .
    • Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals,
    • but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments 沉积体 that create an environment that discourages decomposition . 腐烂
    • In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.
  • 82.
    • One interpretation 解释 regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize 化石化 .
      • Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals,
    • but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments 沉积体 that create an environment that discourages decomposition 腐烂 .
    • In fact , fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.
  • 83.
    • One interpretation 解释 regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize.
    • Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals,
    • but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments that create an environment that discourages decomposition 腐烂 .
    • In fact , fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years .
  • 84.
    • In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.
  • 85.
    • fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals
  • 86. Soft-bodied animals were fossilized
  • 87. Cambrian explosion Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers
  • 88. Topic? Cambrian explosion Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers
  • 89. Paragraph Four Cambrian Explosion
  • 90.
    • The Ediacara 埃迪卡拉 fossil formation, which contains the oldest known animal fossils, consists ex clu sively 只有 of soft-bodied forms. Although named after a site in Australia, the Ediacara formation 动物群 is worldwide in distri bu tion 分布 and dates to Pre Cambrian times. This 700-million-year-old formation gives few clues to the origins of modern animals, however, because paleon to logists 古生物学者 believe it represents an evolutionary experiment that failed. It contains no ancestors of modern animal groups .
  • 91.
    • The Ediacara 埃迪卡拉 fossil formation, which contains the oldest known animal fossils, consists ex clu sively 只有 of soft-bodied forms.
    • Although named after a site in Australia, the Ediacara formation 动物群 is worldwide in distri bu tion 分布 and dates to Pre Cambrian times.
    • This 700-million-year-old formation gives few clues to the origins of modern animals,
    • however, because paleon to logists 古生物学者 believe it represents an evolutionary experiment that failed.
    • It contains no ancestors of modern animal groups.
  • 92.
    • The Ediacara 埃迪卡拉 fossil formation, which contains the oldest known animal fossils, consists exclusively of soft-bodied forms.
    • Although named after a site in Australia, the Ediacara formation is worldwide in distribution and dates to PreCambrian times.
    • However, this 700-million-year-old formation gives few clues to the origins of modern animals, because paleontologists 古生物学者 believe it represents an evolutionary experiment that failed.
    • It contains no ancestors of modern animal groups.
  • 93.
    • The Ediacara has no ancestors of modern animals.
  • 94. Ediacara’s weren’t ancestors of modern animals
  • 95. Ediacara’s weren’t ancestors of modern animals Cambrian explosion Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers Topic?
  • 96. Paragraph Five Cambrian Explosion
  • 97.
    • A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains 遗骸 is the Tommotian formation, named after a lo ca le 地点 in Russia. It dates to the very early Cambrian period, and it also contains only soft-bodied forms. At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned 划分 to various modern animal groups, but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no de scen dants 后代 in modern animal groups.
  • 98.
    • A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains 遗骸 is the Tommotian formation, named after a locale 地点 in Russia.
    • It dates to the very early Cambrian period, and it also contains only soft-bodied forms.
    • At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned 划分 to various modern animal groups, but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants 后代 in modern animal groups.
  • 99.
    • A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains 遗骸 is the Tommotian formation, named after a locale 地点 in Russia.
    • It dates to the very early Cambrian period, and it also contains only soft-bodied forms.
    • At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned to various modern animal groups,
    • but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants 后代 in modern animal groups.
  • 100.
    • A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains 遗骸 is the Tommotian formation, named after a locale 地点 in Russia.
    • It dates to the very early Cambrian period, and it also contains only soft-bodied forms.
    • At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned 归属 to various modern animal groups,
    • but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants 后代 in modern animal groups.
  • 101.
    • A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains 遗骸 is the Tommotian formation, named after a locale 地点 in Russia.
    • It dates to the very early Cambrian period, and it also contains only soft-bodied forms.
    • At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned 归属 to various modern animal groups,
    • but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants 后代 in modern animal groups.
  • 102.
    • A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains is the Tommotian formation, named after a locale 地点 in Russia.
    • It dates to the very early Cambrian period, and it also contains only soft-bodied forms.
    • At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned 归属 to various modern animal groups,
    • but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants 后代 in modern animal groups.
  • 103.
    • Tommotian leaves no descendants in modern animal groups.
  • 104.
    • Tommotian leaves no descendants in modern animals.
  • 105. Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants
  • 106. Ediacara’s weren’t ancestors of modern animals Cambrian explosion Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants
  • 107. Ediacara’s weren’t modern animal ancestors Cambrian explosion Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers Topic? Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants
  • 108. Paragraph Six Cambrian Explosion
  • 109.
    • A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals provides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion. This fossil formation, called the Burgess Shale , 泥板岩 is in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains of British Columbia. Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of ma rine 海洋的 animals under conditions that favored fossilization. These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups. These unassignable 无法划分的 animals include a large swimming predator 掠食者 called Anomalo ca ris 奇虾 and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia , which ate detritus 碎屑 of a lgae. 海藻 The Burgess Shale formation also has fossils of many extinct 灭绝 representatives of modern animal groups. For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of ar thropods 节肢动物 (a category of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites 螨虫 , and crabs).
  • 110.
    • A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals provides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion.
    • This fossil formation, called the Burgess Shale 泥板岩 , is in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains of British Columbia.
    • Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of ma rine 海洋的 animals under conditions that favored fossilization.
    • These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups.
    • These unassignable 无法划分的 animals include a large swimming predator 掠食者 called Anomalo ca ris 奇虾 and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia , which ate de tri tus of a lgae . 海藻
    • The Burgess Shale formation also has fossils of many extinct representatives of modern animal groups.
    • For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of ar thropods 节肢动物 (a ca tegory 类属 of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites, and crabs).
  • 111.
    • A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals provides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion.
    • This fossil formation, called the Burgess Shale 泥板岩 , is in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains of British Columbia.
    • Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of marine 海洋的 animals under conditions that favored fossilization.
    • These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups.
    • These unassignable 无法划分的 animals include a large swimming predator 掠食者 called Anomalocaris 奇虾 and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia , which ate detritus of algae. 海藻 碎屑
    • The Burgess Shale formation also has fossils of many extinct 灭绝 representatives of modern animal groups.
    • For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of arthropods 节肢动物 (a category 类属 of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites, and crabs).
  • 112.
    • A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals provides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion.
    • This fossil formation, called the Burgess Shale 泥板岩 , is in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains of British Columbia.
    • Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of marine animals under conditions that favored fossilization.
    • These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups.
      • These unassignable 无法划分的 animals include a large swimming predator 掠食者 called Anomalocaris 奇虾 and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia , which ate detritus of algae. 海藻
    • The Burgess Shale 泥板岩 formation also has fossils of many extinct 灭绝 representatives of modern animal groups.
    • For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of arthropods 节肢动物 (a category 类属 of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites, and crabs).
  • 113.
    • A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals provides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion.
    • This fossil formation, called the Burgess Shale , is in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains of British Columbia.
    • Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of marine animals under conditions that favored fossilization.
    • These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups.
      • These unassignable 无法划分的 animals include a large swimming predator 掠食者 called Anomalocaris 奇虾 and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia , which ate detritus of algae. 海藻
    • The Burgess Shale formation also has fossils of many extinct representatives of modern animal groups.
      • For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of arthropods 节肢动物 (a category 类属 of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites, and crabs).
  • 114.
    • A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals provides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion.
    • This fossil formation, called the Burgess Shale , is in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains of British Columbia.
    • Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of marine animals under conditions that favored fossilization.
    • These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups .
      • These unassignable 无法划分 的 animals include a large swimming predator 掠食者 called Anomalocaris 奇虾 and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia , which ate detritus of algae. 海藻
    • The Burgess Shale formation also has fossils of many extinct 灭绝 representatives of modern animal groups.
      • For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of arthropods 节肢动物 (a category 类属 of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites, and crabs).
  • 115.
    • A third fossil formation containing both soft-bodied and hard-bodied animals provides evidence of the result of the Cambrian explosion.
    • This fossil formation, called the Burgess Shale , is in Yoho National Park in the Canadian Rocky Mountains of British Columbia.
    • Shortly after the Cambrian explosion, mud slides rapidly buried thousands of marine animals under conditions that favored fossilization.
    • These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups .
      • These unassignable 无法划分的 animals include a large swimming predator 掠食者 called Anomalocaris 奇虾 and a soft-bodied animal called Wiwaxia , which ate detritus of algae. 海藻
    • The Burgess Shale formation also has fossils of many extinct 灭绝 representatives of modern animal groups .
      • For example, a well-known Burgess Shale animal called Sidneyia is a representative of a previously unknown group of arthropods 节肢动物 (a category 类属 of animals that includes insects, spiders, mites, and crabs).
  • 116.
    • Burgess Shale has modern animals, some are extinct 灭绝
  • 117. Burgess Shale has modern animals, some are extinct
  • 118. Ediacara’s weren’t modern animal ancestors Cambrian explosion Topic? Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers Burgess Shale has modern animals, some are extinct Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants
  • 119. Paragraph Seven Cambrian Explosion
  • 120.
    • Fossil formations like the Burgess Shale 伯尼斯泥板岩 show that evolution cannot always be thought of as a slow progression 进程 .The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolutionary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique 唯一的 animals. Why was this evolution so rapid? No one really knows. Many zoologists believe that it was because so many ecological niches 小生态区 were available with virtually no competition from existing species. Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences 顺序 in the Cambrian explosion? Perhaps another ancient fossil bed of soft-bodied animals from 600-million-year-old seas is awaiting discovery.
  • 121.
    • Fossil formations like the Burgess Shale 伯尼斯泥板岩 show that evolution cannot always be thought of as a slow progression 进程 .
    • The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolutionary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique 唯一的 animals.
    • Why was this evolution so rapid? No one really knows.
    • Many zoologists believe that it was because so many ecological niches 小生态区 were available with virtually no competition from existing species.
    • Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences 顺序 in the Cambrian explosion?
    • Perhaps another ancient fossil bed of soft-bodied animals from 600-million-year-old seas is awaiting discovery.
  • 122.
    • Fossil formations like the Burgess Shale 伯尼斯泥板岩 show that evolution cannot always be thought of as a slow progression 进程 .
    • The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolutionary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique 唯一的 animals.
    • Why was this evolution so rapid? No one really knows.
    • Many zoologists believe that it was because so many ecological niches 小生态区 were available with virtually no competition from existing species.
    • Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences 顺序 in the Cambrian explosion?
    • Perhaps another ancient fossil bed of soft-bodied animals from 600-million-year-old seas is awaiting discovery.
  • 123.
    • Fossil formations like the Burgess Shale show that evolution cannot always be thought of as a slow progression 进程 .
    • The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolutionary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique 唯一的 animals.
    • Why was this evolution so rapid? No one really knows.
    • Many zoologists believe that it was because so many ecological niches 小生态区 were available with virtually no competition from existing species.
    • Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences 顺序 in the Cambrian explosion?
    • Perhaps another ancient fossil bed of soft-bodied animals from 600-million-year-old seas is awaiting discovery.
  • 124.
    • Fossil formations like the Burgess Shale show that evolution cannot always be thought of as a slow progression 进程 .
    • The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolutionary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique 唯一的 animals.
    • Why was this evolution so rapid? No one really knows .
    • Many zoologists believe that it was because so many ecological niches 小生态区 were available with virtually no competition from existing species.
    • Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences 顺序 in the Cambrian explosion?
    • Perhaps another ancient fossil bed of soft-bodied animals from 600-million-year-old seas is awaiting discovery.
  • 125.
    • Fossil formations like the Burgess Shale show that evolution cannot always be thought of as a slow progression 进程 .
    • The Cambrian explosion involved rapid evolutionary diversification, followed by the extinction of many unique 唯一的 animals.
    • Why was this evolution so rapid? No one really knows.
    • Many zoologists believe that it was because so many ecological niches 小生态区 were available with virtually no competition from existing species.
    • Will zoologists ever know the evolutionary sequences 顺序 in the Cambrian explosion?
    • Perhaps another ancient fossil bed of soft-bodied animals from 600-million-year-old seas is awaiting discovery.
  • 126.
    • Evolution isn’t always slow due to certain environment .
  • 127. Evolution isn’t always slow due to certain environment
  • 128. Ediacara’s weren’t modern animal ancestors Cambrian explosion Evolution isn’t always slow due to certain environment . Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers Burgess Shale has modern animals some are extinct Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants
  • 129. Ediacara’s weren’t modern animal ancestors Cambrian explosion: rapid origin and diversification of animals Evolution isn’t always slow due to certain environment . Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers Burgess Shale has modern animals, some are extinct Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants
  • 130. Burgess Shale has modern animals, some are extinct Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants Ediacara’s weren’t modern animal ancestors Cambrian explosion: rapid origin and diversification of animals Questions & search for answers Evolution isn’t always slow due to environment Soft bodied animals were fossilized
  • 131. Burgess Shale has modern animals, some are extinct Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants Ediacara’s weren’t modern animal ancestors Cambrian explosion: rapid origin and diversification of animals Questions & search for answers Evolution isn’t always slow due to environment Soft bodied animals were fossilized
  • 132. Ediacara’s weren’t modern animal ancestors Cambrian explosion: rapid origin and diversification of animals Evolution isn’t always slow due to certain environment . Soft-bodied animals were fossilized Questions & search for answers Burgess Shale has modern animals, some are extinct Tommotian leaves no modern animals descendants
  • 133. Active comprehension strategies Inferring Predicting Questioning the text
    • Making
    • connections
    • Text-to-text
    • Text-to-self
    Finding important information Visualizing Summarizing Monitoring comprehension Reading skills at work
  • 134. The Cambrian Explosion A reading passage for senior middle school learners 高 歌 浙江外国语学院 2011 年 3 月
  • 135. 寒武纪
    • 寒武纪 ( Cambrian ) 是距今 5 亿 7 千万年前 --- 5 亿 1 千万年前的一个地质时代。寒武纪是显生宙 ( Phanerozoic ) 的开始。在这一时期,大约 50 个门的大量多细胞生物(包括几乎所有现生生物的祖先)快速出现,称为“寒武纪生命大爆发”。
  • 136. 寒武纪三叶虫
    • 寒武纪 时期,最繁荣的生物是节肢动物三叶虫,其次是腕足动物、古杯动物、棘皮动物和腹足动物。寒武纪的生物形态奇特,和地球上的现生生物极不相同。最古老的鱼种也出现在这个时代,是耳材村海口鱼( Haikouichthys ercaicunensis ), 该化石发掘在澄江动物群。
  • 137. 寒武纪名称的由来
    • “ 寒武”源自英国威尔士的古拉丁文“ Cambria” 。日文音译,中国沿用。 1936 年赛德维克在英国西部的威尔士一带进行研究,在罗马人统治的时代,北威尔士山曾称寒武山,因此赛德维克便将这个个时期称为寒武纪。。
  • 138. Cambrian Explosion
  • 139.  
  • 140. 地球地质史
  • 141. Geologic time scale 地球地质史
  • 142. Cambrian explosion 寒武纪大爆发
  • 143. eukaryotic 真核生物
  • 144. eukaryotic eukaryotic 真核生物
  • 145. eukaryotic eukaryotic 真核生物
  • 146. multicellular 多细胞的 forms of life
  • 147. Sedimentary rocks 沉积岩
  • 148. Diversification of animals 动物的多样化(进化)
  • 149. Fossil of fish 鱼化石
  • 150. Soft-bodied fossil 软体动物化石
  • 151. Soft-bodied fossil 软体动物化石
  • 152. Cambrian Explosion 寒武纪大爆发
  • 153. 寒武纪三叶虫 trilobite
  • 154. Detritus 碎屑 of algae 海藻
  • 155. Detritus 碎屑 of algae 海藻
  • 156. Detritus 碎屑 of algae 海藻
  • 157. Diversification of animals
  • 158. Cambrian Explosion 物种多样化的迅猛进化
  • 159. Cambrian Explosion 物种多样化的迅猛进化
  • 160. Cambrian Explosion 物种多样性的迅速进化
  • 161. Anomalocaris 奇虾
  • 162. Anomalocaris 奇虾
  • 163. Predator Anomalocaris
  • 164. Predator Anomalocaris
  • 165. Predator Anomalocaris
  • 166. Predator Anomalocaris
  • 167. Predator Anomalocaris 掠食者 奇虾
  • 168. Wiwaxia 威瓦虾虫
  • 169. Wiwaxia 威瓦虾虫
  • 170. Wiwaxia fossil 威瓦虾虫化石
  • 171. 落基山寒武纪生物化石群
  • 172. 落基山寒武纪生物化石群
  • 173. Cambrian Explosion 寒武纪大爆发
  • 174. Ediacara fossil formation 埃迪卡拉化石群
  • 175. Ediacara fossil formation 埃迪卡拉化石群
  • 176. Ediacara fossil formation 埃迪卡拉化石群
  • 177. Fossil of fish 鱼化石
  • 178. Origin of Eden
  • 179.  
  • 180. 庖丁解牛
  • 181.  
  • 182.  
  • 183. 庖丁解牛 游刃有余
  • 184. 庖丁解牛 游刃有余
  • 185. 庖丁解牛 游刃有余
  • 186.  
  • 187. Not only we see the ox
  • 188. But its skeleton