MICROBIOLOGY                                  Topic                        VACCINES                    SUBMITTED BY:      ...
What is a Vaccine?o A vaccine is a non-pathogenic antigen that mimics aparticular pathogen in order to elicit an immune re...
TYPES OF VACCINES        Vaccine                               ExamplesImmunoglobulin (IG)     Varicella Zoster IG        ...
VACCINE COMPOSITIONComponent                     Purpose                                ExampleAdjuvants       enhance the...
ACTIVE VACCINEStimulates Humoral Immune Response,Cellular   Immune Response or Both, with the aim of  protecting against o...
comparison of different vaccine types        LIVE VACCINES (ATTENUATED)                                               (MMR...
comparison of different vaccine types                 KILLED VACCINES                                            (Polio an...
Attenuated vaccines           Killed(Inactivated) vaccinesProduction Virulent pathogen is grown under    Virulent pathogen...
comparison of different vaccine types                        TOXOIDES                                       (Tetanus and D...
SUBUNIT VACCINESSUBUNIT VACCINES ARE DEFINED AS THOSE      CONTAINING ONE OR MORE         PURE OR SEMI-PURE              A...
comparison of different vaccine types       SUBUNIT VACCINES (NON-RECOMBINANT)Constituent proteins of bacteria or virus ar...
RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT VACCINES•Identify and isolate a specific gene fromvirulent bacteria or virus (gene that codesimmuno pr...
comparison of different vaccine types         RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT VACCINESAdvantages: No risk of pathogenicity Defined c...
comparison of different vaccine types             RECOMBINANT VECTOR VACCINES Based on microorganisms such as viruses or ...
comparison of different vaccine types          RECOMBINANT GENE DELETED VACCINES Involves isolation and removal of viral g...
comparison of different vaccine types           RECOMBINANT VIRAL VECTOR VACCINES• Isolate an immunoprotective protein gen...
comparison of different vaccine types          RECOMBINANT VIRAL VECTOR VACCINESAdvantages:• Risk of reversion to virulenc...
DNA VACCINEUses only the DNA from infectious organisms.Avoid the risk of using actual infectious organism.Provide both ...
TRANSITIONAL VACCINEUses weakened or killed form of infectious organism.Create possible risk of the vaccine being fatal....
CONTRAINDICATIONS & PRECAUTIONS  Vaccine                 Contraindication                               PrecautionsAll vac...
CAUSES OF VACCINE    FAILURE
VACCINE FAILURE• Primary failure  – an individual fails to make an adequate immune response    to the initial vaccination ...
Veterinary Advice: Vaccination           Failure • vaccination             1) The clinical disease is   failure or failure...
CAUSES OF VACCINE                    FAILURE•   USE OF EXPIRED VACCINE              •   COLD AND HIGH DENSITY STRESS•   GE...
USE OF EXPIRED VACCINE                     GENETIC RESISTENCE•    Vaccines are expired by many         •   The major histo...
IMPROPER STORAGE OF VACCINES             HEALTH STATUS OF THE FLOCK•    This is the most common cause       •   The infect...
IMMUNO SUPPRESSION DUE TO DRUGS              MYCOTOXINS                                   •   Presence of mycotoxin in the...
WATER DEPRIVATION AND HEAT STRESS                   GEONETICS•   Due to water deprivation the        •   Means simply the ...
COLD & HIGH DENSITY STRESS           VACCINATION REACTIONS•   These are social stress as well   •   Adverse vaccine reacti...
PRESENCE OF AMMONIA IN HOUSES        POOR NUTRITION•   Hypoproteinemia especially      •    On the port of entry from wher...
ADMINISTRATION ERRORS_QUALITY OF WATERWater quality is poor in most of the areas ofPakistan, particularly in salinity affe...
PRESENCE OF VARIANTS IN FIELD     MATERNAL ANTIBODIES•   High maternal antibodies inhibit        •    It has been observed...
POOR ANTIGENICITY OF VACCINES                         INTERFERENCE•   Live vaccines must be applied at a      •   Do not g...
Vaccines,types,composition & failure etc
Vaccines,types,composition & failure etc
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Vaccines,types,composition & failure etc

11,959 views
11,475 views

Published on

Dr.Waqas Nawaz
PMAS arid agriculture university Rawalpindi

Published in: Lifestyle
3 Comments
60 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • and become fully informed with a purpose to encourage independent research and critical thinking and not parrot what someone has heard all of their lives.
    A. I have many recommended books, DVD's, Documentaries and websites that you can learn from in my power point
    http://www.slideshare.net/db61/exposing-the-myth-of-vaccination-essential-information-you-need-to-know-to-be-fully-informed-30978670?qid=144d3297-fe17-4eb8-bd7d-d92656e9c477&v=default&b=&from_search=1
    B. A great place to start is at this website composed of physicians, read the articles and listen to their presentations
    http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/start-here-2/
    C. Recommended Books and media
    http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/books-and-media/

    D. Dr. Sherrie Tenpenny's Vaccine Research Library is a one-of-a-kind collection of over 6,000 medical and scientific studies revealing truth about vaccine dangers. The information has been amassed by sifting through tens of thousands of medical abstracts and full text articles hosted in Pubmed, Scholar, Quertle, Biomed Central and more. Complex information has been extracted from scientific journals such as Nature and Science, and from releases by the CDC, FDA, NIH, HHS, and Pharmcast. The evidence has been examined and categorized. The Vaccine Research Library is a no-nonsense, sobering collection of the actual clinical studies and papers telling “The Other Side of the Story.”
    http://tenpennyimc.com/2012/03/04/announcing-the-vaccine-research-library/
    D. Conflicts of interest. This is just the tip of the ice burg on this subject.
    http://www.cbsnews.com/news/how-independent-are-vaccine-defenders/
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Polio and how it was never eradicated but the diagnostics was changed with the stroke of a pen and was reclassified as transverse myelitis (which there are over 1,000 cases every year just of this one disease) and many other diseases. The horrible photos of the iron lung were replaced with the modern day ventilator and the ECMO http://www.dellchildrens.net/services_and_programs/ecmo/what_is_ecmo/how_does_ecmo The ventilator and ECMO do not stand out as much as the iron lung but they perform the same function, to aid the Pt (Patient) in breathing or to breath for the Pt.
    A. http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/2013/02/15/dr-suzanne-humphries-discusses-vaccines-and-polio-video/
    B. Purchase “Dissolving Illusions, Disease,, Vaccination and the Forgotten History” 2013, for the most accurate history on vaccination by Dr. Suzanne Humphries. Great details on the history of Polio and other diseases and the lies that are the foundation of vaccination.
    http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/books-and-media/
    C. Jabs, Jenner and Juggernauts: a Look at Vaccination By Jennifer Craig
    The lies behind small pox and Edward Jenners work
    http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/books-and-media/
    D. Jenner and Vaccination: A Strange Chapter of Medical History By Charles Creighton
    http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/books-and-media/

    2. The second driving force of vaccination is the myth of herd immunity and it is morally and ethically wrong not to vaccinate because of others weakened immune system. Herd immunity is only achieved by a community acquiring the disease naturally and passing on the antibodies in breast milk. Benefits are a lifelong immunity and a stronger immune system, two benefits that can not be achieved with vaccination.
    A. http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/2012/07/05/herd-immunity-the-flawed-science-and-failures-of-mass-vaccination-suzanne-humphries-md-3/
    B. http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/2012/02/18/the-deadly-impossibility-of-herd-immunity-through-vaccination-by-dr-russell-blaylock/

    3. The third driving force is the belief that vaccines will prevent the disease the Pt was vaccinated against.
    Short videos and articles of outbreaks within the the vaccinated (not protected as advertised) and caused by the vaccinated.
    A. http://experimentalvaccines.org/2014/03/31/new-york-measles-outbreak-90-vaccinated/
    B. http://experimentalvaccines.org/2014/04/03/ohio-mumps-outbreak-97-vaccinated/
    C. http://experimentalvaccines.org/2014/03/25/mumps-outbreak-involves-highly-vaccinated-students/
    D. http://experimentalvaccines.org/2014/01/31/cfr-council-on-fake-realities-vaccine-created-outbreaks-map/
    E. http://experimentalvaccines.org/2014/04/04/fda-vaccine-insert-lists-autism-as-adverse-reaction/
    F. http://experimentalvaccines.org/2013/10/09/91-fully-vaccinated-involved-in-pertussis-outbreak/

    G, 17 more vaccine failures
    http://vactruth.com/2013/02/23/17-examples-of-vaccine-failure/

    H. http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/04/23/measles-outbreak-traced-to-fully-vaccinated-patient-for-first-time/

    After over 1,000 hours of research on my own I was compelled to create a source of factual information for those who want to learn more about the who, what, where, why and how of vaccination
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The articles and short videos below show why vaccines do not protect and do cause damage and death to the vaccinated some are physiologically expressed as in Autism, ADD, ADHD, MS, SIDS, Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), Allergies and autoimmune diseases and others hidden beneath the surface by ways of creating a weaker immune system. Read the articles so you will understand that what is written in this power point 'All about vaccines' is very incomplete and erroneous.
    It is very important to understand the immune system before you decide to bypass natures and GOD's natural defenses, the mucosa of the lungs, throat and nose, the stomach, and the skin with an assault on the immune system and body with untested chemicals, neurotoxins, DNA from caterpillars, DNA from dog Kidneys, DNA from aborted fetus tissue, additional contaminating viruses, live viruses that shed for up to 28 days causing others to become ill, protein from peanuts that are used as an excipient plays a major role in contributing to the serious peanut allergy epidemic in America and much, much more for you to learn and be aware of before you can say that you are fully informed.

    First of all, vaccine damage and death is much more common than 1:1,000,000 as you are told.
    A. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/04/26/vaccines-adverse-reaction.aspx
    B. An article in JAMA estimated that 1:4000 will experience an adverse reaction, a lot more than the one in a million that is quoted or written.
    Reference: JAMA, June 19, 1999 vol. 281, no.21, pg.2132
    C. How Vaccines Harm Child Brain Development - Dr Russell Blaylock MD (neurosurgeon, researcher)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7QBcMYqlaDs#t=417 88 minutes
    D. How the studies that doctors site as evidence are skewed (lied about) in the pharmaceuticals favor and how vitamin D3 is much more effective against the Flu and Influenza like illness (ILI) than the Flu vaccine.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-3yrrgkcLY&feature=youtube 8 minutes
    I go into 3 other ways that the pharmaceuticals twist and distort the truth in my power point below.

    It is very important to understand how the immune system works and why vaccines do not protect us and that the reasons for the massive decline of disease is due to sanitation, improved nutrition, clean drinking water, and washing hands. All these that we take for granted in the modern world the third world countries do not have and is the reason why disease persists on a larger scale. The billions we spend on vaccination will be much better served in sanitation, clean drinking water and food sustainability like culturing spirulina as is being done in Africa https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxSA5iiGgiY
    A. http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/2011/06/10/basics-of-the-human-immune-system-prior-to-introduction-of-vaccines-are-vaccines-turning-our-children%E2%80%99s-immune-systems-inside-out/
    B. http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/2011/06/21/risks-damage-basics-of-the-human-immune-system-prior-to-introduction-of-vaccines-are-vaccines-turning-our-childrens-immune-systems-inside-out-part-2/
    C. http://pathwaystofamilywellness.org/Informed-Choice/how-do-vaccines-work-immune-mechanisms-and-consequences.html
    D. http://www.vaccineriskawareness.com/Your-Immune-System-How-It-Works-And-How-Vaccines-Damage-It


    The 3 driving forces of vaccination are listed below with fear as a common denominator to vaccinate.

    1. The belief that polio and smallpox were eradicated is a major force in peoples belief system to subject themselves to vaccine damage and death. Listen to Dr.Suzanne Humphries presentation on
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
11,959
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
25
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
3
Likes
60
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Vaccines,types,composition & failure etc

  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGY Topic VACCINES SUBMITTED BY: 11-arid-974 11-arid-975 11-arid-978 11-arid-979SUBMITTED TO: 11-arid-980 11-arid-981 11-arid-982 11-arid-983Dr.Saif-ur-Rehman 11-arid-985 11-arid-986 11-arid-988 11-arid-990
  2. 2. What is a Vaccine?o A vaccine is a non-pathogenic antigen that mimics aparticular pathogen in order to elicit an immune response as ifthat actual pathogen were in the body.o The overall goal of a vaccine is to establish immunityagainst that particular pathogen.
  3. 3. TYPES OF VACCINES Vaccine ExamplesImmunoglobulin (IG) Varicella Zoster IG Human Normal IG Hep B IG, Tetanus IGAnti-toxins Diphtheria anti-toxin Botulinum anti-toxinInactivated/subunit Diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis /inactivatedvaccine polio/Haemophilus influenzae b (DTaP/IPV/Hib) Meningococcal C (MenC), Pneumcoccal (PPV & PCV) Human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) Hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV),Live attenuated Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Yellow fever
  4. 4. VACCINE COMPOSITIONComponent Purpose ExampleAdjuvants enhance the immune response to a aluminium salts vaccinePreservatives prevent bacterial or fungal contamination thiomersal of vaccineAdditives stabilise vaccines from adverse gelatine conditions such as freeze-drying or heat, thereby maintaining a vaccine’s potencyResiduals from Inactivating agents formaldehydemanufacturingprocess Antibiotics - prevent bacterial neomycin, streptomycin, contamination during manufacturing polymyxin B process Egg proteins- some vaccine viruses are grown in chick embryo cells influenza, yellow fever Yeast proteins Hep.B vaccine
  5. 5. ACTIVE VACCINEStimulates Humoral Immune Response,Cellular Immune Response or Both, with the aim of protecting against or eliminating a pathogen PASSIVE VACCINEPreparation of Abs, Protect against a pathogen ordisease and is administered before, at or around the time of known or potential exposure
  6. 6. comparison of different vaccine types LIVE VACCINES (ATTENUATED) (MMR, Oral Polio)Advantages: One or few doses required Long lasting protection Both humoral and cellular responsesDisadvantages: Controlled attenuation normally required Poorly defined composition Risk of reversion to pathogenicity Certain risk of transmission
  7. 7. comparison of different vaccine types KILLED VACCINES (Polio and Influenza)Advantages: No risk of reversion to pathogenicity No risk of transmissionDisadvantages: Multiple dose typically required Poorly defined composition Antigen produced by cultivation of a pathogen Mainly humoral responses Adjuvants normally needed
  8. 8. Attenuated vaccines Killed(Inactivated) vaccinesProduction Virulent pathogen is grown under Virulent pathogen is inactivated by abnormal culture conditions for chemicals or irradiations. attenuationBooster Generally requires only a single Requires multiple boostersrequireme booster.ntRelative Less stable More stable on storageStabilityType of Humoral and cell mediated Mainly humoralimmunityinducedReversion May revert to virulent form and Cannot revert to virulent formtendency cause disease.Adjuvents Unnecessary Required for most vaccinesInflammat Less chances More chances of mounting anory allegic reactionresponseCost Reletively cheap Relatively costly
  9. 9. comparison of different vaccine types TOXOIDES (Tetanus and Diphtheria)Advantages: Product is devoid of live organism Implies greater safetyDisadvantages: Multiple dose typically required Relatively expensive to manufacture Cultivation of a pathogen for toxin production
  10. 10. SUBUNIT VACCINESSUBUNIT VACCINES ARE DEFINED AS THOSE CONTAINING ONE OR MORE PURE OR SEMI-PURE ANTIGENS
  11. 11. comparison of different vaccine types SUBUNIT VACCINES (NON-RECOMBINANT)Constituent proteins of bacteria or virus are isolated and purifiedAdvantages: Defined Composition Various delivery systems availableDisadvantages: Antigens must be produced and purified by cultivation of apathogen Multiple doses typically required Adjuvant needed
  12. 12. RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT VACCINES•Identify and isolate a specific gene fromvirulent bacteria or virus (gene that codesimmuno protective protein).•Gene is inserted into plasmid DNA and ligated with ligase.•New (engineered) plasmid inserted into Target gene another bacterium (transform).•Allowed to grow and actually produce the antigenic protein.•The vaccine is comprised of purifiedproteins recovered from the expression vector.
  13. 13. comparison of different vaccine types RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT VACCINESAdvantages: No risk of pathogenicity Defined composition Various delivery systems Simplified large scale production Further engineering possibleDisadvantages: Multiple doses typically require Adjuvants needed
  14. 14. comparison of different vaccine types RECOMBINANT VECTOR VACCINES Based on microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria that do notcause disease in target animals or humans. The viruses or bacteria are used as vectors, or carriers, to deliverharmless genes into the cells of the body. The body produces proteins from the genes and these proteinsstimulate an immune response against the specific protein.
  15. 15. comparison of different vaccine types RECOMBINANT GENE DELETED VACCINES Involves isolation and removal of viral gene(s) that code for “non- required” proteins This process is intended to decrease the virulence of the virus making it suitable for administration in vaccineAdvantages: The absence of specific antigens from the virus can be used todifferentiate between vaccine virus and natural (“wild-type”) virus.Disadvantages: Potential exists for virus to revert to its original, virulent state. Degree of protection could be limited since immune response is
  16. 16. comparison of different vaccine types RECOMBINANT VIRAL VECTOR VACCINES• Isolate an immunoprotective protein gene from a virulent virus.• Clone the gene to a vector of a non virulent virus.• These live vectored vaccines are being used to not only controlinfectious diseases of domestic animals, but of wildlife as well.• This approach has resulted in a dramatic reduction intransmission of RABIES from wildlife to domestic animals andhumans. This would not have been possible by conventionalmethods.
  17. 17. comparison of different vaccine types RECOMBINANT VIRAL VECTOR VACCINESAdvantages:• Risk of reversion to virulence is eliminated if virus vector is notcapable of intracellular replication.• Both CMI and Humoral Immunity is good if the vector is capableof intracellular replication.Disadvantages:• Weak CMI response if vector is incapable of intracellularreplication.• The vaccine utilizes very specific protective proteins. The immuneresponse may be reduced in some animals.
  18. 18. DNA VACCINEUses only the DNA from infectious organisms.Avoid the risk of using actual infectious organism.Provide both Humoral & Cell mediated immunityRefrigeration is not required
  19. 19. TRANSITIONAL VACCINEUses weakened or killed form of infectious organism.Create possible risk of the vaccine being fatal.Provide primarily Humoral immunityUsually requires Refrigeration.
  20. 20. CONTRAINDICATIONS & PRECAUTIONS Vaccine Contraindication PrecautionsAll vaccines •A confirmed anaphylactic reaction to •If individual acutely unwell on day of a previous dose of the vaccine or to a vaccination, postpone until recovered(live and component of the vaccineinactivated) •PregnancyDTP •As above •If evidence of evolving neurological abnormality or current neurological deterioration, including poorly controlled epilepsy, immunisation should be deferred until condition stabilisedInfluenza •As above and additionally: •Where possible, thiomersal free influenza vaccines recommended for pregnant •Individuals with confirmed women and infants anaphylactic hypersensitivity to egg productsLive vaccines •As above and additionally: •If ITP following previous MMR vaccine,(MMR, varicella) perform antibody test •Immunocompromising treatment or condition •If confirmed anaphylactic reaction to egg, seek further advice with view to •Pregnancy immunisation under controlled conditions
  21. 21. CAUSES OF VACCINE FAILURE
  22. 22. VACCINE FAILURE• Primary failure – an individual fails to make an adequate immune response to the initial vaccination (e.g. in about 10% of measles and mumps vaccine recipients) The primary cause of vaccine failure is an interfering level of maternal antibody.• Secondary failure – an individual makes an adequate immune response initially but then immunity wanes over time (a feature of most inactivated vaccines, hence the need for boosters)
  23. 23. Veterinary Advice: Vaccination Failure • vaccination 1) The clinical disease is failure or failure of being caused by the immunization occurs vaccine itself (live vaccines only) because of one of two OR reasons: 2) The clinical disease is being caused by a wild- type, infectious disease organism that has infected the animal from its local environment
  24. 24. CAUSES OF VACCINE FAILURE• USE OF EXPIRED VACCINE • COLD AND HIGH DENSITY STRESS• GENETIC RESISTENCE • POOR NUTRITION• IMPROPER STORAGE OF VACCINES • PRESENCE OF AMMONIA IN HOUSES• HEALTH STATUS OF THE FLOCK • ADMINISTRATION ERRORS QUALITY OF WATER• IMMUNO SUPPRESSION DUE TO DRUGS • MATERNAL ANTIBODIES• MYCOTOXINS • PRESENCE OF VARIANT IN FIELD• WATER DEPRIVATION AND HEAT STRESS • POOR ANTIGENICITY OF VACCINES• GEONETICS • INTERFERENCE• VACCINATION REATIONS
  25. 25. USE OF EXPIRED VACCINE GENETIC RESISTENCE• Vaccines are expired by many • The major histocompatibility ways, among the most common complex varies from bird to are the expired in storage due bird and its structure dictates if to sale, expired in storage due a bird will respond to an to sale, expired due to less shelf antigen at all. Due to some life ( it must be year plus when structural lacks in MHC it is reached in Pakistan ) expired possibility that the birds are supply by the manufacturer recognize the one of the only with few months in hand. antigens. Therefore that strain of birds might be more susceptible to pathogen.
  26. 26. IMPROPER STORAGE OF VACCINES HEALTH STATUS OF THE FLOCK• This is the most common cause • The infectious agents such as of vaccine failure in routine Chicken Anemia Agent (Circo uses of vaccines. This might be virus), Gumboro Disease Virus due to transportation from (Birna virus), Marek’s Disease market to farm or from Virus (Herpes Virus ), REO manufacturer to distributor to Virus, Salmonella and market, failure of electricity, Mycoplasma etc. may cause failure of refrigerators, storage varying degree negative in deep freezers, exposure of immunomodulation which sunlight. consequently may lead to Ignoring the use of ice box, vaccinal failure or adverse coolers or thermos and using reaction in the face of these the translucent thin membrane disease shoppers permitting the sunlight exposure.
  27. 27. IMMUNO SUPPRESSION DUE TO DRUGS MYCOTOXINS • Presence of mycotoxin in the• Continuous administration of feed affect the vaccinal Immuno-suppressive drugs response very badly. Mycotoxin such as chloramphenicol, reduce host immunity directly furazolidone may cause cause by reducing the Macrophage poor immunity development. engulfing tendency and production of toxin, lymphocytes which give poor out put in immunity development. Mycotoxin indirectly affect the bird by producing steroids from the adrenal glands which decrease the lymphocytes and increase the neutrophils by the virtue of increased nutrophil the bird become Immune compromised.
  28. 28. WATER DEPRIVATION AND HEAT STRESS GEONETICS• Due to water deprivation the • Means simply the geographical bird is exposed to heat stress. influence on the geonetics of Due to heat stress lot of steroid local poultry population. The production do occur which geonetical influence may affect decrease the lymphocytes the ultimate response of birds produce the antibodies. This is to vaccine under indigenous common observation that the environments and may result in dehydrated and heat exposed vaccine failure. The difference birds commonly infected with pay more if they are present in coli septicemia and other MHC. diseases
  29. 29. COLD & HIGH DENSITY STRESS VACCINATION REACTIONS• These are social stress as well • Adverse vaccine reaction, as stress like heat stress and however do not serve a useful decrease the immunity by purpose and should be decreasing the number of prevented if at all possible. lymphocyte, which is the Several factors can affect the factory of antibodies. severity of the reaction that occur. These include: • Chick quality • Level of maternal antibodies • Vaccine strain • Doses of vaccine used • Route of application • Timing of vaccination • Immuno suppression • House sanitation • Down time • Water,litter and air quality
  30. 30. PRESENCE OF AMMONIA IN HOUSES POOR NUTRITION• Hypoproteinemia especially • On the port of entry from where the protein hurt the immune pathogens are entered the body to response as antibodies are produce infection there are some host defense mechanism which made up of amino acids. Poor prevent the entry of pathogens. nutrition causes problem with Hairs cilia moist membranes are metabolism, protein synthesis among the preventive cushions. and immunity. The moist membranes of or the mucous membranes among the gut , trachea, nostrils and bronchi produce Immunoglobulin .a through the lymphocytes present on the surface of these organs. This is called secretory immune mechanism and it is watch dog on the port of entry.
  31. 31. ADMINISTRATION ERRORS_QUALITY OF WATERWater quality is poor in most of the areas ofPakistan, particularly in salinity affectedareas such as Faisalabad, Sheikhupura andMultan Division, where the salt level is half ofthe sea water and EC even in Islamabad is600-2000. Poor water quality and high saltconcentration produce ill effect on thevaccine diluted in such kind of water.
  32. 32. PRESENCE OF VARIANTS IN FIELD MATERNAL ANTIBODIES• High maternal antibodies inhibit • It has been observed that with the chicken immune response. It the emergence of new variants has negative feed back effect on B the classical vaccines are no lymphocytes. Moreover high levels more effective to control the of maternal antibodies against infectious agent such as Gumboro, disease. Classical vaccine of also play a role in neutralizing the gumboro is missing the VP-2 vaccinal antigen thus making the protien therefore it is not vaccine less effective and effective against field variant or designing the vaccine program strain. The hot intermediate more difficult. Due to high and intermediate plus do have maternal antibodies not only the the VP-2 protein and can vaccinal antigen is destroyed but penetrate up to the site of also the maternal antibodies are proliferation. In the same also destroyed leaving the bird exposed to field challenge if earlier manner classical IB is no more vaccination in high titer is done. effective against IB variants.
  33. 33. POOR ANTIGENICITY OF VACCINES INTERFERENCE• Live vaccines must be applied at a • Do not give live respiratory level at or above the minimum vaccines (IB,ND,ILT) within 3 infective dose. After the live virus to 4 days if not combined by the has been applied the bird serves as manufacturer in licensed a virus production site. The bird is combination. Reaction may be media in which the initial dose of vaccine can multiply to a level too great or response to the which will stimulate a proper later vaccine may be immune response. For potency compromised due to testing of vaccines, always contact interference. This is also true in well facilitated Lab. Inactivated case of ND and AI vaccine. Do vaccines should contain sufficient ND vaccine earlier than amount of antigen to stimulate an proceed for AI vaccine. immune response when applied the bird as there is no multiplication of the virus of bacteria in the bird.

×