Rwh And Ecosystems Unep
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Regional Conference for Southeast Asia on Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM: An ExChange of

Regional Conference for Southeast Asia on Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM: An ExChange of

Policies and Learnings

November 25-26, 2008
Davao City

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Rwh And Ecosystems Unep Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Rainwater Harvesting and Ecosystems Elizabeth Khaka UNEP / Division of Environmental Policy Implementation Regional Conference for Southeast Asia on Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM: An Exchange of Practices and Learning 25-26 November, 2008
  • 2. Flow
    • Introduction
    • Ecosystems services
    • Contribution of ecosystems
    • Ecosystems degradation
    • RWH and ecosystems
    • UNEP ecosystems and RWH initiative
  • 3. Introduction
    • Definition
    • ecosystem- ‘a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit. Humans are an integral part of ecosystems’. CBD
  • 4. Introduction
    • Ecosystems major source of livelihood to billions
    • Dependency high in developing countries
  • 5. Ecosystems S ervices
  • 6. Provisioning Recreation Regulating
  • 7. Contribution of ecosystems
    • Flood prevention
      • US$350 billion at 1994
    • Recreational value
      • US$304 billion
    • Reef habitats
      • US$375 billion
    • Fisheries contributes 16-90% of global protein
  • 8. Contribution of ecosystems
    • Malaysia mangrove s
      • US$ 35 million a year
    • Thailand coastal protection
      • US$ 165 million
    • Indonesia mangroves
      • US$ 86 million
  • 9. Ecosystems degradation
    • 60% of ecosystem services (the benefits people obtain from ecosystems) were heavily degraded over the last 50 years
    • (the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment)
    • Especially aquatic ecosystems are declining more rapidly than other ecosystems
  • 10. Framework
    • Ecosystem Services
    • Provisioning
    • (e.g., food, water and fiber)
    • Regulating
    • (e.g., climate regulation and water)
    • Cultural
    • (e.g., spiritual and aesthetic)
    • Supporting
    • (e.g., soil formation)
    • Human Well-being
    • Basic material for a good life
    • Health
    • Good Social Relations
    • Security
    • Freedom of choice and action
    • Direct Drivers of Change
    • Changes in land use
    • Species introduction or removal
    • Technology adaptation and use
    • External inputs (e.g., irrigation)
    • Resource consumption
    • Climate change
    • Natural physical and biological
    • drivers (e.g., volcanoes)
    • Ind irect Drivers of Change
    • Demographic
    • Economic (globalization, trade,
    • market and policy framework)
    • Sociopolitical (governance and
    • institutional framework)
    • Science and Technology
    • Cultural and Religious
  • 11. Drivers of Ecosystem Degradation
    • Climate Change
      • Desertification
      • Frequent Droughts
      • and Floods
    • Over-exploitation
      • Groundwater
      • Surface water
    • Pollution
    • Habitat Change
      • Urbanization
      • Soil Erosion
      • Large Dams
    Direct Drivers Indirect Drivers
    • Economic Drivers
      • Poverty
    • Sociopolitical Drivers
      • Insensibility of Water Resource Limitation
      • Centralization of Water Supply
  • 12. Climate Change
    • Desertification
    • Maintaining flora-trees grass
    • Frequent Droughts and Floods
    • Mitigate floods -detaining
    • Drought-detain flood water
  • 13. Over-exploitation
    • Improve storage
    • Groundwater recharge
    • Individual and community structures
    • Soil
    • Reduce over exploitation
    • Irrigation
    • Household
    • Industrial
  • 14. Pollution
    • Pollutant Discharges
    • Retaining and detaining urban runoff -reduces the potential for pollutant discharges from overflow
    • Controlling non-point source of pollution is an important broader strategy for the protection of surface water quality in urban areas.
  • 15. Habitat Change
    • Urbanization
    • Prevents unban floods
    • Groundwater recharge
    • Soil Erosion
    • Reduce runoff
    • Trees- vegetation
    • Large Dams
    • Reduce reliance on water storage dams can be reduced
  • 16. Economic Drivers
    • Poverty
    • Improve production –agriculture
    • Catalyst for development
    • Improve access to water and sanitation
    • Reduce time for fetching water-girl child and school
    • Water for sanitation
  • 17. RWH for Ecosystem Services Provisioning Services Fresh Water Food Timber RWH
  • 18. RWH for Ecosystem Services Water Regulation Erosion Regulation Natural Hazard Regulation Water Purification Regulating Services RWH
  • 19. RWH for Ecosystem Services Water Cycling Supporting Services RWH
  • 20. Conclusions and Recommendations
    • Contributes to ecosystems rehabilitation -addresses drivers of ecosystem degradation
    • Plays an important role in ecosystems and human well being
    • Link with ecosystems important to avoid over-abstraction
    • Plan RWH in IWRM.
    • Awareness creation
  • 21. UNEP P ublication on RWH & ecosyst e m s
    • Introduction and background
    • 1a) Introduction, scope
    • 1b) Background: rainwater harvesting the concept
    • 1c) Ecosystems framework and human wellbeing
    • RWH and catchment /watershed management
    • 2 a). RWH and surface water
    • 2 b). RWH and ground water recharge
    • RWH and agriculture
    • 3 a). RWH and crop production
    • 3 b). RWH and livestock production
    • 3 c). RWH and cash crop production (non food production)
  • 22. UNEP P ublication on RWH & ecosyst e m s
    • RWH and forestry
    • 4 a). RWH and forests (incl. aspects on natural and plantation)
    • 4 b). RWH and agroforestry
    • RWH for water supply in rural and urban areas
    • 5 a) RWH and domestic water supply in rural urban context
    • 5 b) RWH and industry
    • RWH in the future
    • 7 a) climate change and adaptation: the role of RWH
    • 7 b) global drivers of change/ ecosystems degradation & water stress
    • Conclusions and recommendations
    • 8 a) Synthesis and discussions
    • 8 b) Policy implications: gaps and pot. ways ahead
  • 23. Thank You