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Bluetooth

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A detailed presentation about Bluetooth

A detailed presentation about Bluetooth

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  • 1. Bluetooth
  • 2. By. P. Victer Paul Dear, We planned to share our eBooks and project/seminar contents for free to all needed friends like u.. To get to know about more free computerscience ebooks and technology advancements in computer science. Please visit.... http://free-computerscience-ebooks.blogspot.com/ http://recent-computer-technology.blogspot.com/ http://computertechnologiesebooks.blogspot.com/ Please to keep provide many eBooks and technology news for FREE. Encourage us by Clicking on the advertisement in these Blog.
  • 3. Introduction
    • Aims at so-called ad hoc piconets which are local area networks with a very limited coverage and without the need for an infrastructure.
    • Designed to be used to connect both mobile devices and peripherals that currently require a wire
  • 4.
    • “ USB without wires”
    • Short range wireless radio technology
    • - operate range of 10 meters
    • - RF is centered at 2.45 GHz (RF Channels:2420+k MHz, k=0..78)
    • - Frequency hopping is used to combat interference in wireless environment
    • - TDD for full duplex communications
  • 5.
    • Sleeping power – 30 Microamps
    • Transmission power- 800 Microamps
    • Standby mode-300 Microamps
    • Data rate 721Kbps
    • Price is less.
    • Operates on circuit and packet switching modes
    • Provides both asynchronous and synchronous
    • data services.
  • 6.
    • Faster than cellular data(9.6 to 14.4 Kbps)
    • Compared to wired and wireless LAN(10 Mbps) Bluetooth is slower.
    • Bluetooth can
      • Recognise bluetooth device in radio range
      • Permit easy connection of devices
      • Be aware of device types
      • Support service discovery
  • 7. Advantages
    • Wireless (No Cables)
    • No Setup Needed
    • Low Power Consumption (1 Milliwat)
    • Industry Wide Support
  • 8. Disadvantages
    • Short range (10 meters)
    • Small throughput rates
    • - Data Rate 1.0 Mbps
    • Mostly for personal use (PANs)
    • Fairly Expensive
  • 9. Who Started B luetooth?
    • Ericsson Mobile Communication
    • Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG)
    • -5 founding members
    • -Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Intel & Toshiba
    • Promoter’s Group
    • - 3COM, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola
    • Now over 1900 members
  • 10. B luetooth Devices
    • Bluetooth will soon be enabled in everything from:
    • Telephones
    • Headsets
    • Computers
    • Cameras
    • PDAs
    • Cars
    • Etc …
  • 11. How Does It Work?
    • Bluetooth is a standard for tiny, radio frequency chips that can be plugged into your devices
    • These chips were designed to take all of the information that your wires normally send, and transmit it at a special frequency to something called a receiver Bluetooth chip.
  • 12. B luetooth Specifications
    • Each channel is divided into time slots 625 microseconds long
    • Packets can be up to five time slots wide
    • Data in a packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length
  • 13. B luetooth Frequency
    • Has been set aside by the ISM for exclusive use of Bluetooth wireless products
  • 14. IrDA
    • Transmission rate 115kbits/s
    • Limited range(2 m)
    • Line of sight between interfaces
    • Limitation of only two participants(P2P)
    • No internet working, media access, communication mechanisms
    • Adv is low cost
    • Found in laptops, PDA, cellular phones
  • 15. What is the range? Bluetooth
    • Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet
    • Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices – have a range of 10 meters or 30 feet
    • Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet
  • 16. Power requirements
    • The most commonly used radio is Class 2
    • and uses 2.5 mW of power.
    • Bluetooth technology is designed to have
    • very low power consumption.
  • 17. Speed
    • 1 Mbps for Version 1.2
    • Up to 3 Mbps supported for Version 2.0
  • 18. Bluetooth Headphones
  • 19. Bluetooth Car Adapter
  • 20. Bluetooth Medical Devices
  • 21. Applications
    • Connection of peripheral devices
    • Support adhoc networking
    • Bridging networks
    • Goal
    • Local Wireless access at low costs
    • Comparison with WLAN adapters- designed for higher bandwidth and large range. More expensive.
  • 22. Bluetooth characteristics
    • Radio spectrum
    • 􀂃 Unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM( Industrial Scientific Medical band) frequency band, 79 channels (2400-2483.5 MHz in most countries), 1 MHz carrier spacing
    • Radio layer
    • 􀂃 Transmit power (1-100mW); typical range: 10-100 m without obstacles
    • Interferences from:
      • Other radio frequency short-range techniques
      • Wireless local area networks (IEEE 802.11)
      • Random noise generators (microwave ovens)
      • Other Bluetooth units
  • 23. Bluetooth characteristics
    • Capacity
    • 􀂃 1 Mbps per channel
    • 􀂃 Theoretical capacity of 79 Mbps cannot be reached due to non-orthogonal hopping sequences
    • Link types
    • 􀂃 Synchronous connection-oriented link (SCO)
    • 􀂃 Asynchronous connectionless link (ACL)
    • Topology and medium access control
    • 􀂃 Master-slave architecture
  • 24.
    • 2 types of physical links are defined:
    • SCO (Synchronous Connection-Oriented)
    • ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less)
    • The SCO link is point-to-point between master and slave. The master maintains the link by using reserved timeslots at regular intervals. Packet retransmissions are not allowed.
    • ACL provides packet-switched connections between the master and all active slaves. Packet retransmissions are usually applied to assure data integrity.
  • 25.
    • Techniques to minimize packet loss:
      • Frequency Hopping
      • Adaptive power control
      • Short data packets
  • 26. Frequency Hopping
    • Uses FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)
      • Divides the ISM-band into 79 1-Mhz channels.
      • Communication between devices switches between available channels.
  • 27. Avoiding Interference : Hopping
    • Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping.
    • In this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range
    • Transmitters change frequency 1600 times a second
  • 28. Frequency Hopping (cont.)
  • 29. Power states
  • 30. Bluetooth: power management modes
    • Stand-by (SB) or idle
    • Devices not connected in a piconet
    • Extremely low duty cycle (less than one percent): scan for 10 ms every
    • 1.28-3.84 seconds
    • Parked (P)
    • Devices are part of a piconet, but not active
    • low power mode
    • Assigned an 8-bit parked member address (PMA) and loses is active member address (AMA).
    • Hold (H)
    • Similar to parked mode, but devices keep AMA address
    • resume sending at once after transition out of HOLD state
    • Sniff (Sn)
    • Used only by slave devices for power conservation
    • Device is active, but listens to channel at a reduced rate. Not on every slot
  • 31. Topology-Piconet
  • 32. Bluetooth: scatternet
  • 33. Protocol stack
  • 34.
    • Radio : handles bits of informaiton and presents them in suitable form for radio transmission. This involves coding/decoding and modulation and demodulation.
    • Base band /link control : supports link establishment and provides link control ( addressing, packet format, timing and power control)
  • 35.
    • Link management (LM): controls and configures links to other bluetooth devices.
    • Includes security concepts such as authentication and encryption.
    • Responsible for attaching SLAVES to piconet and allocating their AMA.
    • Establishes ACL data and SCO voice links and is capable of putting connections in low power modes.
  • 36.
    • Host controller interface (HCI): Provided to ease the partition of the Bluetooth Stack across two processors.
    • Some systems will implement the baseband and link manager on the Bluetooth device and higher levels on the host processor.
    • The HCI is provided as an interface between these parts.
  • 37.
    • Logical Link Control and Adaption (L2CAP):
    • Deals with
      • multiplexing of different services
      • segmentation
      • reassembling of packets
      • Quality of Service
  • 38.
    • RFCOMM: Radio frequency communications (RFCOMM) is the cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial data stream.
    • Enables the replacement of serial port cables with minimum of modification of existing devices.
  • 39.
    • WAP: can also be supported over bluetooth platform.
      • WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services
    • Telephony control protocol-binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices (setup,release).
    • OBEX: Object Exchange session protocol enables exchange of data objects and supports dialogue between two devices.
      • Functionality similar to HTTP.
  • 40.
    • SDP (Service Discovery Protocol)
      • Used to allow devices to discover what services each other support, and what parameters to use to connect to them.