NERVES OF THORACIC LIMB Waqas Nawaz 11-Arid-975
Brachial plexusThe brachial plexus is a network of nerve fiber running from the spine formed byventral rami. of the lower four cervical and first thoracic nerve roots (C5-C8, T1). Itproceeds through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. It is abunch of nerves passing through the cervico-axillary canal to reach axilla andsupplies brachium, antebrachium and hand.The brachial plexus is responsible for cutaneous and muscular innervation ofentire limb.The trapezius muscle innervated by the spinal accessory nerve .An area of skin near the axilla innervated by the inter costobrachial nerve.Nerve from brachial plexus my be grouped as fallow:
Name of Nerves in Thoracic LimbPectoral nerveThoraco dorsal nerveLong thoracic nerve Lateral thoracic nerveSupra scapular nerveSub scapular nervePectoral nerveAxilary nerveRadial nerveMusculo cutaneous nerveMedial nerveUlnar nerve
Nerve In Extrinsic Muscle of Thoracic Limb1-Pectoral nerve: It is cranial to superficial muscle. and caudal to deeppectoral muscle.It leads to cleido brachialis muscle2-Thoraco dorsal nerve: The thoraco dorsal nerve is a nerve present in humansand other animals. It is also known as the middle sub scapular nerve orthe long sub scapular nerve. It supplies the latissimus dorsi muscle.
3-Long thoracic nerve: The nerve descends behind the brachial plexus and the axillary vessels, resting on the outer surface of the Serratus anterior. It extends along the side of the thorax to the lower border of that muscle, supplying filaments to each of its digitations (finger- like projections). Nerves that innervate intrinsic muscles of the scapular region:4-Supra scapular nerve: The suprascapular nerve arises from the upper trunk (formed by the union of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves. It innervates the Supra spinatous muscle and infra spinatus muscles.
5-Sub scapular nerve:The sub scapular nerves are innervated by the posterior division of the brachialplexus. These nerves are part of a group of nerves that innervate the musclesthat move the scapula. The upper sub scapular nerve inserts directly into theupper portion of the sub mscapularis muscle, thus innervating it. The lower subscapular nerve contains two branches. One branch inserts into the lower portionof the sub scapularis muscle and the other branch inserts into the teres major. Nerves that run to the lateral surface of the thoraciclimb:6-Pectoral nerve: It lies cranial to superficial muscle and caudal to deep pectoral muscle.7-Axillary nerve:Runs laterally, . It supplies flexors of shoulder joint (teres major andminor, deltoideus, and sub scapularis mIt supplies skin of the lateral brachium.
8-Radial nerve: It supplies extensor muscles of the elbow, carpus, and digits. It is sensory to the cranial surface of the antebrachium and the dorsum of the manus (except lateral surface of fifth digit). Nerves that run along the medial surface of the thoracic limb:9-Musculo cutaneous nerve: Supplies muscles that flex the elbow (biceps brachi andbrachialis) muscle & the cora cobrachialis m. It is sensory to the antebrachium(medial cutneous antebrachial nerve. 10-Median nerve: Innervates most of the muscles that flex the carpus & digits (caudal group of antebrachial muscles). It is sensory to the palmar surface of the manus, except for the fifth digit. 11-Ulnar nerve: Joins the median nerve in innervating muscles that flex the carpus & digits (caudal group of antebrachial muscles). It is sensory to the caudal surface of the antebrachium and the fifth digit.