Tugas Kelompok Man Logistik - Inventory - Syamsir Abduh


Published on

Materi Presentasi Tugas kelompok Manajemen Logistik dengan topik Inventori.
Lecture: Prof.Ir. Syamsir Abduh , MM, Ph.D

"Power = Knowledge Shared"

Published in: Business, Technology
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • http://www.managementstudyguide.com/inventory-classification.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InventoryPSCM moduleshttp://www.slideshare.net/Lordnikhil/inventory-management-amazon
  • inventory is to be maintained for consumption during 'variations in lead time'.
  • Jikatidakmemiliki enough supplyLoss of sales from delay in supply Loss of goodwill and delayed payment from customers if orders are not delivered in full Higher transportation costs to fill “rush” orders Disruption of the production process Inefficient production scheduling Purchasing of small volume supplies at high prices to meet shortages Quality or specification differences due to the need to call upon other sources
  • Tipeinventorididasarkanpada independent demand dan dependant demand.Independent DemandFinished goods Items, which are ordered by External Customers or manufactured for stock and sale, are called independent demand items.Independent demands for inventories are based on confirmed Customer orders, forecasts, estimates and past historical data.Dependant DemandIf the demand for inventory of an item is dependant upon another item, such demands are categorized as dependant demand.Raw materials and component inventories are dependant upon the demand for Finished Goods and hence can be called as Dependant demand inventories.Take the example of a Car. The car as finished goods is an held produced and held in inventory as independent demand item, while the raw materials and components used in the manufacture of the Finished Goods - Car derives its demand from the demand for the Car and hence is characterized as dependant demand inventory.This differentiation is necessary because the inventory management systems and process are different for both categories.While Finished Goods inventories which is characterized by Independent demand, are managed with sales order process and supply chain management processes and are based on sales forecasts, the dependant demand for raw materials and components to manufacture the finished goods is managed through MRP -Material Resources Planning or ERP -Enterprise Resource Planning using models such as Just In Time, Kanban and other concepts.http://www.managementstudyguide.com/inventory-classification.htm
  • Good inventory Management practices in the company help by adding value in terms of having control over and maintaining lean inventory. Inventory should not be too much or too less.Review Inventory periodically and revise stocking patterns and normsInventory is dependant upon the demand as well as the supply chain delivery time. Often companies follow one stocking policy for all items. For example, all A, B & C categories may be stocking inventory of 15 days, which may not be the right thing that is required. While some items may have a longer lead-time thus affecting the inventory holding, the demand pattern and the hit frequency in terms of past data may show up differently for each of the inventory items. Therefore one standard norm does not suit all and can lead to over stocking of inventory as well as in efficiencies in the system.Get into detailed inventory planning - One size does not fit allUnderstand the inventory types and the specific characteristics of the items you are carrying. Then build the inventory stocking parameters taking into account the unique characteristics of the particular inventory.From amongst your inventory list, you will find that all types of materials are not of the same value. Some might be very expensive and need to be carried in stock for a longer period, while another item might have a shorter lead-time and may be fast moving. Quite a few items often have shelf life and hence require separate norms and focus to manage such items.Getting into the detailed understanding will help you identify the inventory-stocking norm required to manage these characteristics to ensure optimum efficiency. The solution quite often may not be to carry stocks, rather it may involve setting up the customer service standard for such items and specifying a delivery time depending upon the frequency of demand. Quite a few items often have shelf life and hence require separate norms and focus to manage such items.Study demand pattern, movement patterns and cycles to build suitable inventory norms for different categories of inventoryCompanies which are into retail segments and dealing with huge inventories in terms of number of parts as well as value will necessarily need to ensure they practice review of inventory list and clean up operations on ongoing basis.Popularly known as catalogue management, inventory norms review should be carried out based on detailed study of the sales data, demand pattern, sales cycles etc. Understanding of the business and sales cycles specific to the product category helps one manage inventories better. For example, in case of retail garments, with every season certain skus become redundant no matter how their demand was in the previous months. This helps identify those stocks which are required to be managed at a micro level and identify the high value and fast moving items that need to be always on the radar to avoid stock outs.It does not help for example to carry standard stocks of all items including low value items as well as high value items. If the low value items are locally available and the lead-time is less, one can cut down on the inventory and change the buying pattern. Similarly high value items too can be managed by cutting down the delivery lead times and in turn reducing inventory.It helps to periodically study the past data and extrapolate the same to identify slow moving and obsolete items. The dead stocks should be flushed out and active catalogue items should be made available.
  • Tugas Kelompok Man Logistik - Inventory - Syamsir Abduh

    2. 2. Definition Inventory adalah kumpulan bahan mentah, barang jadi, supplies ataupun komponen yang disimpan dalam suatu periode waktu.
    3. 3. Definition (cont.) Inventory Management adalah suatu cara untuk mengoptimalkan material yang di- inventory dalam hal memenuhi kebutuhan customer. (Planning & Controlling)
    4. 4. Inventory Cycle
    5. 5. Inventory Reason - SCM Time lags - Supplier delivery interval - Bulk buying - Reorder Interval - Bulk storing - Bulk movement - Uncertain demand - Uncertain supply - Uncertain goods movement
    6. 6. How much inventory to hold Maintain inventory: a. Input man is in touch with output man b. Person who knows the water demand
    7. 7. Warehouse Decisions: • Proximity to suppliers & customers • Clear & certain • Road or rail access • Drainage & security • Availability of essential services • Capacity of the site for future expansion • Taxes • Rental vs. self-build • Outsourced warehouse services
    8. 8. Warehouse U-Flow Warehouse layout
    9. 9. Warehouse Video – proposed warehouse layout
    10. 10. Pallets and Racks
    11. 11. Types of Inventory Independent Demand Tidak tergantung permintaan dari item lain. - Confirm customer order - Stock & sale items - Forecast - Historical data Dependant Demand Tergantung permintaan dari item lain
    12. 12. Inventory Cost Carrying costs biaya simpan atau “carrying” inventori pada periode tertentu. • Inventory Storage Cost: - Rental Building - Facility maintenance - Material handling - IT hardware and applications - Depreciation - Consumables - Communication cost & utility • Cost of Capital: - Cost of invesment - Taxes - Insurance - Interest of working capital
    13. 13. Inventory Cost (Cont.) Ordering costs Berhubungan dengan pesanan per sekali pesan. Ex: PO, recording, accounting. Excess High Inventory Cost Less Ordering cost & Replenishment cost Stock Out costs Biaya yang terjadi sebagai kerugian akibat demand tidak terpenuhi pada periode tertentu (sementara/permanen).Ex: Urgent request, loss of reputation.
    14. 14. Total Biaya Inventori (TC) Keterangan: R = demand tahunan dalam unit P = Biaya pembelian sebuah item C = Biaya pesan per order H = PF = Biaya simpan per unit per tahun Q = lot size or order quantity dalam unit F = annual holding cost as a fraction of unit cost
    15. 15. Bullwhip Effect Dikenal juga dengan sebutan Forrester Effect.
    16. 16. Bullwhip Effect (Cont.) Penyebab Bullwhip Effect adalah: a. Planning Error (Forecast Error) b. Behavioral. Solusi: • Vendor Managed Inventory • Just in Time • Strategic Partnership • Information Sharing • Eliminate pathological incentives. Ex. Diskon, low price etc. • Kanban
    17. 17. MRP Key Requirement: • The need for accurate Bills of Materials • The need for accurate stock status data • The need for quality demand forecasts • The importance of having realistic Master Production Schedules • The need for accurate lead-time forecasting • The importance of having trained warehouse staf
    18. 18. DRP DRP (Distribution Resource Planning) Meningkatkan manajemen terhadap barang jadi (finished product) dan pengawasan transportasi untuk barang-barang tersebut dalam multi-level distribution supply chain.
    19. 19. JIT (Just In Time) Suatu sistem produksi yang dirancang untuk mendapatkan kualitas, menekan biaya, dan mencapai waktu penyerahan seefisien mungkin. dengan menghapus seluruh jenis pemborosan yang terdapat dalam proses produksi sehingga perusahaan mampu menyerahkan produknya (baik barang maupun jasa) sesuai kehendak konsumen tepat waktu
    20. 20. JIT (Cont.) Keuntungan: • Cycle time lebih pendek • WIP berkurang • Masalah kualitas dapat diketahui lebih dini • Mengurangi waste & keterlambatan
    21. 21. JIT + MRP
    22. 22. ABC analysis Metode pembuatan grup atau penggolongan berdasarkan peringkat nilai dari nilai tertinggi hingga terendah (critical to less critical) Kategori: High Value 60-70% 10-20% of Company’s total stock Review regularly to Purchasing avoid stock-out Tight control
    23. 23. ABC analysis (Cont.) Kategori: Moderately 20-30% Review 20-30% of Company’s total stock Purchasing Adequate documentation 10-15% 60-70% of Company’s Rarely review total stock Purchasing Basic & Simple record
    24. 24. Example of ABC Class.Item Annual Usage in No. Units Unit Cost-$ Usage in Dollars Percentage of Total Dollar Usage 1 5,000 1.5 7,500 2.90% 2 1,500 8 12,000 4.70% 3 10,000 10.5 105,000 41.20% 4 6,000 2 12,000 4.70% 5 7,500 0.5 3,750 1.50% 6 6,000 13.6 81,000 32.00% 7 5,000 0.75 3,750 1.50% 8 4,500 1.25 5,625 2.20% 9 7,000 2.5 17,500 6.90% 10 3,000 2 6,000 2.40%Total $254,725 100.00%
    25. 25. Item Annual Usage in No. Unit Cost-$ Usage in Percentage of Total Dollar Classification Units Dollars Usage 3 10,000 10.5 105,000 41.20% A 6 6,000 13.6 81,000 32.00% B 9 7,000 2.5 17,500 6.90% C 2 1,500 8 12,000 4.70% C 4 6,000 2 12,000 4.70% C 1 5,000 1.5 7,500 2.90% C10 3,000 2 6,000 2.40% C 8 4,500 1.25 5,625 2.20% C 5 7,500 0.5 3,750 1.50% C 7 5,000 0.75 3,750 1.50% C
    26. 26. SKU Description Classification of Inventory RemarksProcessor Chips A Class Kept under High Value Storage/Asset Tracking / Access Control requiredMemory Chips A Class Kept under High Value Storage/Asset Tracking / Access Control requiredHard Disk / Storage Media A Class Kept under High Value Storage/Asset Tracking / Access Control requiredSoftware License A Class Kept under High Value Storage/Asset Tracking / Access Control requiredDisk Drives A Class Normal Storage / Access Control RequiredCabinet / Case B Class Normal ProceduresBattery Pack B Class Normal ProceduresMonitor A Class Normal Storage / Access Control RequiredKeyboard B Class Normal ProceduresTraining Manuals C Class Minimal ProceduresMouse B Class Normal ProceduresStickers C Class Minimal ProceduresScrews & Nuts C Class Minimal ProceduresPower Cord C Class Minimal ProceduresStarter Assembly Pack-Instructions C Class Minimal Procedures
    27. 27. Inventory Coding Card-based
    28. 28. Inventory Coding Computer-based Speed-up data collection & reduce errors
    29. 29. Case – AMAZON. COM
    30. 30.  “In the physical world It’s the old saw: location, location, location. The three most important things for us are technology, technology, technology” (Just computers). Jeff Bezos, CEO, Amazon. Launch 1995 Office: Seattle and Coffeyville Six Global website One click shopping – customer review – E-mail confirmation order. Books, CD, DVD, Electronics, computer software, video games, furniture, food etc.
    31. 31.  In 1991, sales grow 170% but inventory 650% When inventory > sales  they’re not selling as they’re buying. Solutions: • Direct purchase from publishers • Upgrade inventory software • Placed products at one points.Ex: CD and CD Player. • Outsourced
    32. 32. Inventory Outsourced Stock only popular items and the rest from distibutors. Outside distributors: Cellphones, computer, books. Cellstar handle Cellphones. Ingram Micro handle computers.
    33. 33.  Advantages of outsourcing: • Concentrate on main activities • Reduce inventory holding cost • Earn more profits • Free working capital • Warehouse could handle thrice the volumes • Reduce shipping charges (drop-shipment)
    34. 34.  Improvement: • Wrong inventory reduced from 12% to 4%. • In 1991, deficit $2,86 billion. th • First profit, $5 million in the 4 quarter of 2001. • In 2002, sales $3,93 billion which was 26%higher than sales 2001. • Cost of operating warehouse reduced from 20% to 10% whereas capacity increased 3 times. • Inventory turnover 20 times
    35. 35. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventory PSCM (Procurement&Supply Chain Management) modules http://www.slideshare.net/Lordnikhil/inventory- management-amazon http://www.managementstudyguide.com/inventory- classification.htm
    36. 36. Q&A Dicky Wahyudi1. Bagaimana hubungan forecasting divisi Inventory dengan divisi marketing? Jawab: Setiap divisi memiliki misi yang dijalankan secara terpisah dengan divisi yang lain, tetapi misi-misi tersebut bermuara pada suatu tujuan yang sama yaitu visi perusahaan. Forecasting yang dilakukan oleh masing-masing divisi merupakan salah satu action plan yang dijalankan dalam menjaga KPI masing-masing divisi. Misalnya divisi marketing meramalkan akan terjadinya lonjakan permintaan mobil 6 bulan kedepan dikarenakan beberapa action plan yang dilakukan oleh divisi marketing dalam hal advertising, diskon ataupun program lainnya. Oleh karena itu, pihak marketing harus memberitahukan kepada pihak Divisi Inventory management mengenai hal tersebut agar divisi inventory tidak terjadi stock-out menjelang lonjakan permintaan tersebut. Oleh karena itu, divisi inventory akan melakukan forecasting mengenai quantity dan penjadwalan mengenai kapan pemesanan raw materials/komponen akan dilakukan baik untuk raw materials, komponen ataupun spare parts untuk mobil-mobil tersebut.
    37. 37. Q&A2. Suatu perusahaan otomotif memiliki kontrak kerjasama pemesanan sebanyak 80.000 komponen dengan suatu supplier yang berlokasi di Thailand. Sehubungan dengan musibah banjir yang sedang melanda Thailand, apa tindakan yang dapat dilakukan oleh perusahaan? Jawab: Beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan oleh perusahaan adalah:  Internal (Secondary Vendor) Biasanya suatu perusahaan ketika akan melakukan kerjasama dengan suatu perusahaan dalam hal supplai material maka akan dilakukan proses tender. Dari hasil tender yang dilakukan dapat dilihat siapa yang akan menjadi secondary vendor ketika primary vendor tidak dapat mensupplai material yang diberikan. Sehingga ketika terjadi force majure maka perusahaan tidak terlalu sulit untuk mencari pengganti supplier yang dapat mensupplai material/komponen yang dibutuhkan.  External (Customer Service) Sebaiknya perusahaan tidak memberitahukan masalah internal yang sedang terjadi pada perusahaan dikarenakan hal tersebut dapat merusak image dan kepercayaan customer terhadap perusahaan. Customer juga tidak perduli dengan apa yang sedang terjadi pada perusahaan dikarenakan customer memiliki atas uang yang telah dikeluarkan oleh mereka. Apabila force majure tetap terjadi maka perusahaan berkewajiban untuk meminta maaf dan memberikan kompensasi atas kekecewaan customer. Saat ini, perusahan-perusahan sudah memiliki CRM (Customer Relationship Management) yang membantu perusahaan dalam menjaga dan menghargai customer mereka.
    38. 38. Q&A3. Bagaimana peranan JIT jika dihubungkan dengan forecasting? Jawab: Konsep JIT secara singkat adalah suatu perusahaan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan client tepat waktu, tepat quantity dan tepat lokasi ketika dibutuhkan. Ketika suatu perusahaan meramalkan akan kebutuhan komponen untuk beberapa waktu kedepan sesuai dengan jadwal produksi maka hal tersebut telah diinfokan kepada suppliernya untuk mengadakan permintaan tersebut. Supplier kemudian akan meramalkan seberapa banyak quantity yang akan diperlukan oleh perusahaan dan safety stock yang dibutuhkan untuk permintaan tersebut. Supplier juga harus meramalkan fluktuasi harga yang dapat terjadi dikarenakan bisa saja kerjasama dilakukan untuk beberapa tahun kedepan. Dari ilustrasi diatas, dapat dikatakan bahwa JIT adalah sebagai action plan dari forecasting yang dilakukan oleh suatu perusahaan.