There and Back Again: Design Industry to a Design PhD

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Why give up a good job in the design industry to do a PhD in it? What is a PhD in design anyway? In this talk for the May Design Interest event in Newcastle I discussed what it's like (with a bit of …

Why give up a good job in the design industry to do a PhD in it? What is a PhD in design anyway? In this talk for the May Design Interest event in Newcastle I discussed what it's like (with a bit of background) and some pros and cons.

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  • 1. There & Back Again Academia/Design/Academia…. Vicky Teinaki Design Interest May 2012
  • 2. AcademiaIndustry
  • 3. Academia BProdDes MDesIndustry gap
  • 4. BProdDes + MDes: Unitec “used to be a mental institution, AWESOME!”Image
  • 5. How the st The stones come in a set of eight: d has twelve coloured buttons labelled note scale e.g. red = C. Pressing any stone change All other buttons are wirelessly alter (e.g. if yellow/E is selected on the m major). Touching any of the three so make it sound the assigned C Choosing any of the Using the C#/Db coloured buttons (representing the stones D do ti 12 note scale) while holding down the la select button ... sol D#/Eb fa mi re do ston do E up in colou F B Start by pressing the silver F#/Gb select button on any of the A#/Bb stones. G A C G#/Ab do ti la sol ...makes the fa stone light mi re do up in that do colour... Making sounds Change do ti key la do sol fa ti la mi re mi sol fa High octave (high C) mi re do do Mid octave do (mid C) ti la sol Major or fa mi fa minor re To make a sound, do press any of the three lit up areas on each of the stones. They Key play the same note at Low octave different octaves mi do a (low C) options Playing la sol ti do do ti la sol do do re mi fa re fa mi mi la ti twinkle tunes ti do re sol la do fa sol mi fa re fa mi re do do do do ti la l so do do sol sol la la sol fa s fa mi Twin-kle twin-kle lit-tle star Playing a tune mi re m d la ti do 2 do fa fa mi mi re re do consists of deducing sol do ti la l How I won-der what you are the melodic shape, so fa so l do mi re 3 sol sol fa fa mi mi re setting a key and ti do la sol fa la Up a-bove the world so high mi sounding the notes. do ti re do la sol sol sol fa fa mi mi re Tunes can be mi re fa ti Like a dia-mond in the sky do 4 do learned either from do ti la sol fa do do sol sol la la sol mi re do written material or 5 Twin-kle twin-kle lit-tle star by recognising the 1 7 6 fa fa mi mi re re do melodic shape by How I won-der what you are Learning to play Twinkle Twinkle Little Star ear. The use of speci!c colours for different notes mean that they can be referenced to teach scales. A coloured C# D# F# G# A# C# D# F# G# A# Db Eb Gb Ab Bb Db Eb Gb Ab Bb xylophone with the equivalent colours would be an appropriate accessory. C D E F G A B C D E F G A BSinging Stones  Aiming to find an intuitive way for people to create music, Singing StonesBachelor of Product Design Final Year Thesis Project combine Hungarian composer Zoltaire Kodaly’s moveable-do scale and colour-Bronze Award  BEST Awards sound synaesthesia in an electronic product for one or many players. The product was presented both as a non-functioning hard model and an interactive Flash demo (see interactive section).
  • 6. “Talk to undergrads like they’re grads; talk tograds like they’re undergrads.”“This is the best trick I’ve learned in 11 years of teaching. Undergraduates have youth,fearlessness, and great tolerance for being pushed around. What they don’t have is people talkingto them like they matter. They are used to being talked to like children by people of authority(high school didn’t help), and will be stunned when you address them like real designers whohave ideas of worth.“Graduate students have wisdom, life experience, and a desire to actually be in school. Butgraduate students also are old enough to know that ideas have consequences, and as a resultthey run, basically, on fear. They have refrains like “I didn’t think that idea would be any good, soI didn’t mock it up,” or “I wasn’t sure what to build, so I read these books.”“Treat the undergrads like they’re grown-ups (which they are); show them crazy respect, andask their opinions all the time. Tell your graduate students to stop talking and start building; tellthem not to come to class next week if they don’t bring in 12 sketches. And then thank your luckystars when they arrive with 3. “Allan Chocinov, Core77
  • 7. Academia BProdDes MDesIndustry gap interaction design
  • 8. BProdDes MDes PhD (in progress)AcademiaIndustry [gap] Interaction design
  • 9. PhD: Northumbria “Jonathan Ive studied here, b*tches!” University
  • 10. What is a PhD?Especially a design PhD?
  • 11. “The submission is the culmination of theStudent’s work. It is their own achievementand (for doctoral students) their own originalcontribution to knowledge. A sense ofownership gradually emerges (for the Student)over the duration of the research programme;the Student acknowledges this when theyeventually claim copyright of the thesis, andthis ownership is also asserted through theformal declaration in the submission.”SUBMITTING FOR EXAMINATION: GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH DEGREE STUDENTS ANDSUPERVISORS: Northumbria University
  • 12. Not all PhDs are the same ….UK PhDs 3 years min (full-time), a projectUS PhDs 1 year coursework, then thesis (3+ years)Scandinavian PhDs up to 5 years (studentships usually include a teaching component) (and then there are DPhils—Professional Doctorates….)
  • 13. The Timeline of Death…. PhD Timeline — Vicky Teinaki 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Stagegates IPA Year 2 Writeup Viva Literature Review Parallel Fields Existing Languages Use of Touch in Design Pilot Studies Revea/expert interviewsDesign Probes/Languages Identify /pilot methodologies Writeup of methodology Collate proposed vocabulary Data collectionWorkshops with designers Situate in design process Valorising proposed frameworks Writeup here there be dragons
  • 14. iNTerViewS LiTeraTUre: FUTUre wOrK The current apprenticeship system of l rep res enta tion 10 students Worth Mapping a sp atia COCKTOn (2010) design could be improved …… ….t o ID OBJECT(S) MATERIALS nOTED QuALITIES RELATE TO ExPERIEnCES n Lampshade Concrete, copper, brass E.g. SOnnnEvELD (2004), AnD vALuE l…… Tape Dispenser Concrete, copper, brass JACuCCI & WAgnER, (2007) ode to am L Rings Coloured copper wire, previous materials (stones), silver w… .. A necklace Sheet aluminium, aculon, vacuum formed plastic a sa Features from L Chair Ash, walnut (laminated), res Stoneware Stoneware/ silicon rubber eatu ial f ater Bowl Pewter of m Materials designed Qualities co-produced Experience outcomes ion of C Jewellery Coper, brass (decayed) (positive) slat ces tran s tra ls a C Rings Acrylic worth teria to f ma y Coffee table Ash (green) men outcomes nge J Chair Wood, pewter (negative) ry arra e defects pora insid E Bowl glass ks tem ssions and wee u ide M Stool glass, metal, wood evaluation disc outs from Clock Wood, acrylic beneficiaries ain, g it ag means ends tagin nd s gin g th em od el a Transcribed, phenomenological coding. han ….cFrom Material Moments, Jacucci & Wagner (2007) S.H. Hsu et al. / International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 25 (2000) 375}391 379 el mod the ns in e s the day s of ture (2011): Criticism and interaction design v entio ith th l fea inter ear w g out’ Bardzell ia ater ssed p n tagin gm iscu r disap ‘carvi w one s or d o e lan ned ange Also th ows ho ays, to Workplace study Morscioism groups research ve e n ts to p hey ch sions. . It sh few d shape Religious hermeneutics Porfolio Feminism CSCW rial ices s n a Boigraphical criticism (collection of works) Reflective practictioner New historicism Ma te inquiry e as ind alley. T ’ discu imensio rse of hanging signer re 9 Activity theoryerv ntain v students poral d the cou gh its c ssian de from Psycholanalytical Contextual Designerly style s FiguGroups Groups mou s of a tem ver ts throu ith Ru “derive , and flow ress d, o Author s w s day tsocial Class hEnvironment prog ple has sforme al effec onates should qualitie rials” hat w at Poet Environment Social Class Architect Interaction Designer Painter User Experience Designer et Composer Usability Engineer hing somrace Race e n xam is tran ent visu This res t design trinsic er mate hese om ee e g “s hibit a hContext (Social Context) model differ atures. eld tha rial’s in ith oth d by t to gender GEnder ve b Creator (Designer)zin li x s a ey are te Haptics isua tain” e model Social orm fe oh ate w TOUCH e illustra onne te d LiTeraTUre: sv th ng . perf aterial lin, wh ing a m combin &sLaNGUaGe: c ge in odel moun . These rk and ’ thinki er, d m ir Tat xploit ht point i work c emer ts’. Interaction Criticism Consumer response centred m an im ig l hree in the ure 2) of wo tudents tial ord te de it m me se en BARDzELL (2011) ord of he t er. T a crack ame (F months in the e fr ral ig us Criticisma ey co in s s n eque mmuni ca Vlad ring an g how genera ral fra ow the erial ev ch as ex ons A a m po cida h tes of ‘m ties,at plo iderin more teE.g. DAgMAn ET AL (2010), hSu, ChAng, & ChAng (2000) su ign es haptikos: ‘pertaining to the sense of touch’ out rent tim n seve ing foc oduced h be c p. 53). here is ich elu notion ctivi t or d erent e i ft s t r (Interaction) ect. ho , h m a en ff diff loped shi been p nce a roj t w a ([6] ples: T s w ce ou long-ter vironm rom di rough r CRITICISM hELPS InfORM devePERCEPTIOn; ave cativ e of h a a relev esign p den r stu it into a ture n … or looks to rationalise designers exam rial fea ts. He from: ork en ations rial th ually f Carnal? Embodied? Different from touch? SPuR uS On TO fuRThER ACTIOngh they their of the d este n w t e d indi u n s st sem slating 8). In s mate fic eve s range dense epresen c mat s – gra even E.g. KAnSEI EngInEERIng (SEE SChüTE (2005)) A ltho maintai aspect th e fir ts, tran 5 and ighlight s peci event aterial- sign r specifi ntation ept or ities ary e at vemen Figure , he h aterial se m de se nc iv ARISTOTLE MERLEAu-POnTy WSyChOgRAD they lement mor o o s m The ing a eating ring a nt repre ign co (all act aving c omp o nce(Interface)s m see als source nct(User) it ive multiple c reat to cr explo differe the des media ents (le ookArtifactand re 9, us l t lig ht isti s t dReader Ending a e; r Is this the result on a focus on visual semiotics? h spac rials o throug nslating cales an cative e d v Consumer aw (Figu into Let ed a sNovel l Website GUI ifferen exhibi saw. U details icular User ate ting it nd tra ,s ni di l mode APIing d that e Resident sConsumer part ent m JACuCCIs&cWAgnER, 2007 mat ommu Church Videogame Viewer Manager stu ica h e e la a or Film us of tClothes-wearer Employee of th circu forming tween f short Script n, Tangible UI eld s a differ o for phys seStructurehe mo e dents ollage Listeneris a h ssio t t s o ces of r th c Literaryk at th Ethnomethodology dent g tran ping’ be urée); t sour latePost-structuralism h as ilsNarratology cHeuristics n o hermeneutics ou e stu space. of Usability orms a loReception theory rSurveys, interviews th ‘jum edium ces). d nts teri al re features to deta res, su Prototyping sf We can atiReader responseinMental modelstural ing of g th ec Eve of ma aterial cted – Semiotics tra g’ p Cognitive walkthrough a Formalism he l n l t of m orary tr tive ty onne featu ccriticism Remediation . New ons ircu ce, he n HCI chi erstand hese rma diversi erent m d are c terials – pattern language on r hermeneutics e ti nstallati re ‘c n a a und T temp rfo iff n a proj al i eque ing s ure. p, Pe a y in o nts to Chang, e ses a h d s (2000) with m spatiali and ty featu in a s or creat student’ ept mat p-by-ste n i spat rial ialit Imageifrom Hsu,y. T & Change p t n n s, ce f ns the n conc ete ste t desig ater alysis reativit ifferen rking e . Th in spac e mate sentatio gnifican deepe desig r nex ntified M an c rd wo riencing tion e i conc Our borative gage ou of xpe oca repr re its s mation es the ies of to the be ide odel c olla efact en hniques and e rtion, l o r k t n m expl transfo and ma proper them rality ca shared more art t tec ressing , propo an ren g Each aterial lore the leadin tempo the big rved a dents, exp diffe iving, size, sh ape m f f the nts exp iscovery type o e use o e obse ith stu esign rce facts pe rte e r w w d stud one d Anothe nts mak Here atures, eir next an a . e f th with vention he stud right). terial fe races o in the traces r t t inte e ways igure 4 of ma aterial ng them orary) n i in th also F pparitio aving m verwrit e (temp ( see eral a day, le el or o . Thes m d n ephe day to the mo sessio 80 aPPreNTiCeSHiPS: fr om g on design ki n thin borative TOUCH & LaNGUaGe: Haptic Aesthetics in relation to visual aesthetics Novices learn by picking up co lla Methods of understanding LEDERMAn & KLATSKy (1985) BAuhAuS, gESTALT PSyChOLOgy language of experts (KEPES, 1995) SEELy BROWn ET AL (1989) Global dimensions of touch 2. Fig. The 24 real telephone samples in the SD test. AKERMAn ET AL (2010) There is a concept nexus to view them thoroughly and then evaluated them (2) Factor analysis (principal component analysis) between touch & language on the basis of their impressions. They were al- of the subjects perceptual space; ACKERMAn ET AL (2010) lowed to assess the telephone samples in random (3) Relative importance of design elements; order. To avoid interference in evaluating the tele- (4) Design reference model. phone samples, the subjects were asked not to talk to each other during the test. 3.1. Distribution of the raw data The raw data } mean scores and standard devi- 3. Results and discussion ation } for the 14 adjective pairs rated by designers and users re#ected that the designer is better able
  • 15. Why do it?
  • 16. BProdDes MDes PhD Lecturing (in progress)Academia Post-docIndustry [gap] Interaction Design researcher design
  • 17. You get to do design research Antony Dunne
  • 18. Jane McGonigal
  • 19. Dan Lockton
  • 20. Jayne Wallace
  • 21. Rigour
  • 22. Research and DesignResearch into design design history etcResearch for design industry methodsResearch through design Through practiceFrayling (1994)
  • 23. Real True Judgement, Intuitive, and Logic Taste Knowledge Competence Universal Particular and contextual Peers Client Context driven, Cumulative, Distancing, Explain Create particular, and synthetic and Describing Understand Change Distancing and Analytic Involving and Synthetic Design Practice Design Studies Commercial design Other Philosophy organizations disciplines Commercial design organizations Idealistic, Societal, and The possible Subversive Show alternatives Ideals Design Transcend Exploration Provoke Experiement Aesthetics Design critique, Art, Proactive Humanities Figure 3 Societal, “Now”-oriented A more complete model of interaction Critique design research. PoliticalFallman, D. (2008) The Interaction Design Research Triangle of Design Practice, Design Exploration, and Design Studies, Design Issues, Vol. 24, No. 3, p. 4-18, MIT Pres 14 Design Issues: Volume 24, Number 3 Summer 2008
  • 24. . Examples Thought-provoking insights into everyday life: a new contribution to discovery research in design Marc Isaacs, 2001 Jean Rouch and Edgar Morin, 1961 Bas Raijmakers PhD (RCA) Bas Raijmakers, 2006 Xiaoxiao Sun, 2006 Bas Raijmakers, 2004 Anthony Dunne Bas Raijmakers Ramia Mazé This research asks the question How can we use documentary film in discovery research? Answers are sought through studying films and theory, as well as making films for multidisciplinary design teams. Design is nowadays a thoroughly multidisciplinary discipline. It is called upon ever more in society and industry to address problems and create opportunities. As a result design touches on many aspects of our everyday lives, and knowledge about how people live is an important asset in design processes. In design processes discovery research is used from the Documentary film has a strong connection to reality, and Filmmakers have explored and developed countless Documentary films such as Chronicle of a Summer (Jean During the research, I made several films for and with The design documentaries I made raised practical, Design teams appreciated the direct access to the people Design documentaries appropriate the three ideas from Design documentaries offer new ways of doing discovery start, to get access to knowledge about how people live and developed a rich film language. The films that inspire this techniques since 1895. This research groups them as Rouch and Edgar Morin, 1961) and Lift (Marc Isaacs, 2001) design teams. Fred, Kent and Debra (2004) are films about theoretical and ethical issues which can be grouped around in the design documentaries, allowing them to discover documentary film for discovery research. The idea that research based on their characteristics: embracing diversity, what matters to them. But that is not its only role. Ideally, research in particular present the perspectives of people observation, compilation, intervention and performance mix the three ideas (reality, language and conversation) heart patients commissioned by Philips Medical Systems. the three ideas that characterise documentary film: reality, the context of the situations they were designing for. film is like reality is focused on embracing diversity and exploring aesthetics and creating conversations. In practice, it also inspires design processes. Video has been used to behind and in front of the camera in conversation with techniques. Observation techniques are driven by a desire and four techniques (observation, intervention, Drift and Swim (2006) explore the application of smart language and conversation. Design documentaries connect The creative use of film language, instead of registration, ambiguity in everyday life in the research. The use of film they have shown that research can be part of design, and support both roles since the 1980s, but has not moved each other, and invite viewers to join and continue these to not disturb the situations that are being filmed. compilation and performance) to tell a story about everyday textiles, for several small companies. I assisted filmmaker to reality by accepting the complexity of everyday life. was inspirational for the teams. The perspectives language becomes an exploration of film aesthetics aimed design can be part of research: design documentaries create much beyond registering discovery research activities. For conversations. The three notions reality, language and Intervention techniques on the other hand interfere in life that leaves many idiosyncrasies and complex details Xiaoxiao Sun in making Alena’s Strawberry Farm (2006), They use film language as a tool to tell stories which researchers added to the films stimulated designers to bring at expressing these ambiguities and the perspectives new shared spaces for research and design to co-exist. They the first time, this research adds documentary film to the conversation have become the foundation of design situations by asking questions, adding narration, and so on. intact. These films can be seen as discovery research. Not for Goldsmiths College and France Telecom/Orange. In appreciate and handle the complexity of everyday life. their own perspectives to discussions on the research. developed during the research. The idea that films are make mixing and moving between research and design multidisciplinary mix in design in a fundamental way. documentaries, the new method for discovery research in Compilation techniques use archival and found footage research that is filmed – the film itself is the research. This practice, making design documentaries for design teams Working with participants, researchers and designers during This facilitated the continuation of conversations that conversations is further developed when design easier, which encourages connections between design With more than a hundred years of experience in design that this research introduces. The name design such as tv broadcasts or home movies. Performance is also the starting point for my own filmmaking practice. turned out to be an iterative process where documentary the filming happens in a conversational way and creates started between researchers and participants during the documentaries are used to create conversations in design and everyday life. Design documentaries introduce portraying everyday life, documentary film brings many documentaries was chosen to stress their origin, their techniques recreate situations from the past through My films explore how documentary filmmaking can film influences discovery research and vice versa. Thinking relationships between people. Good working practice seems filmmaking into the design process. processes. Together, these appropriated ideas empower documentary film to the multidisciplinary mix in design, inspiring ideas and techniques to discovery research hybrid form and their particular purpose: to inform and re-enactment, or create completely new situations with be(come) discovery research. inspired making, and making inspired thinking. The two to be close to the existing, diverse practice in documentary discovery research to communicate stories in new ways, and invite researchers and designers to engage with for design. inspire design. the protagonists, and possibly the filmmaker, performing activities came together into an iterative process from filmmaking where possible ways of dealing with similar and also to tell new stories. Design documentaries interfere video and everyday life creatively, to inform and inspire roles. These techniques provide an inspiring toolbox for which design documentaries emerged. issues have been explored extensively. deeply with how discovery research is conducted, design processes. discovery research. communicated and used in design. See the films at Daria Loi Catherine Dixon Joe Eastwood From Yee, J. Journal of Research Practice
  • 25. Context driven, particular, Cumulative, Distancing, and synthetic and Describing Design Practice Design Studies Commercial design Other 2 Catherine Dixon 4 Joe Eastwood organisations disciplines 3 Daria Loi Ramia Mazé 5 Bas Raijmakers 6 1 Anthony Dunne Design Idealistic, Societal and 1. Anthony Dunne Subversive Exploration 2. Catherine Dixon 3. Daria Loi Design critique, Art 4. Joe Eastwood Humanities 5. Ramia Mazé 6. Bas RaijmakersFigure 1. PhD examples placed in Fallman’s (2008, p.5) Interaction Design Research ModelFrom Yee, J. Journal of Research Practice
  • 26. 2. Examples_Summary PhD Examples Ontological and Methodological Methods How was the research What was the focus of the epistemological influences conducted? investigation? influences (Frayling, 1993) (Cross, 1999) Into Through For People Process Product Anthony Material critical theory Critical design - Exploratory projects X X X X Dunne - Reflective practice3 Catherine Pragmatic and applied Design as research - Visual survey X X X X Dixon - Reflective practice - Peer review Daria Loi Postmodern and Methodological - Playful triggers X X X X X qualitative bricolage (dialogic - Observation and interviews Constructivist paradigm research, storytelling, - Reflective practice Artistic inquiry play, creative action, - Exploratory installations action learning) - Multisensorial writing - Experimental techniques Joe Eastwood Phenomenological Design as research - Interviews X X - Fieldwork documentation using photograph, notes and audio recording - Visual analysis - Exploratory projects Ramia Mazé Critical and post-critical Criticality from within - Exploratory projects X X X X architecture - Reflective practice Bas Hermeneutics and Design as research - Literature studies X X X X Raijmakers phenomenology - Film studies - Exploratory projects as case studies 3 Dunne does not explicitly state the research methods that were used in the review of the projects. However, judging from Seago’s description of ‘highly considered artefacts’ (in Seago and Dunne 1999 paper), it would seem to suggest that some form of reflective practice process took place. From Yee, J. Journal of Research Practice
  • 27. The Dark Side…
  • 28. PhD Guilt
  • 29. The PhD Baby aka woe betide the partner of a doctoral students!
  • 30. Losing your hand in the craft….
  • 31. Rigour
  • 32. 60k+ words (though this may be changing)Daria Loi, Thesis in a Suitcase
  • 33. To PhD or not to PhD?Or, why give up my good income or spare time to end up having to understand pragmatism and semiotics?
  • 34. Imagine a circle that contains all of human knowledge. By the time you finish elementary school, you know a little. By the time you finish high school, you know a bit more. With a bachelor’s degree, you gain a specialty. A master’s degree deepens that specialty. Reading papers takes you to the edge of human knowledge. You push at the boundary for a few years. Until one day, the boundary gives way. And, that dent you’ve made is called a Ph.D. Of course, the world looks different to you now. So, don’t forget the bigger picture. Keep pushing. Ph.D. !rrreeepppaaarrreeeddd      bbbyyy      MMMaaagggCCClllooouuuddd      fffooorrr      VVViiiccckkkyyy      TTTeeeiiinnnaaakkkiii...      GGGeeettt      mmmooorrreee      aaattt      mmmaaattttttmmmiiiggghhhttt...mmmaaagggccclllooouuuddd...cccooommm...
  • 35. If you’re prepared to create newknowledge in a scholarly context,and are prepared for a marathon,not a sprint. (And to not get to makestuff for a while!)
  • 36. Some resources to check out:The Thesis Whispererthethesiswhisperer.wordpress.comPhD Comics (XKCD for postgrads)phdcomics.comMe: of reserach)