Target language community English for a specific purpose (ESP) Business English English for academic purposes (EAP) General English
English as a foreing language (EFL) English as a second language (ESL) English for speakers of other languages (ESOL)
By default Information technology (IT) Private session: one to one teaching Pairwork and groupwork In-school and in-company Real learning environment Virtual learning environment
AGE Children:2 to 14 Young learners: 5 to 9 Very young learners: 2 to 5 Adolescents: 12 to 17 (physical and emotional changes) Young adults: 16 to 20
Seeing, hearing and touching Individual attention Teacher’s approval Activities focus on their lives and experiences ATTENTION SPAM Hability to become competent speakers with enough exposure Learning has to be through games, puzzles, songs (camouflage the learning)
Greater capacity for abstract thought Enormous potential for creative thought Passionate commitment to things which interest them Search for identity and self-esteem Peer vs teacher’s approval Teachers fear to loose control
Wider range of life experience Have a clear understanding of the reason they are learning Disciplined They can be disruptive, exhausting or disagree vocally, arrive late and fail to do the homework.
The neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Visual, auditory, kinaesthetic Multiple intelligences: mathematical, musical, interpersonal, spatial, emotional, etc.
The Council of Europe and the Association of Language Testers of Europe (ALTE) categorization: Beginner and false beginner Intermediate: elementary, pre-intermediate, intermediate and upper intermediate. Advanced
A1: can complete basic forms and write notes including times, dates and places A2: can complete forms and write short simple letters or postcards related to personal information.
B1: can write letters or make notes on familiar or predictable matters. B2: can make notes while someone is talking or write a letter including non-standard questions.
C1: can prepare/draft professional correspondence, take reasonably accurate notes in meetings or write an essay which shows an ability to communicate. C2: can write letters on any subject and full notes of meetings or seminars with good expession or accuracy.
Beginners: success is easy to see. (drills, elicit the language) Intermediate: success is less obvious. (plateau effect) Advanced: students already know, so there’s risk of the plateau effect. Focus on appropriacy, connotation and inferences. (discursive essay)
Learning by rote: memorizing facts and figures. Multilingual classes: classes with students of different mother tongues.
The desire to learn. Intrinsic: within each individual or classroom Instrumental: as a mean to get something Extrinsic: students bring it from outside Sustaining: maintaining the attention, agency (taking responsibility, doers) Challenge: level Affect: how the students feel about learning
Learners autonomy Gradually extend the student’s role in learning Writing exercises, compositions, further study. Encourage students to use monolingual dictionaries Use bilingual dictionaries at early stages of learning. Self-access centre: resources comprising books.