REASONS FOR LEARNING It is on the curriculum. Target-language community Specific purpose (ESP) Business English Academic purposes (EAP) General English
DIFFERENT CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING As a foreign language (EFL) for traveling As a second language (ESL) living in the target community Speakers of other languages (ESOL) for international communication, net
…schools and language schools Schools as part of the curriculum. Equipment and information technology (IT). Private language schools. Better equipped, smaller groups, student’s choice (motivation).
…large classes vs one-to-one teaching One-to-one teaching. Specific needs Pairwork and groupwork. Large classes Teacher position
…in school and in company School policy, syllabus and curriculum decisions by responsible administrators. Expert teachers going to companies. Teacher negotiate class content.
…real and virtual learning REAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
LEARNER DIFFERENCES Age Children 2 to 14 Very young 2 to 5 Young learners 5 to 9 Adolescents 12 to 17 Young adults 16 to 20
CHILDREN Children seeing, hearing, touching. pleased to receive teacher’s approval. Short attention spam
ADOLESCENTS Teachers fear to lose control of the class if they don’t like the subject, each other, the teacher or personal issues . Adolescents Greater capacity for abstract thought Potential for creative thought Commitment to their interests Search for identity and self-esteem
ADULTS Wider range of experiences More disciplined Apply themselves to the task of learning Have a clear understanding of the purpose Motivation to long-term learning goals May hamper their progress, nervousness May be late and fail homework Can be disruptive and exhausting If failed, may be prepared for more. May find classrooms daunting places May have strong views about teaching methods PROS CONS
WAYS TO TEACH STUDENTS Children: offer a greater variety of games, songs and puzzles. Changing activities constantly. Adolescents: keep in mind the importance of a student’s place within peers. Special care when correcting or assigning roles within an activity. Choice of topics reflecting their interests. Adults: Focus attention on the topic, prevent problem behavior and respond appropriately if it occurs.
LEARNING STYLES The Neuro-Linguistic Programming model (NLP) influence by visual, auditory or kinesthetic stimuli. Multiple intelligences: mathematical, musical, interpersonal, spatial, emotional, etc. Offer a wide range of different activity types in the lessons in order to provide options for individual differences and needs.
LEVELS Beginner: don’t know any English. False beginner: actually knows quite a lot. Activation. Elementary: able to communicate in a basic way. Pre-intermediate: have not yet achieved intermediate competence. Intermediate: basic competence in speaking, writing, fairly comprehend listening and reading. Upper-intermediate extended knowledge of grammatical construction and skill use. Advanced : competent level of English. Unsimplified factual and fictional texts and communicate fluently.
ALTE Association of Language Testers of Europe Common European Framework -students ‘can do’ levels ranging A1: beginners and false beginners A2: elementary B1: pre-intermediate B2: intermediate C1: upper intermediate C2: advanced
…learners differences Beginners: success or failure is easy to see. Intermediate: success is less obvious.
Plateau effect: apparent lack of improvement.
Advanced: still danger of the plateau effect. Concentrate on style and perceptions, appropriacy, connotation (implying), inferences. Discursive essays…
EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND Educational: family support Cultural Learning by rote Learning by doing Mother tongue Multilingual classes Teachers need to be sensitive and explain what and why things are done in class. Offer a variety of techniques.
MOTIVATION Extrinsic Intrinsic Sustaining – challenge Appropriate level of challenge Consider the affect – show caring Agency – delegate responsibility
RESPONSIBILITY FOR LEARNING Learner autonomy Using dictionary Monolingual learner’s dictionar Self access centre Resources comprising books, videos, listening, etc.