2009 Transcribing English Words

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2009 Transcribing English Words

  1. 1. Transcribing English words Victor GAO Faculty of Foreign Languages Zhejiang Education College Sept. 2009
  2. 2. Are you all ears?
  3. 4. 英语口语与朗读涉及两个系统 韵律系统 超音位因素 英语语音 音位系统 句重音 句子节奏 句子语调 英语元音 英语辅音
  4. 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5-9 号开口越来越小 1-5 号开口越来越大 : 1-4 号唇型越来越扁 6-9 号唇型越来越圆 1-4 号为前元音 English monophthongs 5-9 号为后元音 10-12 号为中元音
  5. 9. front central back Closed Close-mid Open-mid Open spread The basic vowels chart rounded
  6. 10. 舌前 舌中 舌后 The basic vowels chart 唇型越来越扁 唇型越来越圆 合口 半合 半开 全开 中央
  7. 11. front central back Closed Close-mid Open-mid Open spread The basic vowels chart rounded
  8. 12. Basics of successful reading Phonemic awareness Phonics vocabulary Reading fluency Comprehension Grammar Proficiency
  9. 13. Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>Phonics: The integration of sounds and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness: being sensitive to the sounds and their written forms </li></ul><ul><li>If symbols are involved in letter reading, it is phonics! 在读英语时,看到字母就知道其发音。 </li></ul>
  10. 14. What is a syllable? <ul><li>A syllable is a unit of sound composed of  </li></ul><ul><li>a central peak of sonority 响音峰 ( usually a vowel ), and </li></ul><ul><li>the consonants that cluster around this central peak. </li></ul><ul><li>a ge hi m a ke n e xt h u ge </li></ul>
  11. 15. What is a syllable? <ul><li>For example, the word hotel has two syllables: ho and tel . </li></ul><ul><li>The syllables are marked here as in ho / tel . </li></ul>
  12. 16. Syllable Structure <ul><li>The general structure of a syllable consists of the following segments: </li></ul><ul><li>Onset (obligatory in some languages, optional or even restricted in others) </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme & Nucleus (obligatory in all languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Coda (optional in some languages, highly restricted or prohibited in others) </li></ul>
  13. 17. Syllable structure Optional Closing segment of a syllable Coda Obligatory Central segment of a syllable Nucleus 核 Obligatory Core of a syllable, consisting of a nucleus and coda (see below) Rhyme Optional Initial segment of a syllable: Onset Optionality Description Parts
  14. 18. are Central peak of sonority 响音峰
  15. 19. t ar Onset sound
  16. 20. st ar More onset sounds
  17. 21. st ar t A coda
  18. 22. st ar ts More codas
  19. 23. Weak and Strong Syllables <ul><li>One of the most noticeable features of English is that many syllables are weak. </li></ul><ul><li>I will discuss in a separate chapter how these weak syllables are pronounced and where they occur in English. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Weak and Strong Syllables <ul><li>We could describe them partly in terms of stress by saying, for example, that strong syllables are stressed and weak syllables unstressed. Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Example / ɪ g ‵ zɑː mpl / </li></ul>
  21. 25. What is an open syllable? <ul><li>In a stressed syllable, if there is only one vowel letter , followed by a consonant letter and a silent “e” , then this syllable is called an open syllable and that vowel letter is pronounced as the sound of the vowel letter itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: m a k e , th o s e , n o, I </li></ul>
  22. 26. 重读 开 音节 <ul><li>在一个重读音节中,如果只有一个元音字母,后加一个辅音字母和一个尾音 e (哑音 e ),那么该音节就叫做重读开音节,其中的元音字母发字母本身的音。 </li></ul><ul><li>如 m a ke, th o se, n o, I </li></ul>
  23. 27. What is a closed syllable? <ul><li>In a stressed syllable, if there is only one vowel letter , followed by one or two consonant letters without a silent “e” , then this syllable is called a closed syllable and </li></ul><ul><li>that vowel letter is pronounced as the sound of the short vowel whose shape is similar to the vowel letter itself. l i ke </li></ul>
  24. 28. What is a closed syllable? <ul><li>In a stressed syllable, if there is only one vowel letter , followed by one or two consonant letters without a silent “e” , then this syllable is called a closed syllable </li></ul>
  25. 29. What is a closed syllable? <ul><li>And that vowel letter is pronounced as the sound of the short vowel whose shape is similar to the vowel letter itself. For example: </li></ul>
  26. 30. Closed syllables <ul><li>a e i o u </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: b i g ; b a ck </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>在一个重读音节中,如果只有一个元音字母,后加一个或两个辅音字母,后面不跟有哑音 e ,那么该音节就叫做重读闭音节,其中的元音字母发与该字母形状相应的短元音。 </li></ul><ul><li>a e i o u </li></ul><ul><li>如 b i g ; b a ck </li></ul>重读 闭 音节
  28. 32. Syllable types <ul><li>A closed syllable: A closed syllable has one and only one vowel, and it ends in a consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include in , ask , truck , sock , stretch , twelfth , and on . </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>a can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – a b a se Vowel letter a a Open
  30. 34. <ul><li>a can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – a b a se a v a b a g v Open Closed Vowel letter a
  31. 35. <ul><li>a can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – a b a se a v a b a g v a a go • • Open Closed Unstressed Vowel letter a
  32. 36. Strong and weak forms
  33. 37. <ul><li>a can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – a b a se a v a b a g v a a go • • Long vowel Short vowel Vowel No.12 Vowel letter a
  34. 38. <ul><li>e can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – e e th e se Vowel letter e
  35. 39. <ul><li>e can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – e e th e se e e e gg v v Vowel letter e
  36. 40. <ul><li>e can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – e e th e se e v e e gg v e • marv e lous • Vowel letter e
  37. 41. <ul><li>i can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – i i b i ke Vowel letter i
  38. 42. <ul><li>i can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – i i b i ke v i b i g v Vowel letter i
  39. 43. <ul><li>i can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – i i b i ke v i b i g v i • terr i ble • v Vowel letter i
  40. 44. <ul><li>o can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – o o h o pe Vowel letter o
  41. 45. <ul><li>o can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – o o h o pe o s o n Vowel letter o
  42. 46. <ul><li>o can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – o o h o pe o s o n o v h o t v Vowel letter o
  43. 47. <ul><li>o can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – o o h o pe • • o s o n o o v h o t v Vowel letter o t o day – ‵
  44. 48. <ul><li>u can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – u u h u ge Vowel letter e
  45. 49. <ul><li>u can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – u u h u ge u s u n Vowel letter e
  46. 50. <ul><li>u can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – u u h u ge v v u s u n u p u t Vowel letter u
  47. 51. <ul><li>u can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – u u h u ge v v • • u s u n u p u t u b u t Vowel letter u
  48. 52. <ul><li>u can be pronounced as: </li></ul>– – u u h u ge v v • • u s u n u p u t u b u t Vowel Letter e
  49. 53. Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>Phonics: The integration of sounds and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness: being sensitive to the sounds and their written forms </li></ul><ul><li>If symbols are involved in letter reading, it is phonics ! 在读英语时,看到字母就知道其发音。 </li></ul>
  50. 54. Practice <ul><li>phonics </li></ul>形音对照法
  51. 55. Practice <ul><li>phonics </li></ul>
  52. 56. Practice <ul><li>phonics </li></ul>‵ v v
  53. 57. Practice <ul><li>syllables </li></ul>音节
  54. 58. Practice <ul><li>syllables </li></ul>
  55. 59. Practice <ul><li>syllables </li></ul>‵ v •
  56. 60. Practice <ul><li>vowel </li></ul>元音
  57. 61. Practice <ul><li>vowel </li></ul>
  58. 62. Practice <ul><li>vowel </li></ul>
  59. 63. Practice <ul><li>monophthongs </li></ul>单元音
  60. 64. Practice <ul><li>monophthongs </li></ul>
  61. 65. Practice <ul><li>monophthongs </li></ul>‵ v v •
  62. 66. Practice <ul><li>diphthongs </li></ul>双元音
  63. 67. Practice <ul><li>diphthongs </li></ul>
  64. 68. Practice <ul><li>diphthongs </li></ul>‵ v v
  65. 69. Practice <ul><li>consonant </li></ul>辅音
  66. 70. Practice <ul><li>consonant </li></ul>
  67. 71. Practice <ul><li>consonant </li></ul>‵ v • •
  68. 72. Practice <ul><li>bilabial </li></ul>双唇音
  69. 73. Practice <ul><li>bilabial </li></ul>
  70. 74. Practice <ul><li>bilabial </li></ul>‵ – –
  71. 75. <ul><li>bilabial </li></ul>
  72. 76. Practice <ul><li>dental </li></ul>齿音
  73. 77. Practice <ul><li>dental </li></ul>
  74. 78. <ul><li>dental </li></ul>
  75. 79. Practice <ul><li>dental </li></ul>‵ v •
  76. 80. Practice <ul><li>alveolar </li></ul>齿龈音
  77. 81. Practice <ul><li>alveolar </li></ul>
  78. 82. Practice <ul><li>alveolar </li></ul>‵ v •
  79. 83. <ul><li>alveolar </li></ul>
  80. 84. Practice <ul><li>palatal </li></ul>腭
  81. 85. Practice <ul><li>palatal </li></ul>
  82. 86. <ul><li>palatal </li></ul>
  83. 87. Practice <ul><li>palatal </li></ul>‵ v • •
  84. 88. Practice <ul><li>velum </li></ul>小舌
  85. 89. Practice <ul><li>velum </li></ul>
  86. 90. Practice <ul><li>velum </li></ul>‵ • –
  87. 91. <ul><li>velar </li></ul>
  88. 92. Practice <ul><li>glottal </li></ul>声门的
  89. 93. Practice <ul><li>glottal </li></ul>
  90. 94. Adam’s Apple
  91. 95. Practice <ul><li>glottal </li></ul>‵ v •
  92. 96. Practice <ul><li>plosive </li></ul>爆破音
  93. 97. Practice <ul><li>plosive </li></ul>
  94. 98. Practice <ul><li>plosive </li></ul>‵ v –
  95. 99. Practice <ul><li>fricative </li></ul>摩擦音
  96. 100. Practice <ul><li>fricative </li></ul>
  97. 101. Practice <ul><li>fricative </li></ul>‵ v v •
  98. 102. Practice <ul><li>affricate </li></ul>破擦音
  99. 103. Practice <ul><li>affricate </li></ul>
  100. 104. Practice <ul><li>affricate </li></ul>
  101. 105. Practice <ul><li>affricate </li></ul>‵ v v
  102. 106. Practice <ul><li>lateral </li></ul>舌侧音
  103. 107. Practice <ul><li>lateral </li></ul>
  104. 108. Practice <ul><li>lateral </li></ul>
  105. 109. Practice <ul><li>lateral </li></ul>‵ v • •
  106. 110. Practice <ul><li>articulation </li></ul>‵ 发音
  107. 111. Practice <ul><li>articulation </li></ul>‵
  108. 112. Practice <ul><li>articulation </li></ul>‵ v – – ‵
  109. 113. Practice <ul><li>combination </li></ul>组合
  110. 114. Practice <ul><li>combination </li></ul>
  111. 115. Practice <ul><li>combination </li></ul>‵ v – v ‵
  112. 116. Practice <ul><li>discipline </li></ul>纪律
  113. 117. Practice <ul><li>discipline </li></ul>
  114. 118. Practice <ul><li>discipline </li></ul>v ‵ v •
  115. 119. Practice <ul><li>passage </li></ul>短文
  116. 120. Practice <ul><li>passage </li></ul>
  117. 121. Practice <ul><li>passage </li></ul>v ‵
  118. 122. Practice <ul><li>Italy </li></ul>
  119. 123. Practice <ul><li>Italy </li></ul>
  120. 124. Practice <ul><li>Italy </li></ul>v ‵ • v
  121. 125. Practice <ul><li>Italian </li></ul>
  122. 126. Practice <ul><li>Italian </li></ul>
  123. 127. Practice <ul><li>Italian </li></ul>v ‵ • v v
  124. 128. Practice <ul><li>Italian </li></ul>v ‵ v
  125. 129. Practice <ul><li>simultaneous </li></ul>同时发生的
  126. 130. Practice <ul><li>simultaneous </li></ul>
  127. 131. Practice <ul><li>simultaneous </li></ul>‵ v – –
  128. 132. Practice <ul><li>challenge </li></ul>
  129. 133. Practice <ul><li>challenge </li></ul>挑战
  130. 134. Practice <ul><li>challenge </li></ul>‵ v •
  131. 135. Basics of successful reading Phonemic awareness Phonics vocabulary Reading fluency Comprehension Grammar Proficiency

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