The muscles of the thoracic limb (2)


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Dr. Waqas Nawaz
PMAS arid agriculture university rawalpindi

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The muscles of the thoracic limb (2)

  1. 1. The Muscles Of The Thoracic Limb/Fore Limb
  2. 2. The Muscles Of The Shoulder GirdleThis group consists of those muscles which connect the thoracic limb with the head,neck,and trunk.It consists of two divisions------Dorsal& Ventral. A.Dorsal DivisionThis division consists of two layers. First LayerSr.No Name Of Muscle Horse Ox Dog Origin Insertion Ox Ox Mid-dorsal raphe & Scapular Spine Thin,Divided supraspinous Dog Flat,Triangular,Divid into cervical ligament Scapular Spine ed into two parts by Thick,Wide & thoracic Dog an aponeurotic & Undivided portions by Mid-dorsal raphe & portion aponeurosis supraspinous 1. Trapezius ligament (a) Horse Horse Funicular part of Scapular Spine & Trapezius Cervacalis nuchal ligament fascia of shoulder & arm (b) Arises by a Horse Horse Trapezius Thoracalis narrow,thin Supraspinous Tuber spine of aponeurosis ligament scapula Second LayerSr.No Name Of Muscle Horse Ox Dog Origin Insertion
  3. 3. Has one Ox Ox part Nuchal ligament Dorsal border Dog & adjacent This consists of Rhomboide This consists of Nuchal ligament, scapula two parts us three parts 4th – 6th thoracic Dog Cervicalis spine Same to Ox (a) (a) Horse Horse Rhomboideus Rhomboideus Funicular part of Medial surface Cervicalis Cervicalis nuchal ligament of cartilage of Dog scapula Nuchal ligament as Dog far forward as C2 or Medial surface2.. Rhomboideus C3 of cervical angle of scapula (b) (b) Horse Horse Rhomboideus Rhomboideus Spinous process of Medial surface Thoracalis Thoracalis 2nd to 7th thoracic of cartilage of vertebra by means scapula Cervical part is Small of dorso-scapular Dog narrow,pointed at ligament Medial surface its anterior Dog of dorsal angle extremity 4 - 6th or 7th th of scapula thoracic spine (c) Rhomboideus Capitis It is a narrow band Nuchal crest
  4. 4. Horse Horse Lumbo-dorsal fascia Teres Ox tuberosity of Thoraco-lumbar humerus,in fascia common with Dog teres major 3. Latissimus Dorsi Wide,Right Broadest Extensive,Broades Thoraco-lumbar Ox angled triangular muscle of t muscle of the fascia Teres the back back tuberosity of humerus Dog Teres tuberosity of humerus B.Ventral DivisionSr.No Name Of Muscle Horse Ox Dog Origin Insertion
  5. 5. Extends along the Horse Horse side of neck from (1)Mastoid Deltoid head to Separated into two Separated process of tuberosity & arm,Incompletely parts by clavicle into two parts temporal bone crest of divisible into two by clavicle & nuchal crest humerus,& portions (2) Wing of the fascia of (a) (a) (a) atlas & shoulder & Cleido-mastoideus Cleido-occipitalis Cleido-cervic transverse arm alis process of Ox Attached to mastoid Arises on occipital C2,C3,C4 Deltoid process & occipital bone & nuchal Wider & Ox tuberosity bone by a broad ligament attached to Occipital and fascia of tendon median raphe bone, nuchal limb4. Brachiocephalicus of neck & to ligament, Dog occipital bone mastoid Median (b) (b) (b) process raphe of Cleido-transversarius Cleido-mastoideus Cleido-mastoi Dog neck & deus Clavicle occipital Attached to Smaller & arises bone. The transverse processes by round tendon Narrow & ventral part by four fleshy on mastoid attached to attaches to digitations process & rectus mastoid mastoid capitis ventralis process process major,& by thin tendon on mandible Ox Ox Cranial Cranial(des sternum cending): Dog crest of Cranial humerus sternum distal to deltoid tuberosity Thinner than in Undivided Caudal(tran
  6. 6. This is of two types horse & its two & sverse): parts are not so Small covers elbow clearly separable joint to insert on medial fascia of forearm Dog Superficial Same to OX5. Pectoral Muscle (a) Horse Horse Anterior Superficial Cariniform (1)Deltoid Pectoral Muscle cartilage of tuberosity & sternum crest of Short,Thick,Somewh humerus at (2)Fascia of rounded,Superficially arm it is convex & deeply it is flattened (b) Horse Horse Posterior Superficial (1)Ventral (1)Fascia on Pectoral Muscle edge of proximal 3rd sternum as far of forearm Wide,Thin & back as 6th (2)Curved Pale,Mixed with a cartilage line of good deal of fibrous (2)Fibrous humerus with tissue raphe preceding common to the muscle two muscles Ox Ox Ventral Anterior(su sternum and bclavius):su adjacent praspinatus cartilage m. More thicker & Undivided,Homolo Has no Dog Posterior(pe extensive than gue of subclavius scapular part Ventral ctoralis superficial muscle of man sternum and ascendens):
  7. 7. muscle,consists of adjacent lesser two parts cartilage tubercle of humerus Dog Same to Ox6. Deep Pectoral (a) Horse Horse Muscle Anterior Deep Anterior half of Aponeurosis Pectoral Muscle lateral surface which covers of sternum & supraspinatu Prismatic (like cartilages of s at its prism),entirely fleshy st dorsal end,& 1 four ribs scapular spine (b) Horse Horse Posterior Deep (1)Abdominal (1)Anterior Pectoral Muscle tunic part of (2)Xiphoid medial Largest of pectoral cartilage& tuberosity of group,triangular or ventral aspect humerus fan shaped,entirely of sternum (2)Anterior fleshy (3)Carttilages part of lateral of 4th -9th ribs tuberosity of humerus (3)Tendons of origin of coraco-brach ialis No clear Dog Dog Large,Fan Clearly divided division into Last five Upper part of shaped,Consists of into cervical & cervical & cervical costal two parts thoracic parts thoracic parts vertebrae & surface of first eight ribs scapula (a) (a) Horse Horse Serratus Cervicis Serratus Cervicis Transverse Cranial processes of triangular
  8. 8. Large last four or area on five cervical costal vertebrae surface of Ox scapula & adjacent part7. Serratus Ventralis C4-5TH rib of cartilage Ox Triangular area on antero-super ior part of costal surface of scapula (b) (b) Horse Horse Serratus Thoracis Serratus Thoracis Lateral Caudal surfaces of 1st triangular In domesticated Relatively thin & eight or nine area on animals there is no covered by very ribs costal clear division of strong Ox surface of muscle as is found in aponeurosis scapula & man & apes 4th-9th ribs adjacent part of cartilage Ox Middle & posterior parts of subscapulari s Ox Ox Wing of atlas Scapular & spine & Omo-transversariu inconstantly,tr fascia8. s Present & unites with Present Present ansverse Dog Cleido mastoideus process of Wing of atlas
  9. 9. muscle axis Dog Lower part of scapular spine
  10. 10. The Muscles Of The ShoulderThe muscles of this group arise on the scapula & end on the arm.They may be divided into two groups---- Lateral Group(covering thelateral) & Medial Group(Covering the costal) surface of scapula. A.Lateral GroupSr.No Name Of Muscle Horse Ox Dog Origin Insertion Clearly Clearly Horse Horse 1. Deltoideus Undivided,Ori divided into divided into (1)Upper part of Deltoid tuberosity & gin is partly acromial & scapular & posterior border brachial fascia fleshy,Widest scapular acromial parts scapula about its parts (2)Scapular spine middle (a) (a) Ox Ox Pars Pars Acromion Deltoid tuberosity on Acromialis Acromialis Dog humerus Length of scapular Dog
  11. 11. Short,thick & spine Fascia of lateral arm fusiform (b) (b) Ox Ox Pars Pars Caudal border of Deltoid tuberosity on Scapularis Scapularis scapula,Scapular humerus spine Dog Triangular Dog Same to Ox Lower edge of acromion Horse Horse Thin at its Supraspinous Anterior parts of2. Supraspinatus neck but Same to Large fossa,Spine,Lower proximal tuberosities becomes Horse part of scapular of humerus thicker cartilage Ox distally,Branch Ox Same to Horse ed Same to Horse Dog Dog Same to Horse Same to Horse Horse Horse Infraspinous fossa (1)Lateral tuberosity & Scapular of humerus cartilage (2)Posterior Ox eminence of lateral3. Infraspinatus Terminates at Terminates at Terminates at Same to Horse tuberosity 2 tendon 1 tendon 1 Dog tendon,Bipenn Same to Horse Ox ate, Same to Horse Round Dog Same to Horse Horse Horse (1)Rough lines on Deltoid tuberosity & distal & posterior a small area just part of infraspinous above it fossa Ox
  12. 12. (2)Caudal border of Same to Horse Flat,Triangular Same to Short & scapula Dog 4. Teres Minor ,Much smaller Horse Fusiform (3)Tubercle near Tubercle on upper than foregoing the rim of glenoid part of deltoid ridge muscles cavity Ox Same to Horse Dog Tubercle on caudal border of scapula B.Medial GroupSr.No Name Of Horse Ox Dog Origin Insertion Muscle Horse Horse Subscapular fossa Posterior Undivided, Ox eminence of Wide, Deep surface of medial tuberosity Divided,Flat & Divided into Multipennate scapula of humerus 5. Subscapularis Triangular,Base is 3 branches , thin Intersected Dog Ox by fibrous Same to Ox Medial tubercle of septa humerus Dog Same to Ox Horse Horse Caudal angle & Teres tuberosity adjacent caudal of humerus in border of scapula common with Ox latissimus dorsi Same to Horse Ox 6. Teres Major Flat,Widest at its Same to More Thick Dog Same to Horse middle,Most part is Horse Dorsal part of the Dog
  13. 13. fleshy caudal scapula Teres tuberosity midway down humerus Horse Horse Coracoid process Proximal shaft of of scapula humerus7. Coraco-brachiali Belly spreads out & Same to Short & Ox Ox s divided into two Horse Undivided Same to Horse Same to Horse parts belly Dog Dog Same to Horse Same to Horse Horse Horse Very Just above the Caudal surface of8. Capsularis small,Fleshy,One Absent Absent caudal part of rim shaft of half inch wide of glenoid cavity humerus,a short distance below head
  14. 14. The Muscles Of The ArmThis group consists of 5 muscles which are grouped around the humerus.They arise from the scapula & humerus,& inserted into theforearm.They act on the elbow joint & the fascia of the forearm.Sr.No Name Of Horse Ox Dog Origin Insertion Muscle Horse Horse Tuber scapulae (1)Radial Ox tuberosity Supraglenoid (2)Medial ligament Strong,Fusiform, tubercle of scapula of elbow joint Inclosed in a Smaller,Less Long,Fusiform, Dog (3)Fascia of 1. Biceps double sheath of tendinous,Situat Tendon of origin Same to Ox forearm & tendon Brachii fascia,Distally ed more medially is round,Tendon of extensor carpi divide in two than Horse of insertion is radialis parts,Tendon of bifid Ox origin is molded Medial tuberosity of proximal radius & adjacent ulna Dog Same to Ox Horse Horse Caudoproximal Craniomedial side side of humerus of proximal radius Ox 2. Brachialis Entirely fleshy Very little Spirals to insert curved Ox next to biceps Proximocaudal Dog humerus Spirals to insert Dog just proximal to Same to Ox biceps Horse Horse
  15. 15. (1)Tendon of (1)Deep fascia of insertion of forearm latissimus dorsi (2)Olecranon (2)Caudal border Ox Tenser of scapula (1)Fascia of3. Fasciae Thin Slender Thin & Narrow Ox forearm Antibrachii Tendon and lateral (2)Olecranon surface of the Dog latissimus dorsi Same to Ox Dog Same to Ox Clearly divided Divided into Divided into four into three heads three heads heads (a) (a) (a) Horse Horse Long Head Long Head Long Head Caudal border of Lateral & caudal scapula side of the Largest of three Ox olecranon heads,Powerul, Caudal margin of Ox Thick,Triangular scapula Olecranon4. Triceps Dog Dog Brachii Caudal margin of Same to Ox scapula (b) (b) (b) Horse Horse Lateral Head Lateral Head Lateral Head Humerus Lateral surface of Ox olecranon Strong,Quadrilate Shaft of humerus Ox ral,Thick belly Dog Olecranon Same to Ox Dog Same to Ox (c) (c) (c) Horse Horse Medial Head Medial Head Medial Head Medial side of Medial and cranial humerus side of olecranon. Smallest of More developed Very long Ox Ox three,Fleshy than Horse & Shaft of humerus Olecranon
  16. 16. except at its extends upto Dog Dog insertion neck of humerus Same to Ox Same to Ox (d) Dog Dog Accessory Head Shaft of humerus Olecranon Horse Horse5. Anconeus Small,Entirely Present Absent Distal 3rd of caudal Lateral surface of fleshy surface of olecranon humerus The Muscles Of The Forearm & Manus
  17. 17. A.Extensor DivisionSr.No Name Of Horse Ox Dog Origin Insertion Muscle Horse Horse (1)Lateral Metacarpal condyloid crest of tuberosity Extensor Largest muscle of humerus Ox 1. Carpi extensor Like that of Horse Like that of (2)Coronoid fossa 2 or 3rd nd Radialis division,Rounded Horse Ox metacarpal bone belly Lateral condyloid Dog crest of humerus 2 or 3rd nd Dog metacarpal bone Lateral condyloid crest of humerus Horse Horse (1)Distal (1)Extensor extremity of process of 3rd humerus phalanx Less (2)Proximal (2)Dorsal face of Common Bulky,Compound, At fetlock joint it Has four bellies extremity of proximal 2. Digital Fusiform belly divides into two radius extremities of 1st Extensor branches (3)Lateral surface & 2nd phalanges of shaft of ulna Ox Ox Extensor process (1)Lateral of distal phalanx epicondyle of of each digit humerus (2)Ulna Dog Dog Extensor process Lateral of the distal epicondyle of phalanx of each humerus digit
  18. 18. Ox Ox Lateral Dorsal proximal Medial epicondyle phalanges3. Digital Has two More superficial Dog Dog Extensor branches part Lateral condyloid nd 2 metacarpal crest bone Horse Horse (1)Lateral An eminence on tuberosity of front of proximal radius extremity of 1st (2)Shaft of ulna phalanx (3)Lateral Ox ligament of elbow 2 & 3rd nd joint phalanges of Lateral Pennate,Thin & Stronger than Not rarely fused Ox medial digit4. Digital fusiform belly Horse (2)Lateral Dog Extensor ligament of elbow Dorsal proximal joint phalanges of 3rd (2)Lateral to 5th digit tuberosity of radius & ulna Dog Lateral epicondyle of humerus Horse Horse Lateral border of Head of 2nd radius metacarpal Ox Ox Extensor Cranial radius Most medial5. Carpi Small,Pennate,Flat Same to Horse Abducts the 1st Dog metacarpal bone Obliquus belly, digit Cranial radius Dog st 1 metacarpal bone
  19. 19. B.Flexor Division Horse Horse Medial Proximal end of epicondyle of 2nd metacarpal humerus bone Short tendon of Ox Ox1. Flexor Carpi origin,Flat & fusiform Same to Horse Has bifid tendons Same to Horse Same to Horse Radialis belly Dog Dog Medial 2 & 3rd nd epicondyle of metacarpal bone humerus Horse Horse Medial Proximal edge Has two heads epicondyle of of accessory Humeral Head: Has two heads humerus carpal bone Larger,Flat,Curved,Tap Humeral Head: Ox Ox2. Flexor Carpi er at both ends Same to Horse Larger Same to Horse Same to Horse Ulnaris Ulnar Head: Ulnar Head: Dog Dog Smaller,Very thin Smaller Medial Accessory epicondyle for carpal bone humeral head Posterior border for ulnar head Horse Horse Lateral Accessory epicondyle of carpal bone & hunerus proximal side of Ox lateral splint
  20. 20. 3. Ulnaris Flat belly intersected by Same to Horse Large,Flat,Abducto Same to Horse bone Lateralis tendinous tissue r of paw Dog Ox Lateral Same to Horse epicondyle of Dog hunerus Accessory carpal bone & 5th metacarpal Horse Horse (1)Medial (1)Eminence on epicondyle of proximal humerus extremity of 2nd Blended at its (2)Caudal side phalanx origin with of radius (2)Distal4. Superficial Multipennate belly middle flexor of Ox extremity of 1st Digital fuses with deep carpus, Divides distally Digital annular phalanx Flexor flexor,Humeral head is Divides into two into four branches ligament Ox fleshy,Radial head is bellies(superfici Dog Palmar surface strong fibrous al & deep) Medial of middle epicondyle of phalanges humerus Dog Middle phalanges of all digits Horse Horse (1)Medial Semilunar crest epicondyle of & adjacent humerus surface of Same heads as in (2)Medial cartilage of 3rd Largest muscle of flexor Same heads as Horse surface of phalanx group, in Horse olecranon Ox Has three heads. Divides into two Passes through Ox Volar surfaces5. Deep One originates from branches near carpal canal before Medial of 3rd phalanges Digital humerus, one on distal end of branching & Then epicondyle of Dog Flexor proximal side of radius, metacarpus Gives off a branch humerus 3rd phalanges one on proximal side of to 1st digit & divides Dog of 2nd to 5th
  21. 21. ulna. into four branches Medial digits epicondyle of humerus Horse Horse Deep flexor Fibrous tissue Two very slender tendon under nodule of7. Lumbricales fusiform muscles Absent Very delicate Dog horn at fetlock Volar surface Dog of tendons of st 1 phalanges of deep flexor 3rd,4th,5th digits Horse Horse Proximal Fascia at fetlock More muscular extremity of Ox Three in than Horse Four in small Sesamoid bones number,Present in Divides into number,Well metacarpal & detach slips to8. Interossei metacarpal groove three & then developed & fleshy bone the extensor into five Ox tendons branches Distal row of Dog carpus & Same to Ox proximal ends of metacarpals Dog Same to Ox Ox Ox Metacarpal nd rd 2 &3 bone phalanges9. Pronator Absent Present Fusiform Dog Dog Teres Medial Dorsal surface & epicondyle of medial border of
  22. 22. humerus radius Dog Dog Pronator Consists of thin Palmar surface Interosseous10. Quadratus Absent Absent layer of fibers of radius & border of ulna interosseous ligament Dog Dog11. Palmaris Deep didital Superficial flexor Longus Absent Absent Small flexor below for 3rd & 4th middle of digits forearm Dog Dog12. Supinator Absent Absent Short,Flat,Fusiform Lateral Upper medial epicondyle of radius humerus Dog Dog Tendon of 1ST phalanges of13. Palmaris Absent Absent Very small superficial 3rd,4th,5th digits Brevis didital flexor at carpus Abductor Dog Dog14. Pollicis Absent Absent Very small,Pale Fibrous band Distal end of 1st Brevis connecting metacarpal bone superficial & 1st phalanx of flexor tendon 1st digit with medial carpal sesamoid Dog Dog Flexor Volar carpal Volar sesamoid15. Pollicis Absent Absent Present ligament over of 1st digit Brevis 2nd metacarpal bone Adductor Largest of the Dog Dog16. Pollicis Absent Present thumb muscles Interossous 1 phalanx of 1st st
  23. 23. muscle digit Adductor nd Dog Dog Present b/w 2 Digiti Absent Absent interossous muscle Volar carpal 1st phalanx of17. Secundi & adductor digiti ligament 2nd digit quinti Dog Dog18. Adductor Absent Absent Present Close to 1st phalanx of 5th Digiti Quinti preceeding digit muscle Dog Dog Ligament TH 5 digit with connecting next muscle19. Flexor Digiti Absent Absent Present accessory Quinti carpal to 3rd & 4th metacarpal bones Dog Dog Abductor Larger than two Accessory Lateral20. Digiti Quinti Absent Absent preceeding carpal bone sesamoid of 5th muscles digit & lateral ligaments