Session 1
Introduction to Quality
Dr. Hima Gupta

1
TQM
• Total - Made up of the whole
• Quality - degree of excellence a product or
service provides
• Management - Act, art ...
WHAT IS QUALITY ?
EVERYTHING WHICH MATTERS TO THE CUSTOMER
WHAT IS POTENTIAL OF AN ORGANISATION ?
( INCLUDING THE EFFECT O...
What is Quality?
• There are so many definitions for
Quality.
• Quality is…..
– Based on judgments by an individual or
org...
Traditionally Quality has 3 main
dimensions
• Performance
• Price
• Promptness
In present context , following more
dimensi...
New & Old Culture
Quality Element Previous State
New State
---------------------------------------------------------------...
Why TQM?
Ford Motor Company had operating losses of
$3.3 billion between 1980 and 1982.
Xerox market share dropped from 93...
What is Quality Assurance?
• What is Quality?
Quality is the ability of your product to be
able to satisfy your users

• W...
What is Quality Control?
• Quality Control (QC) is the
implementation of regular testing
procedures against your definitio...
The Quality Cycle

Quality
Control

Test
Product

Create
Product
input

output

Quality
Refine
Product

Test
results

Qual...
Dimensions of Quality
Product- TV
Performance - Primary Characteristics, such as brightness
Features –Secondary Characteri...
Defining Quality
Perfection

Fast delivery

Providing a good, usable product
Consistency
Eliminating waste
Doing it right ...
Formal Definitions of Quality
• Transcendent definition: excellence
• Product-based definition: quantities of
product attr...
Quality Perspectives
transcendent &
product-based
Customer
products
and
services

user-based
needs

Marketing

value-based...
Customer-Driven Quality
• “Meeting or exceeding customer
expectations”
• Customers can be...
– Consumers
– External custom...
Total Quality
• People-focused management system
• Focus on increasing customer satisfaction
and reducing costs
• A system...
LEARNING AND TQM
Learning
Process Improvement
Quality Improvement
Customer
Satisfaction

Shareholder
Satisfaction

Employe...
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TQM
Approach
Scope
Scale

Management Led
Company Wide
Everyone is responsible for Quality

Philosophy
...
Principles of Total Quality
•
•
•

Customer and stakeholder focus
Participation and teamwork
Process focus supported by co...
FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES

•Measure quality so you can affect it
•Focus on a moving customer
•Involve every employee
•Think long...
SEVEN DEADLY SINS OF TQM
•Flight to nowhere
•One size fits all
•Substituting TQM for leadership
•Inside - Out indicators
•...
Essentials of the Quality System
1. Say what you do
By studying the Quality Manual, teams working on a particular
process ...
Essentials of the Quality System
4. Review what you have done
Records are regularly reviewed both to ensure delivery
targe...
Deming’s View of a
Production System
Suppliers of
materials and
equipment

A
B
C
D

Design and
Redesign
Consumer
Receipt a...
Infrastructure, Practices, and
Tools
Infrastructure
Leadership

Strategic
Planning

Practices

Tools

HRM

Performance
app...
TQ Infrastructure
•
•
•
•
•

Customer relationship management
Leadership and strategic planning
Human resources management...
Quality and Profitability
Improved quality
of design

Improved quality
of conformance

Higher perceived
value

Higher
pric...
Three Levels of Quality
• Organizational level: meeting external
customer requirements
• Process level: linking external a...
Quality and Personal Values
• Personal initiative has a positive impact on
business success
• Quality begins with personal...
Key Idea
In the daily attempt to bring about change in the
individual parts of the organizational universe,
managers, empl...
Quality is a Journey,
not a Destination

31
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  1. 1. Session 1 Introduction to Quality Dr. Hima Gupta 1
  2. 2. TQM • Total - Made up of the whole • Quality - degree of excellence a product or service provides • Management - Act, art or manner of planning, controlling, directing,…. Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence. excellence 2
  3. 3. WHAT IS QUALITY ? EVERYTHING WHICH MATTERS TO THE CUSTOMER WHAT IS POTENTIAL OF AN ORGANISATION ? ( INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF SYNERGY ) WHAT IS PRESENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE ? QUALITY MANAGEMENT ATTEMPTS TO FILL THIS GAP REVENUE-EARNING PER STAFF PER ANNUM FOR IR 3
  4. 4. What is Quality? • There are so many definitions for Quality. • Quality is….. – Based on judgments by an individual or organisation – Fitness for purpose – Corresponds to a rating – Based on acceptable performance – Meeting goals – Meeting requirements 4
  5. 5. Traditionally Quality has 3 main dimensions • Performance • Price • Promptness In present context , following more dimensions should be added to Concern for Quality – • Global competitiveness • Concern for environment • Concern for safety ( for Transport Orgn. ) 5
  6. 6. New & Old Culture Quality Element Previous State New State ----------------------------------------------------------------------Definition Pdt oriented Cust. Oriented Priorities Second to service & cost First among equals Decisions Short – term Emphasis Detection Errors Operations Responsibility QC Pblm solving Managers Procurement Price Manager’s Role Plan, assign, control and enforce of service & cost Long term Prevention System Everyone Teams Life – cycle costs, partnership Delegate, coach, facilitate and mentor 6
  7. 7. Why TQM? Ford Motor Company had operating losses of $3.3 billion between 1980 and 1982. Xerox market share dropped from 93% in 1971 to 40% in 1981. Attention to quality was seen as a way to combat the competition. 7
  8. 8. What is Quality Assurance? • What is Quality? Quality is the ability of your product to be able to satisfy your users • What is Quality Assurance? Quality Assurance is the process that demonstrates your product is able to satisfy your users 8
  9. 9. What is Quality Control? • Quality Control (QC) is the implementation of regular testing procedures against your definitions of quality and more specifically the refinement of these procedures – Formal use of testing – Acting on the results of your tests – Requires planning, structured tests, good documentation – Relates to output - Quality Circle – Standards - ISO 9000 & BS5750 9
  10. 10. The Quality Cycle Quality Control Test Product Create Product input output Quality Refine Product Test results Quality Assurance 10
  11. 11. Dimensions of Quality Product- TV Performance - Primary Characteristics, such as brightness Features –Secondary Characteristics, Remote Control Conformance-Meeting Specifications or Standards Reliability –Consistency of Performance over time-fail Durability- Useful life ,include Repair Service 11
  12. 12. Defining Quality Perfection Fast delivery Providing a good, usable product Consistency Eliminating waste Doing it right the first time Delighting or pleasing customers Total customer service and satisfaction 12 Compliance with policies and procedures
  13. 13. Formal Definitions of Quality • Transcendent definition: excellence • Product-based definition: quantities of product attributes • User-based definition: fitness for intended use • Value-based definition: quality vs. price • Manufacturing-based definition: conformance to specifications 13
  14. 14. Quality Perspectives transcendent & product-based Customer products and services user-based needs Marketing value-based Design manufacturingbased Manufacturing Distribution Information flow Product flow 14
  15. 15. Customer-Driven Quality • “Meeting or exceeding customer expectations” • Customers can be... – Consumers – External customers – Internal customers 15
  16. 16. Total Quality • People-focused management system • Focus on increasing customer satisfaction and reducing costs • A systems approach that integrates organizational functions and the entire supply chain • Stresses learning and adaptation to change • Based on the scientific method 16
  17. 17. LEARNING AND TQM Learning Process Improvement Quality Improvement Customer Satisfaction Shareholder Satisfaction Employee Satisfaction 17
  18. 18. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TQM Approach Scope Scale Management Led Company Wide Everyone is responsible for Quality Philosophy Prevention not Detection Standard Right First Time Control Cost of Quality Theme On going Improvement 18
  19. 19. Principles of Total Quality • • • Customer and stakeholder focus Participation and teamwork Process focus supported by continuous improvement and learning …all supported by an integrated organizational infrastructure, a set of management practices, and a set of tools and techniques 19
  20. 20. FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES •Measure quality so you can affect it •Focus on a moving customer •Involve every employee •Think long term - Act short term 20
  21. 21. SEVEN DEADLY SINS OF TQM •Flight to nowhere •One size fits all •Substituting TQM for leadership •Inside - Out indicators •Mandatory religion •Quality kept as a separate activity •Teaching to the test Booz-Allen & Hamilton 21
  22. 22. Essentials of the Quality System 1. Say what you do By studying the Quality Manual, teams working on a particular process know what the job requires. If in doubt, they can ask team leaders. This process enables everyone involved to understand and state the process and their role within it. 2. Do what you say Once they understand the process, team members are able to implement it e.g. by constructing a new building for a specific client. 3. Record what you have done Construction teams record all actions taken, so that all those involved know the current position, what has gone on before and what still needs to be done. 22
  23. 23. Essentials of the Quality System 4. Review what you have done Records are regularly reviewed both to ensure delivery targets can be met and to identify any problem areas. 5. Take remedial action where necessary If problems or potential problem areas are identified, steps are taken to eliminate or reduce these. 6. Then start the process again This procedure is followed for each stage in each process to ensure that everyone benefits from solutions to problems, which have already been devised. 23
  24. 24. Deming’s View of a Production System Suppliers of materials and equipment A B C D Design and Redesign Consumer Receipt and test Receipt and test research of materials materials Consumers Production, assembly inspection Distribution Tests of processes, machines, methods INPUTS PROCESSES Feedback OUTPUTS 24
  25. 25. Infrastructure, Practices, and Tools Infrastructure Leadership Strategic Planning Practices Tools HRM Performance appraisal Process mgt. Information and knowledge management Training Trend chart 25
  26. 26. TQ Infrastructure • • • • • Customer relationship management Leadership and strategic planning Human resources management Process management Information and knowledge management 26
  27. 27. Quality and Profitability Improved quality of design Improved quality of conformance Higher perceived value Higher prices Increased market share Increased revenues Higher profitability Lower manufacturing and service costs 27
  28. 28. Three Levels of Quality • Organizational level: meeting external customer requirements • Process level: linking external and internal customer requirements • Performer/job level: meeting internal customer requirements 28
  29. 29. Quality and Personal Values • Personal initiative has a positive impact on business success • Quality begins with personal attitudes • Quality-focused individuals often exceed customer expectations • Attitudes can be changed through awareness and effort (e.g., personal quality checklists) 29
  30. 30. Key Idea In the daily attempt to bring about change in the individual parts of the organizational universe, managers, employees, professors, and students can find that personal quality is the key to unlock the door to a wider understanding of what the concept really is all about. Unless quality is internalized at the personal level, it will never become rooted in the culture of an organization. Thus, quality must begin at a personal level (and that means you!). 30
  31. 31. Quality is a Journey, not a Destination 31
  32. 32. 32
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