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A detailed presentation about Bluetooth

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  1. 1. Bluetooth
  2. 2. By. P. Victer Paul Dear, We planned to share our eBooks and project/seminar contents for free to all needed friends like u.. To get to know about more free computerscience ebooks and technology advancements in computer science. Please visit.... Please to keep provide many eBooks and technology news for FREE. Encourage us by Clicking on the advertisement in these Blog.
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Aims at so-called ad hoc piconets which are local area networks with a very limited coverage and without the need for an infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be used to connect both mobile devices and peripherals that currently require a wire </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ USB without wires” </li></ul><ul><li>Short range wireless radio technology </li></ul><ul><li>- operate range of 10 meters </li></ul><ul><li>- RF is centered at 2.45 GHz (RF Channels:2420+k MHz, k=0..78) </li></ul><ul><li>- Frequency hopping is used to combat interference in wireless environment </li></ul><ul><li>- TDD for full duplex communications </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sleeping power – 30 Microamps </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission power- 800 Microamps </li></ul><ul><li>Standby mode-300 Microamps </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate 721Kbps </li></ul><ul><li>Price is less. </li></ul><ul><li>Operates on circuit and packet switching modes </li></ul><ul><li>Provides both asynchronous and synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>data services. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Faster than cellular data(9.6 to 14.4 Kbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to wired and wireless LAN(10 Mbps) Bluetooth is slower. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognise bluetooth device in radio range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit easy connection of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of device types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support service discovery </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Advantages <ul><li>Wireless (No Cables) </li></ul><ul><li>No Setup Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Low Power Consumption (1 Milliwat) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Wide Support </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disadvantages <ul><li>Short range (10 meters) </li></ul><ul><li>Small throughput rates </li></ul><ul><li>- Data Rate 1.0 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly for personal use (PANs) </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly Expensive </li></ul>
  9. 9. Who Started B luetooth? <ul><li>Ericsson Mobile Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) </li></ul><ul><li>-5 founding members </li></ul><ul><li>-Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Intel & Toshiba </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter’s Group </li></ul><ul><li>- 3COM, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola </li></ul><ul><li>Now over 1900 members </li></ul>
  10. 10. B luetooth Devices <ul><li>Bluetooth will soon be enabled in everything from: </li></ul><ul><li>Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Headsets </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Etc … </li></ul>
  11. 11. How Does It Work? <ul><li>Bluetooth is a standard for tiny, radio frequency chips that can be plugged into your devices </li></ul><ul><li>These chips were designed to take all of the information that your wires normally send, and transmit it at a special frequency to something called a receiver Bluetooth chip. </li></ul>
  12. 12. B luetooth Specifications <ul><li>Each channel is divided into time slots 625 microseconds long </li></ul><ul><li>Packets can be up to five time slots wide </li></ul><ul><li>Data in a packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length </li></ul>
  13. 13. B luetooth Frequency <ul><li>Has been set aside by the ISM for exclusive use of Bluetooth wireless products </li></ul>
  14. 14. IrDA <ul><li>Transmission rate 115kbits/s </li></ul><ul><li>Limited range(2 m) </li></ul><ul><li>Line of sight between interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation of only two participants(P2P) </li></ul><ul><li>No internet working, media access, communication mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Adv is low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Found in laptops, PDA, cellular phones </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is the range? Bluetooth <ul><li>Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices – have a range of 10 meters or 30 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet </li></ul>
  16. 16. Power requirements <ul><li>The most commonly used radio is Class 2 </li></ul><ul><li>and uses 2.5 mW of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth technology is designed to have </li></ul><ul><li>very low power consumption. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Speed <ul><li>1 Mbps for Version 1.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 3 Mbps supported for Version 2.0 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bluetooth Headphones
  19. 19. Bluetooth Car Adapter
  20. 20. Bluetooth Medical Devices
  21. 21. Applications <ul><li>Connection of peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>Support adhoc networking </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging networks </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Local Wireless access at low costs </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with WLAN adapters- designed for higher bandwidth and large range. More expensive. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bluetooth characteristics <ul><li>Radio spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM( Industrial Scientific Medical band) frequency band, 79 channels (2400-2483.5 MHz in most countries), 1 MHz carrier spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Radio layer </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Transmit power (1-100mW); typical range: 10-100 m without obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Interferences from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other radio frequency short-range techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless local area networks (IEEE 802.11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random noise generators (microwave ovens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Bluetooth units </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Bluetooth characteristics <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 1 Mbps per channel </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Theoretical capacity of 79 Mbps cannot be reached due to non-orthogonal hopping sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Link types </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Synchronous connection-oriented link (SCO) </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Asynchronous connectionless link (ACL) </li></ul><ul><li>Topology and medium access control </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Master-slave architecture </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>2 types of physical links are defined: </li></ul><ul><li>SCO (Synchronous Connection-Oriented) </li></ul><ul><li>ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less) </li></ul><ul><li>The SCO link is point-to-point between master and slave. The master maintains the link by using reserved timeslots at regular intervals. Packet retransmissions are not allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>ACL provides packet-switched connections between the master and all active slaves. Packet retransmissions are usually applied to assure data integrity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Techniques to minimize packet loss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Hopping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive power control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short data packets </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Frequency Hopping <ul><li>Uses FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides the ISM-band into 79 1-Mhz channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication between devices switches between available channels. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Avoiding Interference : Hopping <ul><li>Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping. </li></ul><ul><li>In this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitters change frequency 1600 times a second </li></ul>
  28. 28. Frequency Hopping (cont.)
  29. 29. Power states
  30. 30. Bluetooth: power management modes <ul><li>Stand-by (SB) or idle </li></ul><ul><li>Devices not connected in a piconet </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely low duty cycle (less than one percent): scan for 10 ms every </li></ul><ul><li>1.28-3.84 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Parked (P) </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are part of a piconet, but not active </li></ul><ul><li>low power mode </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned an 8-bit parked member address (PMA) and loses is active member address (AMA). </li></ul><ul><li>Hold (H) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to parked mode, but devices keep AMA address </li></ul><ul><li>resume sending at once after transition out of HOLD state </li></ul><ul><li>Sniff (Sn) </li></ul><ul><li>Used only by slave devices for power conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Device is active, but listens to channel at a reduced rate. Not on every slot </li></ul>
  31. 31. Topology-Piconet
  32. 32. Bluetooth: scatternet
  33. 33. Protocol stack
  34. 34. <ul><li>Radio : handles bits of informaiton and presents them in suitable form for radio transmission. This involves coding/decoding and modulation and demodulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Base band /link control : supports link establishment and provides link control ( addressing, packet format, timing and power control) </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Link management (LM): controls and configures links to other bluetooth devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes security concepts such as authentication and encryption. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for attaching SLAVES to piconet and allocating their AMA. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes ACL data and SCO voice links and is capable of putting connections in low power modes. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Host controller interface (HCI): Provided to ease the partition of the Bluetooth Stack across two processors. </li></ul><ul><li>Some systems will implement the baseband and link manager on the Bluetooth device and higher levels on the host processor. </li></ul><ul><li>The HCI is provided as an interface between these parts. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Logical Link Control and Adaption (L2CAP): </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiplexing of different services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reassembling of packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of Service </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>RFCOMM: Radio frequency communications (RFCOMM) is the cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial data stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables the replacement of serial port cables with minimum of modification of existing devices. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>WAP: can also be supported over bluetooth platform. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephony control protocol-binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices (setup,release). </li></ul><ul><li>OBEX: Object Exchange session protocol enables exchange of data objects and supports dialogue between two devices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality similar to HTTP. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to allow devices to discover what services each other support, and what parameters to use to connect to them. </li></ul></ul>