Bluetooth

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A detailed presentation about Bluetooth

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Bluetooth

  1. 1. Bluetooth
  2. 2. By. P. Victer Paul Dear, We planned to share our eBooks and project/seminar contents for free to all needed friends like u.. To get to know about more free computerscience ebooks and technology advancements in computer science. Please visit.... http://free-computerscience-ebooks.blogspot.com/ http://recent-computer-technology.blogspot.com/ http://computertechnologiesebooks.blogspot.com/ Please to keep provide many eBooks and technology news for FREE. Encourage us by Clicking on the advertisement in these Blog.
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Aims at so-called ad hoc piconets which are local area networks with a very limited coverage and without the need for an infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be used to connect both mobile devices and peripherals that currently require a wire </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ USB without wires” </li></ul><ul><li>Short range wireless radio technology </li></ul><ul><li>- operate range of 10 meters </li></ul><ul><li>- RF is centered at 2.45 GHz (RF Channels:2420+k MHz, k=0..78) </li></ul><ul><li>- Frequency hopping is used to combat interference in wireless environment </li></ul><ul><li>- TDD for full duplex communications </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sleeping power – 30 Microamps </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission power- 800 Microamps </li></ul><ul><li>Standby mode-300 Microamps </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate 721Kbps </li></ul><ul><li>Price is less. </li></ul><ul><li>Operates on circuit and packet switching modes </li></ul><ul><li>Provides both asynchronous and synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>data services. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Faster than cellular data(9.6 to 14.4 Kbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to wired and wireless LAN(10 Mbps) Bluetooth is slower. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognise bluetooth device in radio range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit easy connection of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of device types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support service discovery </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Advantages <ul><li>Wireless (No Cables) </li></ul><ul><li>No Setup Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Low Power Consumption (1 Milliwat) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Wide Support </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disadvantages <ul><li>Short range (10 meters) </li></ul><ul><li>Small throughput rates </li></ul><ul><li>- Data Rate 1.0 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly for personal use (PANs) </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly Expensive </li></ul>
  9. 9. Who Started B luetooth? <ul><li>Ericsson Mobile Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) </li></ul><ul><li>-5 founding members </li></ul><ul><li>-Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Intel & Toshiba </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter’s Group </li></ul><ul><li>- 3COM, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola </li></ul><ul><li>Now over 1900 members </li></ul>
  10. 10. B luetooth Devices <ul><li>Bluetooth will soon be enabled in everything from: </li></ul><ul><li>Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Headsets </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Etc … </li></ul>
  11. 11. How Does It Work? <ul><li>Bluetooth is a standard for tiny, radio frequency chips that can be plugged into your devices </li></ul><ul><li>These chips were designed to take all of the information that your wires normally send, and transmit it at a special frequency to something called a receiver Bluetooth chip. </li></ul>
  12. 12. B luetooth Specifications <ul><li>Each channel is divided into time slots 625 microseconds long </li></ul><ul><li>Packets can be up to five time slots wide </li></ul><ul><li>Data in a packet can be up to 2,745 bits in length </li></ul>
  13. 13. B luetooth Frequency <ul><li>Has been set aside by the ISM for exclusive use of Bluetooth wireless products </li></ul>
  14. 14. IrDA <ul><li>Transmission rate 115kbits/s </li></ul><ul><li>Limited range(2 m) </li></ul><ul><li>Line of sight between interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation of only two participants(P2P) </li></ul><ul><li>No internet working, media access, communication mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Adv is low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Found in laptops, PDA, cellular phones </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is the range? Bluetooth <ul><li>Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices – have a range of 10 meters or 30 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet </li></ul>
  16. 16. Power requirements <ul><li>The most commonly used radio is Class 2 </li></ul><ul><li>and uses 2.5 mW of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth technology is designed to have </li></ul><ul><li>very low power consumption. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Speed <ul><li>1 Mbps for Version 1.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 3 Mbps supported for Version 2.0 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bluetooth Headphones
  19. 19. Bluetooth Car Adapter
  20. 20. Bluetooth Medical Devices
  21. 21. Applications <ul><li>Connection of peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>Support adhoc networking </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging networks </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Local Wireless access at low costs </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with WLAN adapters- designed for higher bandwidth and large range. More expensive. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bluetooth characteristics <ul><li>Radio spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM( Industrial Scientific Medical band) frequency band, 79 channels (2400-2483.5 MHz in most countries), 1 MHz carrier spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Radio layer </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Transmit power (1-100mW); typical range: 10-100 m without obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>Interferences from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other radio frequency short-range techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless local area networks (IEEE 802.11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random noise generators (microwave ovens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Bluetooth units </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Bluetooth characteristics <ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 1 Mbps per channel </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Theoretical capacity of 79 Mbps cannot be reached due to non-orthogonal hopping sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Link types </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Synchronous connection-oriented link (SCO) </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Asynchronous connectionless link (ACL) </li></ul><ul><li>Topology and medium access control </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Master-slave architecture </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>2 types of physical links are defined: </li></ul><ul><li>SCO (Synchronous Connection-Oriented) </li></ul><ul><li>ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less) </li></ul><ul><li>The SCO link is point-to-point between master and slave. The master maintains the link by using reserved timeslots at regular intervals. Packet retransmissions are not allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>ACL provides packet-switched connections between the master and all active slaves. Packet retransmissions are usually applied to assure data integrity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Techniques to minimize packet loss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Hopping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive power control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short data packets </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Frequency Hopping <ul><li>Uses FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides the ISM-band into 79 1-Mhz channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication between devices switches between available channels. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Avoiding Interference : Hopping <ul><li>Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping. </li></ul><ul><li>In this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitters change frequency 1600 times a second </li></ul>
  28. 28. Frequency Hopping (cont.)
  29. 29. Power states
  30. 30. Bluetooth: power management modes <ul><li>Stand-by (SB) or idle </li></ul><ul><li>Devices not connected in a piconet </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely low duty cycle (less than one percent): scan for 10 ms every </li></ul><ul><li>1.28-3.84 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Parked (P) </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are part of a piconet, but not active </li></ul><ul><li>low power mode </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned an 8-bit parked member address (PMA) and loses is active member address (AMA). </li></ul><ul><li>Hold (H) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to parked mode, but devices keep AMA address </li></ul><ul><li>resume sending at once after transition out of HOLD state </li></ul><ul><li>Sniff (Sn) </li></ul><ul><li>Used only by slave devices for power conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Device is active, but listens to channel at a reduced rate. Not on every slot </li></ul>
  31. 31. Topology-Piconet
  32. 32. Bluetooth: scatternet
  33. 33. Protocol stack
  34. 34. <ul><li>Radio : handles bits of informaiton and presents them in suitable form for radio transmission. This involves coding/decoding and modulation and demodulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Base band /link control : supports link establishment and provides link control ( addressing, packet format, timing and power control) </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Link management (LM): controls and configures links to other bluetooth devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes security concepts such as authentication and encryption. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for attaching SLAVES to piconet and allocating their AMA. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes ACL data and SCO voice links and is capable of putting connections in low power modes. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Host controller interface (HCI): Provided to ease the partition of the Bluetooth Stack across two processors. </li></ul><ul><li>Some systems will implement the baseband and link manager on the Bluetooth device and higher levels on the host processor. </li></ul><ul><li>The HCI is provided as an interface between these parts. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Logical Link Control and Adaption (L2CAP): </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiplexing of different services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reassembling of packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of Service </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>RFCOMM: Radio frequency communications (RFCOMM) is the cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial data stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables the replacement of serial port cables with minimum of modification of existing devices. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>WAP: can also be supported over bluetooth platform. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephony control protocol-binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices (setup,release). </li></ul><ul><li>OBEX: Object Exchange session protocol enables exchange of data objects and supports dialogue between two devices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality similar to HTTP. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to allow devices to discover what services each other support, and what parameters to use to connect to them. </li></ul></ul>

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