Introduction to Quality
Dr. Hima Gupta
• Total - Made up of the whole
• Quality - degree of excellence a product or
• Management - Act, art or manner of
planning, controlling, directing,….
Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the
whole to achieve excellence.
WHAT IS QUALITY ?
EVERYTHING WHICH MATTERS TO THE CUSTOMER
WHAT IS POTENTIAL OF AN ORGANISATION ?
( INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF SYNERGY )
WHAT IS PRESENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE ?
QUALITY MANAGEMENT ATTEMPTS TO FILL
REVENUE-EARNING PER STAFF PER ANNUM FOR IR
What is Quality?
• There are so many definitions for
• Quality is…..
– Based on judgments by an individual or
– Fitness for purpose
– Corresponds to a rating
– Based on acceptable performance
– Meeting goals
– Meeting requirements
Traditionally Quality has 3 main
In present context , following more
dimensions should be added to Concern
for Quality –
• Global competitiveness
• Concern for environment
• Concern for safety ( for Transport Orgn. )
New & Old Culture
Quality Element Previous State
Second to service & cost
First among equals
Short – term
Plan, assign, control
of service & cost
Life – cycle costs, partnership
Delegate, coach, facilitate
Ford Motor Company had operating losses of
$3.3 billion between 1980 and 1982.
Xerox market share dropped from 93% in
1971 to 40% in 1981.
Attention to quality was seen as a way to
combat the competition.
What is Quality Assurance?
• What is Quality?
Quality is the ability of your product to be
able to satisfy your users
• What is Quality Assurance?
Quality Assurance is the process that
demonstrates your product is able to satisfy
What is Quality Control?
• Quality Control (QC) is the
implementation of regular testing
procedures against your definitions of
quality and more specifically the
refinement of these procedures
– Formal use of testing
– Acting on the results of your tests
– Requires planning, structured tests, good
– Relates to output - Quality Circle
– Standards - ISO 9000 & BS5750
The Quality Cycle
Dimensions of Quality
Performance - Primary Characteristics, such as brightness
Features –Secondary Characteristics, Remote Control
Conformance-Meeting Specifications or Standards
Reliability –Consistency of Performance over time-fail
Durability- Useful life ,include Repair Service
Providing a good, usable product
Doing it right the first time
Delighting or pleasing customers
Total customer service and satisfaction
Compliance with policies and procedures
Formal Definitions of Quality
• Transcendent definition: excellence
• Product-based definition: quantities of
• User-based definition: fitness for intended
• Value-based definition: quality vs. price
• Manufacturing-based definition:
conformance to specifications
• People-focused management system
• Focus on increasing customer satisfaction
and reducing costs
• A systems approach that integrates
organizational functions and the entire supply
• Stresses learning and adaptation to change
• Based on the scientific method
LEARNING AND TQM
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TQM
Everyone is responsible for Quality
Prevention not Detection
Right First Time
Cost of Quality
On going Improvement
Principles of Total Quality
Customer and stakeholder focus
Participation and teamwork
Process focus supported by continuous
improvement and learning
…all supported by an integrated organizational
infrastructure, a set of management practices,
and a set of tools and techniques
FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES
•Measure quality so you can affect it
•Focus on a moving customer
•Involve every employee
•Think long term - Act short term
SEVEN DEADLY SINS OF TQM
•Flight to nowhere
•One size fits all
•Substituting TQM for leadership
•Inside - Out indicators
•Quality kept as a separate activity
•Teaching to the test
Booz-Allen & Hamilton
Essentials of the Quality System
1. Say what you do
By studying the Quality Manual, teams working on a particular
process know what the job requires. If in doubt, they can ask team
leaders. This process enables everyone involved to understand and
state the process and their role within it.
2. Do what you say
Once they understand the process, team members are able to
implement it e.g. by constructing a new building for a specific client.
3. Record what you have done
Construction teams record all actions taken, so that all those
involved know the current position, what has gone on before and
what still needs to be done.
Essentials of the Quality System
4. Review what you have done
Records are regularly reviewed both to ensure delivery
targets can be met and to identify any problem areas.
5. Take remedial action where necessary
If problems or potential problem areas are identified,
steps are taken to eliminate or reduce these.
6. Then start the process again
This procedure is followed for each stage in each
process to ensure that everyone benefits from solutions
to problems, which have already been devised.
Deming’s View of a
Receipt and test
Receipt and test
Tests of processes, machines, methods
Infrastructure, Practices, and
Information and knowledge
Customer relationship management
Leadership and strategic planning
Human resources management
Information and knowledge management
Quality and Profitability
Three Levels of Quality
• Organizational level: meeting external
• Process level: linking external and internal
• Performer/job level: meeting internal
Quality and Personal Values
• Personal initiative has a positive impact on
• Quality begins with personal attitudes
• Quality-focused individuals often exceed
• Attitudes can be changed through
awareness and effort (e.g., personal quality
In the daily attempt to bring about change in the
individual parts of the organizational universe,
managers, employees, professors, and students can
find that personal quality is the key to unlock the door
to a wider understanding of what the concept really is
all about. Unless quality is internalized at the personal
level, it will never become rooted in the culture of an
organization. Thus, quality must begin at a personal
level (and that means you!).