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Mobile computingMobile Computing VisionDifferences between Ubiquitous & SentientPervasive computing, Context-AwareContext Aware computing & applicationsChallenges of context aware computingUbiquitous computing CDAC’s worksSentient computingWireless Body area networksSmart dust
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Mobile Computing Vision1. Universal connectivity – anywhere, anytime2. Accommodate heterogeneity of networks and communicators3. Ubiquitous intelligent environment –embedded computers everywhere4. Easy user interaction5. Context independent access to services + context dependent information
Differences between ubiquitous and sentient Ubiquitous computing Sentient computingComputing devices everywhere Ubiquitous computing made context awareAccess to applications any where Physical context used for automatic controlWhat ever on hand is available Sensors and space are part of computing systemPervasive as more technology-drivenubiquitous computing is more user- and application driven
Pervasive Computing Computers everywhere embedded intofridges,washing machines, door locks, cars, furniture, people.Intelligent environmentMobile portable computing devicesWireless communicationUser ViewInvisible – implicit interaction with your environment
Context-aware computing is a mobile computing paradigm inwhich applications can discover and take advantage of contextualinformation like Computing context: Network connectivity, communication costs communication B/wSpatial: The user’s location, the environment, orientation, speedTemporal: Date, Time of day, seasonEnvironmental: temperature, light, noiseSocial: people in the user’s environment, activity, calendarResources: Nearby, availabilityPhysiological: Blood pressure, heart rate, tone of voice, the user’s emotional state, focus of attention, user preferences, patterns
Traditional View of Computer Systems Context independent: acts exactly the same input Computer System output Human in the loop
Context as Implicit Input/Outputexplicit Context-Aware explicitinput System output Context: • state of the user • state of the physical environment • state of the computing system • history of user-computer interaction
Why Context-Aware Computing?PotentialExamplesExisting Examples Context Types Human Concern Auto Cell PhoneAuto Lights On / Off Activity Convenience Off In Meetings Identity Time File Systems Tag Photos Activity Finding Info LocationCalendar RemindersProximal Proximity Identity Memory Activity Smoke Alarm Health Alert Identity & Time Safety History Service Fleet … Barcode Scanners Time Efficiency Dispatching
A Rough Taxonomy of Context-Aware Apps• Input specification – Send mail only to people in building now – Print to nearest printer – Find gas stations nearest to me• Presentation of plain contexts – Current location – Idle? – Currently in? – Contextual info about objects – Proximate selection
Active Badges • Badges emit infrared signals – Gives rough location + ID • Teleport – Redirect screen output from "home" computer to nearby computer • Phone forwarding – Automatically forward phone callsActive Badge to nearest phone
ParcTabs • Active badge + wireless – Rough location + ID – Showing information of the room the user in – Help find resources – Show all files in a directory when enter a room – Locate others – Different control choices inParcTabs different rooms (location, time, nearby devices, file system state)
StartleCam• From MIT Media Lab• Composed with – Wearable video camera – Computer – sensing system• Save Image when the wearer is interested – By sensing skin conductivity signal Startle Cam System
Challenges of context aware computing• Mobility results in continuous updates of context information. How can we efficiently manage this?• How can we share context?• How do we handle uncertainty of context information?• How do we ensure privacy control and management of context information?• How do we reach a common understanding of implications of (shared) context information?• Resource restrictions
Ubiquitous computing for community care Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) integrates computation intothe environment, rather than having computers which aredistinct objectsApplications:1.Automated monitoring Implanted devices, Smart clothing, Swallow/inject intelligent (sensors and actuators)2.Accident and emergency support3.Patient record access and integration4. Traffic management systems
Colligation to UbiComp and Pervasive UbiComp ApplicationsTECHNOLOGY DRIVEN CONCEPT DRIVEN Touch Screen, Displays, Keypads WSN, BTL, GPS, RFID AVR, ARM,Smart Phones, TinyOS,Mobile Phones, Embedded Symbian, Linux WinCE Bluetooth, WiFi, 802.15.4, IrDA, GSM, GPRS, CDMA
UbiComp ApplicationsU-Sikshak: Learning application utilizing GrUb ComputingIntelligent RoomHealth ApplicationIntelligent Intrusion Detection System (In2DS)Smart Parking (SPark) UbiComp System ComponentsUbiComp in Agriculture (U-Agri) •U-Visvaas: Security Framework for UbiComp •UbiComp Semantic Space •Context Aware ToolkitUbiComp Hardware Development •Adaptive Framework for WSN Applications•Sensor Node Hardware •Zigbee Stack•UWB and 802.15.4 MAC IP Core•SoC (ARM, 802.15.4/UWB) C-DAC’s contributions to DIT’s UbiComp InitiativeTangible Transit Clientele Service Storage Space Coordinator Devices Provider Grid
Os , languages and technologies for establishment of ubiquitous environmentTinyOS NesCGNU Linux PerlSymbian PythonWindows CE JavaUML J2MEQT XMLLAMPEclipse C, C++ PDA Mobile Phones Laptops Workstations Motes RFID Gateways Access Points Bluetooth Kits WiFi Kits Displays
Sentient building demo: coffee room• Event definition: • Select PersonID from KitchenEvent where CoffeeLevel = ‘EMPTY’ and PotInPlace = TRUE and BurnerStatue = ‘ON’• Network model and query plan
Smart Dust Autonomous sensing and communication ina cubic millimetre Sensors fortemperature, humidity, light, motionTypical ApplicationsDefence related battlefield sensors, motion detectors etc.Inventory control on boxes which communicate with crates,trucks, plane etc to tell you where they areProduct quality monitoring– vibration, humidity, overheatingCar component monitoring
Future Smart Dust1. Intelligent paper with integrated radio replace current displays2. Smart paint monitors vibrations and detect intruders or changes colour to react to temperature, lighting etc.3. Intelligent glass can filter sunlight, become opaque no need for curtains4. Smart garments or injectable sensors for people monitoring5. Download design and printable motes for < 1c mote
Intelligent Environment1. Lights, air conditioning, TV automatically switch on and off when you enter or leave rooms2. Sit on your favourite chair and TV switches on to the program you usually watch at this time of the day3. Use communicator/pda for phone, remote control, keys payments, passport, health records, authenticator.4. Route input from ‘virtual’ keyboard to nearest suitable display.5. Automatic detection of new items to control and physical layout in a room or office, using computer vision.