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2da grammar 3_presentation
 

2da grammar 3_presentation

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  • Capitalize the first letter of proper nouns. utpl
  • utpl
  • utpl
  • In affirmative sentences, much is very formal: We saw much pollution. Few and little usually mean “not enough”. utpl
  • Much isn’t formal in questions and negative sentences. utpl
  • A and B are not talking about a specific book. utpl
  • A and B are talking about a specific book. utpl
  • Most common nouns can be (count and non-count singular and plural) utpl
  • Primer ejemplo:A and B are students in a classroom. A is a new student. Segundo ejemplo: (it is often indefinite the first time it is mentioned) utpl

2da grammar 3_presentation 2da grammar 3_presentation Presentation Transcript

  • NOUNS AND QUANTIFIERS
    • Proper nouns are the names of particular people, places, or things. They are usually unique (there is only one).
    • People: González, Ecuadorians
    • Places: the Atlantic, Venezuela
    • Months: January, August
    • Nationalities: Japanese, German
    • Seasons: spring, summer, fall, winter
    • Common nouns refer to people, places, and things, but not by their names.
    • People: sailor, explorer, student
    • Places: continent, country, city
    • Things: pots, eggs, fish, honey
    • Common nouns can be either count or non-count .
    • Count nouns are people, places, or things that you can count separately: one sailor, two sailors, three sailors …
    • Count nouns can be singular or plural .
    • You can use a/an or the before them.
    • a car, the car, two cars
    • a city, the city, four cities
    • Count nouns take singular or plural verbs.
    • The boat is fine, but the sailors are sick.
    • Non-count nouns are things that you cannot count separately. (They have no plural forms).
    • CORRECT: English is an interesting subject.
    • INCORRECT: An English is an interesting subject.
    • Abstract words: courage, education, time
    • Activities: exploring, sailing, farming
    • Fields of study: geography, history
    • Foods: corn, chocolate, fish
    • Some common non-count nouns do not fit into categories. For example:
    • equipment, homework, news, furniture, information, work
    • Use the quantifiers some , enough , a lot of , and any with both count nouns and non-count nouns .
    • We have some eggs (c) and some honey (nc).
    • Use any in negative sentences and questions.
    • Is there any coffee left? (nc)
    • We didn’t see any cars . (c)
    • Use a few , several , and many , with plural count nouns in affirmative sentences.
    • A few members came to the meeting.
    • Use a little , a great deal of , and much with non-count nouns in affirmative sentences.
    • They threw away a great deal of food.
    • Use many with count nouns and much with non-count nouns in questions and negative sentences.
    • A : How many ships did they see?
    • B: They didn’t see many .
  • ARTICLES: INDEFINITE AND DEFINITE
    • A noun is indefinite when you and your listener do not have a specific person, place, or thing in mind .
    • A: Let’s buy a book .
    • B: Good idea. Which one should we buy?
    • A noun is definite when you and your listener both know which person, place or thing you are talking about.
    • A: I bought the book yesterday.
    • B: Good. You’ve wanted it for a while.
    • Uses of a/an , no article , and some :
    • To identify , use:
    • a/an with singular count nouns
    • A: What do you do?
    • B: I’m a student . (sing. count)
    • no article with plural count nouns and non-count nouns
    • A: What are these?
    • B: They’re beans . I’m making soup. (pl. count)
    • To make general statements , use no article with plural count nouns and non-count nouns .
    • Ava loves stories and music .
    • (stories and music in general)
    • Some in general statements means “some, but not at all.”
    • I like some stories , but a lot of them are boring.
    • Use the definite article the with most common nouns that are definite . Use the when:
    • a person, place or thing is unique – there is only one
    • We must take care of the Earth .
    • The context makes it clear which person, place, or thing you mean
    • A: Who is she?
    • B: She’s the teacher .
    • The noun is mentioned for the second time
    • An ant lived next to a river . One day the ant went to the river to drink.