ENBE Project 2A

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ENBE Project 2A

  1. 1. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General CONTENT NO. 1. ELEMENTS INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT PAGE NO. 1 2. URBAN AREA: BUKIT BINTANG - INTRODUCTION TO URBAN AREA - MAP OF BUKIT BINTANG - INTRODUCTION TO BUKIT BINTANG - TRAFIC LIGHTS, PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS, STREET LIGHTS & ROAD SIGNS IN BUKIT BINTANG 2-21 SUBURBAN AREA: DESA PARK CITY - INTRODUCTION TO SUBURBAN AREA - MAP OF DESA PARK CITY - INTRODUCTION TO DESA PARK CITY - TRAFIC LIGHTS, PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS, STREET LIGHTS & ROAD SIGNS IN DESA PARK CITY 22-31 RURAL AREA: JANDA BAIK, PAHANG - INTRODUCTION TO RURAL AREA - MAP OF JANDA BAIK - INTRODUCTION TO JANDA BAIK - TRAFIC LIGHTS, PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS, STREET LIGHTS & ROAD SIGNS IN JANDA BAIK 32-50 5. COMPARISON OF URBAN, SUBURBAN & RURAL AREAS 51-53 6. CONCLUSION 54-55 3. 4. P age |1 FNBE0115
  2. 2. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT For this project, we are to study and analyse on 3 sites found as our context of infrastructure in rural, suburban and urban areas and the 3 sites that we have chosen are Janda Baik, Desa Park City and Bukit Bintang. The main objective of this project is to study on the infrastructure in these three different places and do study focusing on traffic lights, pedestrian walkways, street lights, and road signages. The reason we have chosen road safety as part of our infrastructure topic is because the accidents rate in Malaysia is increasing dramatically each year. Road safety refers to methods and measures for reducing the risk of a person using the road network being killed or seriously injured. The users of a road include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, their passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport, mainly buses and trains. Safe road design is now about providing a road environment which ensures vehicle speeds will be within the human tolerances for serious injury and death wherever conflict points exist. The increasing number of vehicles and drivers are often associated with the total number of road accidents. In 2009, there were 397,194 road accidents recorded compared to 328,268 in 2005. And thus, the five types of infrastructure: traffic lights, pedestrian walkways, street lights, and road signs play a vital part in ensuring the safety of every traffic users on road. According to investopedia, infrastructure can be defined as the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g: buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. P age |2 FNBE0115
  3. 3. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General URBAN AREA BUKIT BINTANG P age |3 FNBE0115
  4. 4. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General INTRODUCTION TO URBAN AREA IN MALAYSIA According to Global Health Facts, urban area is a built-up and populated area that includes a municipality and generally has a population of 50,000 or more. Urban areas can be cities, towns or conurbations. Such settlements began to develop in the ancient world, and have led to the large cities of modern times. As agriculture became more prevalent in the ancient world, people began to form groups and to settle in permanent areas. These villages allowed the concentrated population to develop specialized skills, such as becoming blacksmiths and traders. Technology continued to develop and draw more and more people into these villages, raising the population level even more. This trend continues today and forms urban areas as what we see today. This is also true in the case of Bukit Bintang, Malaysia. As the population grow, urban areas are densely packed with man-madestructures with little open space within their boundaries causing the boundaries of cities extended outward into the open land, forming bigger areas. Urban areas in Malaysia are usually laid out in a grid or radial pattern according to the visual shown in Map 1.2. Either streets are laid in right angles to each other forming a grid, or the streets run toward the centre of the city and meet at a central point. This rise of industry provided more jobs and encouraged even more people to migrate to the cities. In short, economy in urban areas is the backbone of the economy of a country. The population in Malaysia is concentrated largely in urban areas. According to a World Bank the total urban population in Malaysia was last reported at 72.20% in 2010. Due to high density of population in urban areas as compared to suburban and rural areas in Malaysia, many facilities and mobility infrastructures like bus stops, train stations, and taxi stands are built to P age |4 FNBE0115
  5. 5. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General accommodate the people’s needs because people are constantly moving around to their destinations. Highways and flyovers are also built in urban areas. Besides, buildings in urban areas are consist of mostly high-rise building such as, residential buildings like condominiums and apartments, industrial buildings, and commercial buildings like office buildings, warehouse, and retail shopping malls. Each building is arranged in a way that is it is very compact as compared to those in suburban and rural areas. Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 P age |5 FNBE0115
  6. 6. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Map of Bukit Bintang Map 1.1 P age |6 FNBE0115
  7. 7. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Satellite View of Bukit Bintang Map 1.2 P age |7 FNBE0115
  8. 8. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General INTRODUCTION TO JALAN BUKIT BINTANG On the 3rd of April, we went to Pavilion, Bukit Bintang to do a research on the urban context. Bukit Bintang, a renowned shopping and entertainment district in Kuala Lumpur stretches along the famous road Jalan Bukit Bintang, and slots in the areas a) Jalan Raja Chulan b) Jalan Imbi c) Jalan Pudu d) Jalan Sultan Ismail e) Jalan Ampang Besides being a part of the Golden Triangle, Bukit Bintang is quarters to numerous prominent shopping centers, cafes, clubs, shops, malls, and specialty shops. The region is also known for having a number of lavish hotels and restaurants. Here one can see heaps of hawker-styled eateries, where delectable dishes can be enjoyed at really cheap rates. As one of the major shopping districts, Bukit Bintang proffers a selection of merchandise to go well with every budget. In terms of access by road, Bukit Bintang may owe its reasonably high accessibility to its status as a popular destination among locals and tourists alike. The SMART Tunnel entrance is located in this area and connects to key highways such as the Kuala Lumpur-Seremban Expressway and the East-West Link Expressway. The entrance to another major highway, the Maju Expressway, is also in this area. The most direct mode of public transportation into and out of Bukit Bintang is the KL Monorail system. The latter is an urban monorail system that connects KL Sentral with the Golden Triangle. The system provides direct access to Bintang Walk via the Bukit Bintang monorail station, which is located at P age |8 FNBE0115
  9. 9. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General the intersection of Jalan Bukit Bintang and Jalan Sultan Ismail. In addition, several Rapid KL buses make frequent stops in and around the district. Under the upcoming My Rapid Transit (MRT) project, Bukit Bintang will gain one more point of access via public transportation. The finalised Sungai BulohKajang Line will incorporate one station, namely, Bukit Bintang Central, which has been designated for Bintang Walk and is expected to begin operations in January 2016. Figure 1.3: View of Bukit Bintang from the outside of Lot 10 Shopping Mall P age |9 FNBE0115
  10. 10. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure1.4: View of Bukit Bintang, Source : http://hotelecam.blogspot.com 1. TRAFFIC LIGHT Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, signal lights are signaling device positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows of traffic. There are a few traffic lights positioned at the T-junction between Pavilion mall and Sephora building in front of Starhill gallery as well as Fahrenheit shopping mall. During peak hours and also festivals, they are very useful to control the car flow. This region often makes the venue for the major night events, like New Year's Eve, Merdeka Eve, Fashion Shows, Street Concerts and Parties. For instance, the street lighting ceremony held at Pavilion has made the traffic very congested as people gathered around to view the large scale thematic decorations on its streets. In this case, traffic lights in Bukit Bintang function well in directing the traffic on the streets and ensuring the safety of every pedestrians. P a g e | 10 FNBE0115
  11. 11. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 1.5: View of traffic lights at the bus stop outside Pavilion Figure 1.6: The view of traffic lights from the outside of the entrance of Pavilion P a g e | 11 FNBE0115
  12. 12. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Besides controlling car flow, they also signal pedestrians to cross the zebra crossing. It safeguards pedestrians’ safety. Pedestrians stop at red light when vehicles are moving at green light. The traffic light is two-layer designated. The highest one signals the traffic flow and can be seen from far away while the lower one gives signal to pedestrians and drivers. They are also associated with a sound device, for the benefit of blind and visually impaired pedestrians. These make a slow beeping sound when the traffic lights are red and continuous buzzing sounds when the lights are green. The design of the traffic lights is also good because they signal drivers, motorcyclists and pedestrians on road. Most importantly, this helps to reduce the collisions and unwanted accidents on road. P a g e | 12 FNBE0115
  13. 13. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General 2. PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY Bukit Bintang- KLCC Pedestrian Walkway is a long pedestrian bridge that connects shopping malls to one another. The figure below shows the pedestrian walkway bridge which connects Pavilion KL to Impiana KLCC Hotel and the Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. The other portion of this walkway is a pedestrian tunnel on the convention centre’s concourse level linked to Suria KLCC shopping centre. Map 1.3: Map of Bukit Bintang pedestrian walkway bridge Source: www.tourmalaysia.com P a g e | 13 FNBE0115
  14. 14. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Also known as the Pavilion-KLCC pedestrian bridge, there are several entrance and exit points (escalators and staircases) along the bridge: one is located at Connection _an al-fresco dining and entertainment strip at Pavilion KL), while the others are at busy areas such as Jalan Pinang, Jalan Perakam, Jalan Raja Chulan and the KL Convention Centre. Also accessible via this bridge is the Raja Chulan monorail station and the KLCC LRT station. Figure 1.7: The Pavilion-KLCC pedestrian bridge Resource: www.impiana.com.my P a g e | 14 FNBE0115
  15. 15. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General FIGURE 1.8: The interior of the Pavilion-KLCC pedestrian bridge Source: www.wonderfulmalaysia.com With the Bukit Bintang-KLCC pedestrian walkway, people especially backpack travelers can travel safely, conveniently and comfortably on foot from Bukit Bintang all the way to the Kuala Lumpur city centre. In short, the bridge links the KLCC and Bukit Bintang: two major retail and tourism spot. It takes 15 to 20 minutes to walk across the five-metre wide, air-conditioned bridge. Moreover, from the KL Convention Centre, it takes visitors less than a few minutes to access a number of KL landmarks such as the Suria KLCC shopping centre, Petronas Twin Towers, KLCC park and more. P a g e | 15 FNBE0115
  16. 16. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Besides, there is a bridge connecting Sungai Wang shopping mall and Lot10 mall, it is convenient as people can be free from sun exposure as well as accident risk on road. The bridge provides a safer route rather than crossing the highways with speeding vehicles using zebra crossing. Figure 1.9 Figure 1.10 Figure 1.11 P a g e | 16 FNBE0115
  17. 17. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 1.9, 1.10, 1.11 shows the view of bridge connecting Sungai Wang shopping mall and Lot10 from the monorail station. The Sungai Wang-Lot10 bridge is also connected to the Bukit Bintang monorail station. 3. STREET LIGHTS FIGURE 1.12: The view of lamp post from pavilion shopping mall. Street lights or known as lamppost is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Street lighting is very important to prevent accidents and ensure safety. Studies have shown that darkness results in a large number of crashes and fatalities, especially those involving pedestrians; pedestrian fatalities are 3 to P a g e | 17 FNBE0115
  18. 18. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General 6.75 times more likely in the dark than in daylight. Street lighting has been found to reduce pedestrian crashes by approximately 50% in urban areas. Furthermore, lighted intersections and highway interchanges tend to have fewer crashes than unlighted intersections and interchanges. Figure 1.13: The night view of street lights in Bukit Bintang Source: http://www.kuala-lumpur.ws P a g e | 18 FNBE0115
  19. 19. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 1.14: The night view of street lights and decorative lights Source: http://pelancongan-kini.blogspot.com The street lights also serve important functions during the night after dusk. They light up the streets so pedestrians have clearer sight view at night. Hence accidents do not happen that frequently. They also function as ornaments, especially during festivals or special occasions. The buildings will look more grand and adorned; and thus lighten up the city and streets, this is vital in order to attract tourists. The ornamental lights that adorn arches, poles, trees and sidewalks include tree-shaped and chandelier-shaped lights. The lights also come in a variety of effects such as glowing fairy lights, cascading tear drops, chasing light and meteor lights. Figure 1.15: The view of street lights just opposite the entrance of pavilion P a g e | 19 FNBE0115
  20. 20. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General The figure above shows two extra lights attached to the main street light. These lights function as spotlight; they brighten up the building to make them look magnificent. 4. ROAD SIGNS According to SafetySign, traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to provide information to road users. These signs can seem to be a part of the road and are used for the purpose of giving out information to people on a number of issues. These signs are very important and hence you should know how to read them in order to avoid accidents on the road. Therefore, if followed properly, road signs help maintain discipline on road. Road signs are placed in a manner that makes them visible to the driver from a distance. This helps drivers consider the condition of the road ahead as described by the sign; they may need to change their speed accordingly. Road signs come in different shapes and colours, where each stands for a particular message. This makes it possible to recognise a road sign before a driver actually reaches it. The size of a road sign also differs depending on the message it has to give. Figure 1.16: Direction Signs in front of the monorail station next to a building. P a g e | 20 FNBE0115
  21. 21. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Guide and Information signs indicate information for route selections, for locating off-road facilities, or for identiying geographical features or points of interest. Direction signs in urban areas are used to show directions to pedestrians and drivers. They also guide tourists to different landmarks and shopping malls in Bukit Bintang. The color coordination of the direction signs are easily seen because of the contrasting color of the texts with its background. The boards are arrow shaped as they point to a particular direction. Figure 1.17: Sign board at the monorail station They give clear instructions on which platform to head to so that people will not get confused or board on the wrong monorail carriage. P a g e | 21 FNBE0115
  22. 22. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 1.18: Road sign beside a road The road signs in Bukit Bintang are usually pedestrian crossing signs, road work signs, warning signs, land indication signs and construction signs as what we observed. These signs play an important role to give appropriate signals and warnings to road users including pedestrians and drivers on road. In this way, road users can pay extra attention to certain circumstances and obstacles to prevent unnecessary accidents and injuries. Certain road signs enables drivers to give priority to pedestrians on road to ensure everyone’s safety. P a g e | 22 FNBE0115
  23. 23. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General SUBURBAN AREA DESA PARK CITY P a g e | 23 FNBE0115
  24. 24. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General INTRODUCTION TO SUBURBAN AREA IN MALAYSIA Suburban area is a residential area that existing as part of a city or urban area. It is also a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. Generally, suburban areas pertain to residential districts and mean the surrounding residential areas of a bigger city. Suburban areas are defined differently in some countries. A suburban also can mean the surrounding residential areas of a bigger city, and a group of these can actually form a part of a really big city, they can be several aggregates of distant residential areas. As the population grow, suburban area generally spread out over greater distances than other types of living environments. Emerging in 1850 s, as the result of fast rising urban population and improving technology, suburban have remained a popular alternative to the city. Besides, people may live in the suburban in order to avoid the density and untidiness of the city. Transportation of suburban plays an important role in the life of a suburban resident who usually commutes to work. Suburban are the community surrounding cities that are usually made up of single-family homes, but are increasingly including multifamily home and places like malls and office buildings. People also like to decide for themselves how to live and what rules to live by. People living in the same suburban usually share similar backgrounds with regard to raise, social economic status, and aged. The houses that made up the area are similar in appearance, size, and blueprint, a layout design referred to as tract housing, or cookie-cutter housing. Figure 2.1 P a g e | 24 FNBE0115
  25. 25. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Map of Desa Park City DESA PARK CITY Map 2.1 P a g e | 25 FNBE0115
  26. 26. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Satellite View of Desa Park City Map 2.2 P a g e | 26 FNBE0115
  27. 27. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General INTRODUCTION TO DESA PARK CITY The enclave of Desa Park City which covers an area of about 473 acres prime real estate has often been described as “a property goldmine” due to the fact that it has seen significant increase in real estate value. This is evidenced by the fact that the Southlake phase of the area is currently selling at about RM1. 3 million, double the price when it was first launched. Factors such as exclusivity, security, easy access to roads and major highways and convenience are attributed to the increase in price. The area has about 25 residential neighbourhoods, 2 business parks, a multi-million dollar clubhouse and upcoming facilities include places of worship, hospitals and other facilities. Desa Park City has easy access to the LDP (Lebuhraya Damansara-Puchong), the Penchala Link and The Middle Ring Road and hence property owners can have ease of mobility. Upon exiting Desa Park City into the LDP, Petaling Jaya, Kuala Lumpur , Bangsar and Mont Kiara are all less than 15 minutes away. Further, for those who yearn for retail therapy, malls such as 1 Utama, The Curve and Ikano are all less than 5 minutes away. Desa Park City also features excellent infrastructure such as good road management, stringent security checks, a beautiful and scenic lake and also good facilities for families such as a jogging park, a dog walking area, and convenience stores. There are also plans for an international school which will enable the residents’ children to receive a good education without even leaving the area. There are also ample dining options that’s located at the waterfront area which is right by the lake which makes for meaningful and romantic dinners at night with your loved ones. P a g e | 27 FNBE0115
  28. 28. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General TRAFFIC LIGHTS Figure 2.2 There are a few of traffic lights near Desa Park City, they are normal traffic lights used in Malaysia. Normal traffic lights are used because the traffic flow in Desa Park City is not as heavy as in Bukit Bintang. Traffic lights near Desa Park City are usually found at T-junction and cross roads to control the traffic. Traffic lights used here can slow down the speed of vehicles at junctions, taking turns to head to their particular destinations and thus help to prevent road accidents involving innocent pedestrians. These also allows pedestrian to cross the road safe and sound. P a g e | 28 FNBE0115
  29. 29. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 2.3: Example of cross roads with traffic lights in Desa Park City Source: http://en.wikipedia.org PEDESTRAIN WALKWAY Figure 2.4 P a g e | 29 FNBE0115
  30. 30. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 2.4 shows a walkway around the lake at the park in Desa Park City. It can be used to enjoy the view of lake. This type of cement walkways is built for the convenience of people to walk surrounding the lake rather than walking in tall grass or even muddy grounds. In this case, people can avoid falling or sliding into the lake accidentally while viewing the scenery of the lake at Desa Park City or in other words, the safety of people is ensured. Figure 2.5 Figure 2.5 shows a small bridge to across a small man-made waterfall from the waterfront to the park. It has a handle bar on the bridge for children, handicapped people and the aged. Visitors on the bridge can enjoy the man-made waterfall as well as the fishes in it. Figure 2.6 shows a stairs case which allows visitors to step on the walkway to view the lake. P a g e | 30 FNBE0115
  31. 31. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 2.6 STREET LIGHTS Figure 2.7 Figure 2.7 show that it has many street lights along the roadside beside the lake. They will lighten up at night for visitor’s safety and form a beautiful scenery at the lakeside. The street lights also ensure the safety of people walking at night and reduces crime rate. P a g e | 31 FNBE0115
  32. 32. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General SIGN BOARD Figure 2.8 Figure 2.8 show a sign board at the park.This sign board is used give instructions of the Desa Park City to the people. There are rules and regulation as well as warnings stated to ensure personal safety while walking in the park. P a g e | 32 FNBE0115
  33. 33. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General RURAL AREA JANDA BAIK P a g e | 33 FNBE0115
  34. 34. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General INTRODUCTION TO RURAL AREA IN MALAYSIA In general, a rural area is a geographic area that is located outside the cities and towns. A rural area is an open swath of land that has few homes or other buildings, and not very many people. A rural areas population density is very low. In a rural area, there are fewer people, and their homes and businesses are located far away from one another. According to the Population Data of The World Bank, the population of rural area in Malaysia have decreased from 8 million residents to 7 million residents due to the year from 2008 until present. The places such as villages, small towns, and other small settlements are in or surrounded by rural areas. Agriculture is the primary industry to support the ecomomic income of the residents who live in rural area. Agricultural economics originally applied the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock — a discipline known as agronomics. In rural area, most of the people live or work on farms or ranches. While in Malaysia, there are 16% of the population of Malaysia is employed through some sort of agriculture where the large-scale plantations were established by the British. These plantations opened opportunity for new crops such as rubber (1876), palm oil (1917), and cocoa (1950). A number of crops are grown for domestic purpose such as bananas, coconuts, durian, pineapples, rice, rambutan and other plants. Wildlife is more frequently found in rural areas than in cities because of the absence of people and buildings. In fact, rural areas are often called the country because residents can see and interact with the countries native wildlife. P a g e | 34 FNBE0115
  35. 35. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General In Malaysia, there are about two thirds of Malaysia is covered in forest which is believed to be 130 million years old. Besides fainforests, coastal land of the peninsular is fringed by mangroves, which cause sediment buildup resulting in peat bogs. These provide a base for plants that can tolerate the conditions. The peat forests of coastal Malaysia provide an important habitat for waterbirds and fish. Also, Malaysia are estimated to be the habitat of around 2,000 tree species, and are one of the most biodiverse areas in the world, with 240 different species of trees every hectare. Further inland, Heath forests host many members of the Rafflesia genus, the largest flowers in the world. They also contain large numbers of carnivorous plants, such as pitcher plants, bladderworts, sundews, and ant-house plants. These are only found in rural areas. On the other hand, as we can see, the infrastructures are rarely found because of the less development from the authorities in rural area. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 1996, the roads, electricity supplies, telecommunication, and other infrastructure services are limited in all rural areas. Therefore, the authorities in Malaysia like FELDA have start their projects to develop and improve the quality of living spaces in rural areas. P a g e | 35 FNBE0115
  36. 36. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Map of Janda Baik Map 3.1 P a g e | 36 FNBE0115
  37. 37. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Satellite View of Janda Baik Map 3.2 P a g e | 37 FNBE0115
  38. 38. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Introduction to Janda Baik, Pahang On the first week of March (1 March-3 March ), my group members and I were accompanied by the subjects of ENBE lecturers- Puan Norhayati and Mr. Angus, for a 3 days 2 nights site visit to Janda Baik,Pahang. Janda Baik is a simple traditional Malay kampung or small village with a population of opproximately 1000 people and was categorized as a rural area in Pahang, Malaysia. The place is located 45km from Kuala Lumpur with an hour's drive by using Karak Highway. It is a peaceful surrounded by thick rainforest with streams and waterfalls. According to its history, “Janda Baik” means “the good widow” in Malay. As the story is told by local folks, in the old days a path that connects Selangor and Pahang beats its way through the village, It was said that a mercenary, who was returning after fighting in a civil war in Selangor stopped at the village for a rest and to nurse some wounds he had sustained in battle. Upon seeing this ragtag team in the vicinity, a kindly widow immediately offered help and tended to the mercenary’s wounds. The man was thankful and deeply cherished the kindness. As a mark of respectful for this kind widow, the leader of the warrior pack would always advise his men to call on the woman whenever they were in the vicinity. As Janda Baik is a rural area, the place provides a quite retreat from the hustle and bustle of city life. The tourists who visit there can enjoy the nature and extremely activities such as jungle trekking, waterfalls and water rafting where they are not found in urban and suburban area. Due to the preserving and protecting action of the authorities of Janda Baik, its ecological system and beautiful nature have been maintained, also the original existing concept of Malay kampung (village) environment and development have sustained. Besides, P a g e | 38 FNBE0115
  39. 39. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General the authorities have also improve the safety issues of infrastructures and facilities as the road which connected the places in Janda Baik are narrow and it is dangerous when driving in dark. Figure 3.1 shows the entrance of Janda Baik, Pahang. Source: http://pienkcat.blogspot.com Figure 3.2 Figure 3.2 shows the view of living place of villagers of Janda Baik. P a g e | 39 FNBE0115
  40. 40. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General 1. TRAFFIC LIGHT Traffic light is road signal for directing vehicular traffic by means of coloured lights, typically red for stop, green for go, and yellow for proceed with caution. It also called as stoplight or traffic signal which used to control the flow of traffic. In rural areas such as Janda Baik was not much of traffic and road as well, thus there are no traffic lights found in Janda Baik. However, there are some hazard lights can be seen along the narrow road of Janda Baik. Figure 3.3 shows the straight road in Janda Baik where it was found that there is no traffic light on the road. P a g e | 40 FNBE0115
  41. 41. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General 1.1 HAZARD LIGHT According to the dictionary, hazard light is an automotive engineering when flashing simultaneously to indicate that the vehicle is stationary and temporarily obstructing the traffic. It also called as hazard warning lights hazard. Majority of the hazard lights were placed at the side of road or the place where road is under construction. It also used to alert the drivers to be more careful when driving at that current place. Figure 3.4 Figure 3.4 shows hazard light is found at the area of school. P a g e | 41 FNBE0115
  42. 42. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General 2. PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY Pedestrian walkway is a walk consisting of a paved area for pedestrians, usually found beside a street or roadway. Walkways are the portion of the public right-ofway that provides a separated area for people traveling on foot and they are safe, accessible, and aesthetically pleasing attract pedestrians. In Janda Baik, we can found there are some pedestrian walkway such as pathways, stairs and bridges in the resorts and roads. Figure 3.4 Figure 3.4 shows that the pathway is built and used for pedestrians to walk along the lake to avoid pedestrians to be too close to the lake. P a g e | 42 FNBE0115
  43. 43. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 3.5 Figure 3.5 shows that the stairs is built at the slope to make sure it will be more convenient for pedestrians to climb uphill. Figure 3.7 P a g e | 43 FNBE0115
  44. 44. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 3.7 shows the pathway in Teratak Melaya Resort that made by rocks where tourists can safely across the river and enjoy the nature that only found in rural area. Figure 3.6 Figure 3.6 shows that the bridge is used for pedestrians to across the river. P a g e | 44 FNBE0115
  45. 45. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Map 3.2 Map 3.2 shows that the bridges to across the river found in Janda Baik. Source: http://trikkead.blogspot.com/2013_02_01_archive.html P a g e | 45 FNBE0115
  46. 46. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General 3. STREET LIGHTS Street light is one of the series of lights that are usually attached to tall poles, placed at intervals along a public street or roadway, and are illuminated from dusk to dawn. It also called as lamp post. In Janda Baik, the numbers of street light are very less on the road. This is because the villages are seldom going out and most of them will stay at home at night. However, the street light can be found at the main road of the entrance of Janda Baik and the entrance of resorts. This is because the entrance of Janda Baik is narrow and curve, thus the street light is used to make sure it will be easier for driver to drive on the road and avoid the accidents happen. Figure 3.8 Figure 3.8 shows that the lamp post is found at the entrance of Janda Baik. Source: http://280808lifesharing.blogspot.com/2011/01/janda-baik-pahang.html P a g e | 46 FNBE0115
  47. 47. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 3.9 Figure 3.9 shows that lamp posts are rarely found in Janda Baik. Most of them are placed at the entrances of resorts. Figure 3.10 shows that the lamp post is found on the way to Teratak Resort where we are checked in. P a g e | 47 FNBE0115
  48. 48. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General 4. ROAD SIGNS Road sign is a sign that giving information or instructions to road users. It is also a type of traffic sign that indicates a hazard ahead on the road that may not be readily apparent to a driver. The road sign is usually contain a symbol which is easily for the drivers to read it and understand it and it can always be found at the side of the road. There are two types of road signs which are signboards and safety signs. Signboard is a sign which provides specific information or instructions by geometric shape, colours and a symbol or pictogram, without written words, which is rendered visible by lighting of sufficient intensity. While safety sign is a sign referring to a specific object, activity or situation and providing an illuminated sign, an acoustic signal, and verbal communication or a hand signal. Figure 3.11 Figure 3.11 shows the signboard which shows the way to Janda Baik. Source: http://ignorantbrat.blogspot.com/2012_07_01_archive.html P a g e | 48 FNBE0115
  49. 49. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Figure 3.12 Figure 3.12 shows the Chevron (arrowhead) safety sign at the entrance of Janda Baik. Chevron (arrowhead) signs are the signs that usually posted in groups to guide drivers around the sharp curves in the road. The Chevron signs can always found at the side of the road in Janda Baik as most of them are placed at the sharp corner of the road to remind the drivers to drive slowly and carefully. P a g e | 49 FNBE0115
  50. 50. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL, SUBURBAN AND URBAN AREAS Human settlement areas are classified depending on lot of things, countries, state, rural, suburban and urban. The common way to classify a residential area is according to rural, suburban and urban. Rural areas are characterized with having small, tight-knit communities. Ever seen those shows, where everyone knows everyone else, well that is a rural community. Rural areas are classified according to their small population and having farming abilities. It is an open swatch of the land that has few homes or other buildings and it has a very low density of population. Many people in rural areas are considered to be farmers. Rural areas are more community based people and depend on social gatherings and other similar events. Their homes and business are located far away from one another. The roads, electricity supplies, telecommunication and other infrastructure services are limited in all rural areas. This is due to the less development from the authorities. Suburban surround major cities and are typically made up of single-family detached residences, and typically have more green space and a lower population density than the urban area. Compared to rural area, suburbs usually have greater population density, higher standards of living, more complex road systems, more franchised stores and restaurants, and less farmland and wildlife. Suburban areas have been continuously expanding father from the city. This is called suburban sprawl. Suburban areas can offer a different lifestyle than the city. Transportation of suburban plays an important role in the life of a suburban resident who usually commutes to work. Suburbs typically have longer travel times to work than traditional neighborhoods. This is due to the poor suburban P a g e | 50 FNBE0115
  51. 51. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General systems, longer travel distances and the inefficiency of traffic distributing. People living in the same suburban usually share similar backgrounds with regard to raise, social economic. The population in Malaysia is concentrated largely in urban area. Urban area is a built-up and populated area that includes a municipality and generally has a population of 5000 or more. It can be cities, towns or conurbations. Lifestyle in urban areas is considered to be fast paced, people are often depicted as workaholics or having an active social life. As the population grows, urban areas are densely packed with man-made structures with the little open space within their boundaries. Urban areas are usually laid out in right angles to each other forming a grid, or the streets run towards the centre of the city and meet at a central point. Economy in urban areas is the backbone of the economy of a country due to the rise of industry. The rise of industry have provided more jobs opportunities and encouraged more people to migrate to the cities. Many infrastructures are built to accommodate the people's needs because people are usually moving around to their destinations. P a g e | 51 FNBE0115
  52. 52. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General COMPARISON BETWEEN JANDA BAIK, DESA PARK CITY AND BUKIT BINTANG Criteria Rural Suburban Urban Janda Baik No. Only have hazard lights when there is any road constructions or land slide occurring. Desa Park City Yes. There are few traffic lights near Desa Park City. The frequency of traffic light is low because the traffic flow in not as heave as in urban area . Bukit Bintang Yes. There are lots of traffic lights. Few positioned at T-junction between Pavilion Mall and Sephora building in front of Starhill gallery as well as Fahrenheit shopping mall. Pedestrian walkway Yes. Main functions are river crossing and road crossing. Usually hanging bridge for river crossing. Yes. Main functions are road crossing and lake crossing. Yes. Main function is road crossing. Mostly airconditioned with instructed facilities. Street light Yes. Main entrance of the Janda Baik and the resort Yes. Many street lights along the roadside beside the lake Road sign Yes. Direction signs, arrow signs, road work signs and landslide signs. Yes. Pedestrian crossing signs Yes. Many along the roadside. Has its own style and design. Functions as ornaments and spotlight. Yes. Pedestrian crossing signs, road work signs, warning signs, land indication signs and construction signs. Traffic light Table 4.1 P a g e | 52 FNBE0115
  53. 53. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General Table 4.1 shows the comparison of infrastructure between rural area, suburban area and urban area. We had chosen Janda Baik as rural area, Desa Park City as suburban area and Bukit Bintang as urban area. In the aspect of infrastructure, we have chosen road safety as our topic to discuss about. Four types of infrastructure that we have chosen are traffic light, pedestrian walkway, street light and road sign. Based on our course study and some research on the 3 locations, we have found out that these 3 areas have quite a lot of differences in infrastructure. Traffic light are signaling device that positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossing and other places to control competing flows of traffic. There is no traffic light in Janda Baik while Desa Park City and Bukit Bintang Have. At Bukit Bintang, the traffic lights can be found at the T-junction between Pavilion Mall and Sephora building in front of Starhill Gallery as well as Fahrenhet shopping mall. There are only few traffic lights at Desa Park City as the traffic flow is not heavy as the Bukit Bintang. There are pedestrian walkway at Janda Baik, Desa Park City and Bukit Bintang. The pedestrian walkway is functions differently at different places. The main function at Janda Baik is river crossing and some are road crossing. While at Desa Park City, the main functions of pedestrian are road crossing and river crossing. The main function of pedestrian walkway at Bukit Bintang is road crossing. Street lights serve vital functions during the night. They light up the streets so that pedestrians have clearer sight view at night. It is a source of light on the P a g e | 53 FNBE0115
  54. 54. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General edge of a road or walkway, which can prevent accidents and ensure safety. Street light can be found at Janda Baik, Desa Park City and Bukit Bintang. There are only few street lights at the entrance of Janda Baik and the resort. There are many street lights along the roadside beside the lake at Desa Park City. It is to ensure people’s safety at night. The street lights at Bukit Bintang are all along the roadside and has its own design. It is functions as ornaments and spotlight. The road sign is used for the purpose of giving out information on a number of issues. These signs are vital because it can help us to avoid accidents on the road and help maintain discipline on the road. There are road signs at Janda Baik, Desa Park City and Bukit Bintang. The road signs are most seen at Bukit Bintang. There are pedestrian crossing signs, road work signs, warning signs, land indication signs and construction signs. P a g e | 54 FNBE0115
  55. 55. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General CONCLUSION After our course study and some research, we have concluded that there are very much differences in the context of infrastructure in rural area, suburban area and urban area. The differences are quite obvious especially when we compare the rural area, Janda Baik to urban area, Bukit Bintang. As for suburban area, Desa Park City, there are slight differences in the context of infrastructure as compared to Bukit Bintang. In the context of infrastructure, we can see that Janda Baik is the less developed compared to Desa Park City and Bukit Bintang. Janda Baik has a very scattered and random setting whereas Desa Park City and Bukit Bintang are well planned and developed. Janda Baik does not have specific places being focused for development , nevertheless, most of them are left to be in their natural and original condition. Urban areas like Bukit Bintang provide large job opportunities to the people of the country. That is why economy in urban areas is the backbone of the economy of a country. Since urban areas provide complete, efficient and sufficient infrastructures, people living in cities lead a more comfortable life with much more convenience as compared to those living in rural areas. In fact, residents living in suburban areas often commute to the cities for work. We can see how the suburban will probably upgrade to an urban area if the progress of its modernization and urbanization continues. It is reported that 72.2 % total population of urban areas in 2012, which shows that Malaysia is developing rapidly each year. P a g e | 55 FNBE0115
  56. 56. Case Study of The Rural, Suburban And Rural Context Infrastructure In General We as good citizens should know about the road safety. Road safety refers to methods and measures for reducing the risk of a person who using the road network being killed or seriously injured. The four types of infrastructure that we have chosen to discuss about play a vital part in ensuring the safety of every traffic users on road. P a g e | 56 FNBE0115

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