WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
By.  P. Victer Paul   Dear, We planned to share our eBooks and project/seminar contents for free to all needed friends lik...
Access to WWW-wireless <ul><li>HTTP </li></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in wireless environment </li></ul><u...
HTTP <ul><li>Stateless, lightweight, application level protocol for data transfers between servers and clients. </li></ul>...
Caching <ul><li>To avoid unnecessary retransmissions of content that has not changed since last access </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Problems in HTTP-wireless networks <ul><li>Bandwidth and delay-HTTP designed foe high bandwidth and low delay connections....
<ul><li>Caching is disabled by content providers. </li></ul><ul><li>No-cache keyword in the header </li></ul><ul><li><HTML...
HTML <ul><li>Described the content of web pages in WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Designed in desktop computers connected with fixe...
Device comparison Internet Mobile CPU Powerful Less powerful Memory Large Small Power  Mains  Battery Display Large Small ...
Wireless access solutions <ul><li>Image scaling- lower resolution, title of the picture, clipping, zooming </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Implemented in gateways </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP 1.1- improvements-connection reuse, caching enhancements, mechanism...
Simple Web  Architecture
WAP- Wireless Application Protocol <ul><li>Open standard providing mobile users of wireless terminals access to telephony ...
WAP-internet for mobile devices
WAP Architecture
The WAP Workflow <ul><li>1. The user requests a URL through the WAP browser </li></ul><ul><li>2. The browser passes the re...
WAP Protocol Architecture
Protocol Features
WAP Reference Model
Datagram Protocol (WDP) <ul><li>Goal : To allow transport, security, and session protocols to operate independent of the u...
WTLS (Transport Layer Security) <ul><li>Goal: provides the upper-level layer of WAP with a secure transport service interf...
WTLS Handshake Client says Hello Server says Hello Server sends Public Key Initiates key exchange Client generates Session...
WTP Services and Protocols <ul><li>WTP (Transaction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides reliable data transfer based on reques...
<ul><ul><li>message oriented (not stream) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports an Abort of transactions </li></ul></ul><ul>...
WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol <ul><li>WTP three classes of service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class 0 :  unreliable messag...
WTP Class 0 Transaction TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0...
WTP Class 1 Transaction, no user ack & user ack Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) Invoke PDU ...
WTP Class 2 Transaction, no user ack, no hold on Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) Invoke PDU...
WTP Class 2 Transaction, user ack Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind ...
WTP Class 2 Transaction, hold on, no user ack Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) Invoke PDU TR...
WSP - Wireless Session Protocol <ul><li>WSP Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides shared state between client and server...
WSP/B session establishment S-Connect.req (SA, CA, CH, RC) Connect PDU S-Connect.ind (SA, CA, CH, RC) client S-SAP server ...
WSP/B session suspend/resume S-Suspend.req Suspend PDU S-Suspend.ind (R) client S-SAP server S-SAP Reply PDU S-Resume.res ...
WSP/B session termination Disconnect PDU S-Disconnect.ind (R) client S-SAP server S-SAP S-Disconnect.ind (R) WTP Class 0 t...
WAE( Wireless Application environment) <ul><li>For  network applications   </li></ul><ul><li>On small, narrowband devices ...
How It Works Static file or CGI  Output WML WAP HTTP Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks with WML-Script WAP Gat...
<ul><li>Unable connect directly from current WAP devices to web servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak a different language betw...
WAP Gateway (cont’d) <ul><li>A particular piece of software located on a server  </li></ul><ul><li>Handles incoming reques...
WML <ul><li>Tag-based browsing language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen management (text, images) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
WMLScript <ul><li>Scripting language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural logic, loops, conditionals, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>1. Write your own code </li></ul><ul><li>2. Convert from HTML </li></ul><ul><li>3. Visual tools </li></ul>How to M...
WML Example <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot;?> <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC &quot;-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN&quot; &quot;http://www...
Converting HTML to WML <ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>translates non-complex HTML documents in to WML  </li></ul></ul><...
WAP Solutions <ul><li>Success </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>
Available Wireless Services <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>SMS – Short Message Service </li></ul><ul><li>Data (over voice...
Attractions of WAP <ul><li>WAP combines two of the fastest growing industries: wireless and the Internet IP </li></ul><ul>...
WAP: Scalable and Comprehensive <ul><li>Any mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>Any existing or planned wireless service </li><...
WAP: Major Achievements <ul><li>Reduces resources and enriches the functionality of the network </li></ul><ul><li>Generate...
WAP Achievement: Examples <ul><li>Web browsing  </li></ul><ul><li>WAP email </li></ul><ul><li>WAP conference </li></ul><ul...
WAP Promises: Examples <ul><li>Moving images </li></ul><ul><li>Home automation </li></ul><ul><li>Job dispatch </li></ul><u...
WAP: Challenges - Commercial <ul><li>End-to-end security </li></ul><ul><li>Client identification </li></ul><ul><li>Encrypt...
WAP Challenges - Network <ul><li>Less bandwidth (300 bps to 9600 bps) </li></ul><ul><li>More latency </li></ul><ul><li>Les...
WAP Challenges - Usability <ul><li>Screen size </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced applications </li></ul><ul><li>Data input </li><...
WAP Challenges - Legal Issues <ul><li>Privacy: Location information </li></ul><ul><li>Eavesdropping </li></ul>            ...
Competition for WAP <ul><li>Subscriber identity module (SIM) toolkit </li></ul><ul><li>Windows CE </li></ul><ul><li>JavaPh...
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WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

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  • Since there is no connection setup phase there is no mechanism to negotiate parameters (actually some things can be negotiated but not in the full sense that a connection-oriented call setup would allow) to be used during the message exchange, such as packet size or window size (packet group). Therefore using WTP/T requires an a priori agreement between the mobile and server as to the default parameters to be used during a message exchange. Packet versus Streams -a packet interface allows the application more control over a partial transmission. It requires the application (Session layer) to segment its transmission data to fixed length packets, this allows the restarting of a failed transmission at the place of the last successful transmission - checkpointing. -a stream interface is what is most commonly implemented for TCP (sockets) and is widely used by TCP applications.
  • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

    1. 1. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
    2. 2. By. P. Victer Paul Dear, We planned to share our eBooks and project/seminar contents for free to all needed friends like u.. To get to know about more free computerscience ebooks and technology advancements in computer science. Please visit.... http://free-computerscience-ebooks.blogspot.com/ http://recent-computer-technology.blogspot.com/ http://computertechnologiesebooks.blogspot.com/ Please to keep provide many eBooks and technology news for FREE. Encourage us by Clicking on the advertisement in these Blog.
    3. 3. Access to WWW-wireless <ul><li>HTTP </li></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in wireless environment </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to improve HTML and HTTP </li></ul><ul><li>WAP </li></ul><ul><li>WML </li></ul>
    4. 4. HTTP <ul><li>Stateless, lightweight, application level protocol for data transfers between servers and clients. </li></ul><ul><li>GET request method returns the requested resource-HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Server responds with different status codes </li></ul><ul><li>If client wants to provide data to a function on server POST method is used </li></ul><ul><li>Caching mechanism </li></ul>
    5. 5. Caching <ul><li>To avoid unnecessary retransmissions of content that has not changed since last access </li></ul><ul><li>Can be located anywhere between server and client </li></ul><ul><li>Client maintains cache locally to minimise delay </li></ul><ul><li>No-cache entry in header disables caching(dynamic content) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Problems in HTTP-wireless networks <ul><li>Bandwidth and delay-HTTP designed foe high bandwidth and low delay connections. </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP protocol headers are large and redundant </li></ul><ul><li>Stateless- information fields are transferred over and over again with each request </li></ul><ul><li>Some information can be transferred uncompressed </li></ul><ul><li>DNS Look up time is more in wireless link </li></ul><ul><li>Wired networks delay is less compared to wireless </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Caching is disabled by content providers. </li></ul><ul><li>No-cache keyword in the header </li></ul><ul><li><HTML><HEAD> <META HTTP-EQUIV=&quot;Pragma&quot; CONTENT=&quot;no-cache&quot;> <META HTTP-EQUIV=&quot;Expires&quot; CONTENT=&quot;-1&quot;> </HEAD><BODY> </BODY> </HTML> </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic objects cannot be cached-names of links, home pages, mobility(access points),security issues </li></ul>
    8. 8. HTML <ul><li>Described the content of web pages in WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Designed in desktop computers connected with fixed wire to internet in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Designed primarily for nice presentation of content, not for efficient transfer of content. </li></ul><ul><li>Plug ins required </li></ul>
    9. 9. Device comparison Internet Mobile CPU Powerful Less powerful Memory Large Small Power Mains Battery Display Large Small Input Keyboard, Mice Keypad, stylus Bandwidth More Less Latency Less More Connection stability Good Not so good Availability Good Less predictable
    10. 10. Wireless access solutions <ul><li>Image scaling- lower resolution, title of the picture, clipping, zooming </li></ul><ul><li>Content transformation- special converter </li></ul><ul><li>Content extraction/semantic compression- abstract, keywords </li></ul><ul><li>Special languages and protocols-HDLP(Handheld device transport protocol), HDML(Hand held device markup language) </li></ul>Less predictable
    11. 11. <ul><li>Implemented in gateways </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP 1.1- improvements-connection reuse, caching enhancements, mechanism to check integrity, authentication, transfer compressed data </li></ul><ul><li>Cookies – to store state- current state of browsing, user profiles etc </li></ul>
    12. 12. Simple Web Architecture
    13. 13. WAP- Wireless Application Protocol <ul><li>Open standard providing mobile users of wireless terminals access to telephony and information services </li></ul><ul><li>– Wireless terminals include wireless phones, pagers and personal digital assistants (PDAs) </li></ul><ul><li>– Designed to work with all wireless network technologies such as GSM, CDMA, and TDMA,UMTS(Universal mobile tele-comm systems) </li></ul><ul><li>– Based on existing Internet standards such as IP, XML, HTML, and HTTP </li></ul><ul><li>– Includes security facilities,interoperability,scaleable,reliable,efficient(QoS) </li></ul>
    14. 14. WAP-internet for mobile devices
    15. 15. WAP Architecture
    16. 16. The WAP Workflow <ul><li>1. The user requests a URL through the WAP browser </li></ul><ul><li>2. The browser passes the request to the WAP gateway using the WAP </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>3. The WAP gateway creates a normal HTTP request for the URL and </li></ul><ul><li>passes to the origin server. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The origin servers returns the (possibly WML) content of the URL to the </li></ul><ul><li>WAP gateway. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The WAP gateway encodes the HTTP headers and the content (where </li></ul><ul><li>applicable) into binary format (e.g., compiled WML), and transmits on to </li></ul><ul><li>the WAP browser </li></ul><ul><li>6. The WAP browser displays the content (e.g. the first card of the deck) </li></ul>
    17. 17. WAP Protocol Architecture
    18. 18. Protocol Features
    19. 19. WAP Reference Model
    20. 20. Datagram Protocol (WDP) <ul><li>Goal : To allow transport, security, and session protocols to operate independent of the underlying bearer (e.g. GSM, CDMA, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>If bearer already offers IP services UDP is used as WDP </li></ul><ul><li>WCMP-provides error handling mechanism,messages are destination unreachable,parameter problem, message too big etc </li></ul><ul><li>Datagram has DA,DP,SA,SP,user data as mandatory parameters </li></ul>
    21. 21. WTLS (Transport Layer Security) <ul><li>Goal: provides the upper-level layer of WAP with a secure transport service interface that preserves the transport service interface (datagram) below it. </li></ul><ul><li>Security level of WTLS depends on the requirements of the given application </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy, data integrity, authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Takes into consideration the limitations of mobile devices </li></ul>
    22. 22. WTLS Handshake Client says Hello Server says Hello Server sends Public Key Initiates key exchange Client generates Session Key Server acks session key Encrypted Data Encrypted Data
    23. 23. WTP Services and Protocols <ul><li>WTP (Transaction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides reliable data transfer based on request/reply paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no explicit connection setup or tear down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>optimized setup (data carried in first packet of protocol exchange) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seeks to reduce 3-way handshake on initial request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Efficiency,Reliablity -is achieved using duplicate removal, retransmission, acknowledgements and unique transaction identifiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>header compression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>segmentation /re-assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>retransmission of lost packets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selective-retransmission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>port number addressing (UDP ports numbers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flow control </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><ul><li>message oriented (not stream) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports an Abort of transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports asynchronous transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports concatenation of PDUs(invoke PDU,Ack PDU,result PDU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports User acknowledgement or Stack acknowledgement option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acks may be forced from the WTP user (upper layer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>default is stack ack </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol <ul><li>WTP three classes of service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>class 0 : unreliable message transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unconfirmed Invoke message with no Result message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a datagram that can be sent within the context of an existing Session </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>class 1 : reliable message transfer without result message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>confirmed Invoke message with no Result message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>used for data push, where no response from the destination is expected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>class 2 : reliable message transfer with exactly one reliable result message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>confirmed Invoke message with one confirmed Result message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a single request produces a single reply </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. WTP Class 0 Transaction TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=0, H‘) initiator TR-SAP responder TR-SAP Source: Schiller A: Acknowledgement Type (WTP/User) C: Class (0,1,2) H: Handle (socket alias)
    27. 27. WTP Class 1 Transaction, no user ack & user ack Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H‘) initiator TR-SAP responder TR-SAP Ack PDU TR-Invoke.res (H‘) TR-Invoke.cnf (H) TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=1, H‘) initiator TR-SAP responder TR-SAP Ack PDU TR-Invoke.cnf (H)
    28. 28. WTP Class 2 Transaction, no user ack, no hold on Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H‘) initiator TR-SAP responder TR-SAP Result PDU TR-Result.req (UD*, H‘) TR-Result.ind (UD*, H) Ack PDU TR-Invoke.cnf (H) TR-Result.res (H) TR-Result.cnf (H‘)
    29. 29. WTP Class 2 Transaction, user ack Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H‘) initiator TR-SAP responder TR-SAP Result PDU TR-Result.ind (UD*, H) Ack PDU TR-Invoke.res (H‘) TR-Invoke.cnf (H) Ack PDU TR-Result.req (UD*, H‘) TR-Result.res (H) TR-Result.cnf (H‘)
    30. 30. WTP Class 2 Transaction, hold on, no user ack Source: Schiller TR-Invoke.req (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H) Invoke PDU TR-Invoke.ind (SA, SP, DA, DP, A, UD, C=2, H‘) initiator TR-SAP responder TR-SAP Result PDU TR-Result.req (UD*, H‘) TR-Result.ind (UD*, H) Ack PDU Ack PDU TR-Invoke.cnf (H) TR-Result.res (H) TR-Result.cnf (H‘)
    31. 31. WSP - Wireless Session Protocol <ul><li>WSP Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides shared state between client and server, optimizes content transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>session management (establish, release, suspend, resume) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficient capability negotiation(SDU size,Max outstanding requests) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WSP/B (Browsing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP/1.1 functionality - but binary encoded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exchange of session headers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>push and pull data transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asynchronous requests </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. WSP/B session establishment S-Connect.req (SA, CA, CH, RC) Connect PDU S-Connect.ind (SA, CA, CH, RC) client S-SAP server S-SAP ConnReply PDU S-Connect.res (SH, NC) S-Connect.cnf (SH, NC) WTP Class 2 transaction Source: Schiller CH: Client Header RC: Requested Capabilities SH: Server Header NC: Negotiated Capabilities
    33. 33. WSP/B session suspend/resume S-Suspend.req Suspend PDU S-Suspend.ind (R) client S-SAP server S-SAP Reply PDU S-Resume.res WTP Class 2 transaction S-Suspend.ind (R) ~ ~ S-Resume.req (SA, CA) S-Resume.ind (SA, CA) Resume PDU S-Resume.cnf WTP Class 0 transaction Source: Schiller R: Reason for disconnection
    34. 34. WSP/B session termination Disconnect PDU S-Disconnect.ind (R) client S-SAP server S-SAP S-Disconnect.ind (R) WTP Class 0 transaction S-Disconnect.req (R) Source: Schiller
    35. 35. WAE( Wireless Application environment) <ul><li>For network applications </li></ul><ul><li>On small, narrowband devices </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>WAE defines basics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For WAP user agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For WAP gateways. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAE contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WML and WMLScript specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Telephony Application Interface (WTAI) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. How It Works Static file or CGI Output WML WAP HTTP Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks with WML-Script WAP Gateway Encoder,Decoder WMLScript Compiler Protocol Adapters Client WML WML-Script WTAI Etc. 1 Request Encoded URL Request 2 HTTP Request 3 4 HTTP Response 5 Response Encoded WML Content 6
    37. 37. <ul><li>Unable connect directly from current WAP devices to web servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak a different language between WAP Devices and the Web Servers </li></ul><ul><li>An extra server to handle translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP Gateway, or WAP Proxy </li></ul></ul>Why Do I Need a WAP Gateway?
    38. 38. WAP Gateway (cont’d) <ul><li>A particular piece of software located on a server </li></ul><ul><li>Handles incoming requests from your WAP phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Compiling the WML pages into bytecode (WMLC) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the size and number of packets </li></ul><ul><li>Provide transaction security </li></ul>
    39. 39. WML <ul><li>Tag-based browsing language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen management (text, images) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data input (text, selection lists, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks & navigation support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W3C XML-based language </li></ul><ul><li>Inherits technology from HDML and </li></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>WML document is made up of multiple cards. Cards can be grouped into decks. identified by URL </li></ul>
    40. 40. WMLScript <ul><li>Scripting language: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural logic, loops, conditionals, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized for small-memory, small-cpu devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derived from JavaScript </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with WML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful extension mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces overall network traffic </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>1. Write your own code </li></ul><ul><li>2. Convert from HTML </li></ul><ul><li>3. Visual tools </li></ul>How to Make WML page
    42. 42. WML Example <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot;?> <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC &quot;-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN&quot; &quot;http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml&quot;> <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“#eCard”/> </DO> Welcome! </CARD> <CARD NAME=“eCard”> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“/submit?N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/> </DO> Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/> Choose speed: <SELECT KEY=“S”> <OPTION VALUE=“0”>Fast</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE=“1”>Slow</OPTION> <SELECT> </CARD> </WML> Header Card2 Card1 Navigation Variable Select Elements
    43. 43. Converting HTML to WML <ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>translates non-complex HTML documents in to WML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tag-by-tag processing and discard all incompatible tags and contents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatically accelerates wireless content development by using abundant HTML resources </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. WAP Solutions <ul><li>Success </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>
    45. 45. Available Wireless Services <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>SMS – Short Message Service </li></ul><ul><li>Data (over voice) </li></ul><ul><li>WAP – simplistic and expensive </li></ul>
    46. 46. Attractions of WAP <ul><li>WAP combines two of the fastest growing industries: wireless and the Internet IP </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is an attempt to define the standard for how content from the Internet is filtered for mobile communications </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is developed to make readily available content from the Internet easily available to mobile terminals </li></ul>
    47. 47. WAP: Scalable and Comprehensive <ul><li>Any mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>Any existing or planned wireless service </li></ul><ul><li>Any mobile network standard </li></ul>
    48. 48. WAP: Major Achievements <ul><li>Reduces resources and enriches the functionality of the network </li></ul><ul><li>Generates additional traffic on the network and revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates migration of applications between networks and bearers </li></ul>
    49. 49. WAP Achievement: Examples <ul><li>Web browsing </li></ul><ul><li>WAP email </li></ul><ul><li>WAP conference </li></ul><ul><li>WAP search </li></ul><ul><li>Document sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative working </li></ul><ul><li>Still images </li></ul>
    50. 50. WAP Promises: Examples <ul><li>Moving images </li></ul><ul><li>Home automation </li></ul><ul><li>Job dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>Remote point of sale </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Remote monitoring (Meters) </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Remote LAN access </li></ul><ul><li>File transfer </li></ul>
    51. 51. WAP: Challenges - Commercial <ul><li>End-to-end security </li></ul><ul><li>Client identification </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption/Authentication </li></ul>
    52. 52. WAP Challenges - Network <ul><li>Less bandwidth (300 bps to 9600 bps) </li></ul><ul><li>More latency </li></ul><ul><li>Less connection stability </li></ul><ul><li>Less predictive availability </li></ul>
    53. 53. WAP Challenges - Usability <ul><li>Screen size </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced applications </li></ul><ul><li>Data input </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with voice </li></ul>                                                                                                   
    54. 54. WAP Challenges - Legal Issues <ul><li>Privacy: Location information </li></ul><ul><li>Eavesdropping </li></ul>                                  
    55. 55. Competition for WAP <ul><li>Subscriber identity module (SIM) toolkit </li></ul><ul><li>Windows CE </li></ul><ul><li>JavaPhone™ </li></ul>

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