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Dr. Waqas Nawaz
PMAS arid agriculture university rawalpindi

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  1. 1. Waqas Nawaz (11-ARID-975) ARTHROLOGY It is the study of jounts The Articulations of Joints An articulation or Joint is formed by the union of two or more bones or cartilages by other tissue. Bone isthe fundamental part of most joints, in some cases a bone and a cartilage, or two cartilages, form a joint.Joints may be classified:- a. Anatomically according to their mode of development, the nature of the uniting medium, and the form of the jount surfaces. b. Physiologically, with regard to the amount and kind of movement or the absence of mobility in them. c. By a combination of the foregoing considerations.Subdivisions Three chief subdivisions of joints are usually recognized on the basis of function:- a. Synarthroses b. Diarthroses c. Amphi-Arthroses1. SYNARTIHROSES / Fibrous joints In this group the segments are united by fibrous tissue or cartilageor a mixture of the two in such a manner as practically to preclude movement hence they are often termed fixdedor immovable joints. There is no cavity. Most of these joints are temporary
  2. 2. Classes:- The chief classes in this group of joints are as follows:-(1) Suture:- This term (Sutura) is applied to those joints in which the adjacent bones are closely united by fibroustissues the sutural ligament.Suture Serrata:- In many cases the edhes of the bones have irregular interlocking margins, forming trhesutura serratae.g the frontal suture.Sutura Squamosa:- In this, the edges are beveled and overlap, forming the sutura squamosae.g the parieto temporal sutureSutura Harmonia:- In this, the edges are plane or slightly roughened the term sutura harmonid is applied tothe joints.e.g the nasal suture.2. Syndesmosis:- In these the uniting medium is white fibrous or elastic tissue or a mixture.
  3. 3. Example :- Examples are the union of the shaft of the metacarpal bones and the attachments to each other ofcostal cartilages.3. Synchondrosis:- In these, the two bones are united by cartilage.e.g the joints between the basilar part of the occipital bone and the sphenoid bone. Very few joints arepermanent.4. Symphysis:- This term is usually limited to a few median joints which connect symmetrical parts of the skeleton.e.g Symphysis pelvis, symphysis mandible.5. Gomphosis:- This term is sometimes applied to the implantation of the teeth in the alveoli. The gomphosis is notproperly considered a joint at all sine the teeth are not parts of the skeleton.2. DIARTHROSES/SYNOVIAL JOINTS:-
  4. 4. These joints are characterized by the presence of a joint cavity with a synovial membrane in the joint capsule and by their mobility. They are often called movable or true joints. It is a functional joint, consists of synovial,fluid, articular cartilage, joint cavity, joint capsule, ligaments, particular discs or menisci and a marginal cartilage Ligaments are strong bands or membranes, usually composed of white fibrous tissue, which bird the bones together.Movements The movements of a joint are determined chiefly by the form and extent of joint surfaces and thearrangement of ligaments. They are usually classified as:-1. Gliding:- This refers to the sliding of are practically plane surface on another, as in the joints betweenthe articular processes of the cervical vertebrae.2. Angular Movements In these cases there is movement around one or more axisFlexionMotion which diminishes the angle included by the segments forming the joint.
  5. 5. Extension. Motion which tend to bring segments interline with each other is called extension with referenceto joints of distal parts of limbs.Term Dorsal, Volar or planter flexion in used. Similarly the term dorsal and ventral flexion are applied tocorresponding movement of spiral column. The term lateral flexion as applied to the vertebral column isevident. Depression, elevation & transverse movement of lower jaws fall in the category.3. Circumduction:- This designates movements in which the distal end of the limb describes as circleor a segment of one.4. Rotation:- This term is reserved to indicate rotation of one segment around the longitudinal axis of theother segment forming the joints. It is seen typically in atlanto axial joint.5. Adduction abduction:- Designate respectively movement of a limb toward and away form the medianplane or of a digit towards and away from the axis of the limb.Classification:- This is based on the form of the joint surfaces and the movements which occur. The followingchief classes may be recognized:-1. Arthrodia:- Or gliding joint. In these the surfaces are practically flat, admitting of gliding movement.Examples: Carpo-metacarpal joints, joints b/w the artalar processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae.2. Ginglymus :- Or hinge-joint In this case, the joint surfaces consists usually of two condyles, or of a segment of a cylindrical or cone,which are received by corresponding cavities .i.e around single transverse axis.Examples:- Atlanto - occipital and elbow joints.3. Trochoid:- Or pivot joint.
  6. 6. In these the movement is limited to rotation of one segment around the longitudinal axis.Examples:- Atlanto – axial joint.4. Enarthrosis:- Or ball-and-socket joints. These are formed by a surface of approximately spherical curvature, received into a corresponding cavity.They are multiaxial.Examples:- Hip and shoulder joints.3. AMPHIARTHROSES These joints, as the name indicates, share some characters with both of the preceding groups. In them thesegments are dircely united by a plate of fibro-carliage, and usually by ligaments also. The amount and kind ofmovement are determined by the shape of the joint surfaces and the amount and pliability of the uniting medium. These joints are nearly all medial in position, and are best illustrated by the joints between the bodies ofthe vertebrae.There is typically no joint cavity, but in certain situation one exists.
  8. 8. MEHMOOD UL HASSAN (11-ARID-940) ARTICULATIONS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND RIBS 1. ATLANTO-OCCIDITAL JOINT (YES JOINT)ANIMAL PARTICIDATING ONE FORM FUNCTIONSDOG Occipital condyles and cranial Filliptical joints, simple joint Hing joint, dorsal and articular fovea ventral flexorHORSE Occipital condyles and two deep Hing joint dorsal and oval cavities of atlas central flexor (lateral movement)OX Occipital condyies and cranial Hing joint dorsal and articular fovea of atlas bone ventral flexor (lateral movement) 2. ATLANTO – AXIAL JOINT
  9. 9. DOG Fovea of the dens and caudal Trochoid joint Axial rotation of the Simple joint articular fossa of the atlas, dens head on the neck, head and ventral articulation surface shaking of the densHORSE Atlas saddle-shape facets and Trochoid joints Atlas and the head Pivot joint reciprocal saddle shaped rotate upon the axis, surfaces extend upon the dens axis of rotation passes confident on ventral aspect through centre of body of axisOX Atlas saddle-shape facets and Trochoid joints Atlas and the head Pivot joint reciprocal saddle shaped rotate upon the axis, surfaces extend upon the dens axis of rotation passes confident on ventral aspect through centre of body of axis 3. JOINTS OF THE ARTICULAR PROCESSDOG Articular process of adjacent Plane joint Sliding joints
  10. 10. vertebraeHORSE “Articular process of adjacent Plane joint Sliding joints vertebraeOX “Articular process of adjacent Sliding joints vertebrae 4. COSTO – VERTEBRAL JOINTSDOG Articular surface of the head of Sphenoid joint composite joint Hinge joint that together the rib and caudal costal fovea with the vertebrae
  11. 11. of the more cranial vertebrae makes possible the and cranial costal fovea of the variation of thoracic more caudal vertebrae with volume in respiration which the ribs head articulateHORSE Each ribs form two joint by head Costo-central joint The movement is very Costo-transverse joint (costo-central) ad by tubercle limited in the anterior (costo-transverse joint) part of series of joints but considerable in the posterior partOX “Each ribs form two joint by Costo-central joint The movement is very Costo-transverse head (costo-central) ad by limited in the arterior tubercle (costo-transverse joint) part of series of joints but considerable in the posterior part 5. COSTOTRANSVERSE JOINT JOINTS OF RIB TUBERCLEDOG Articular surfaces of the costal Condylar joint Hinge joint Simple joint tubercle and the costal fovea of the transverse process of the
  12. 12. same numbered (more caudal vertebraeHORSE From by facet of the tubercle of Chiding joint Gliding joint the rib and on transverse Movement is very process of the vertebrae limitedOX There are no intertransverse Chiding joint Gliding joint joints form by facet of tubercle Movement is very of rib and transverse process of limited the vertebrae 6. STERNO – COSTAL JOINTDOG Cartilaginous ends of the first to Condylar joint Hinge joint Simple joint the eight rib and sternum
  13. 13. HORSE Cartilaginous ends of the first to Condylar joint Hinge joint Simple joint the eight rib and sternumOX Cartilaginous ends of the first to Inter-sternal joint Hinge joint the eight rib and sternum 7. COSTO-CHONDRAL SYNCHONOROSESDOG Costal bone and costal cartilage SynchondrosisHorse Nearly rigid and immoveable
  14. 14. Horse Rib has concave surface which Synarthrosis Nearly rigid and receive convex end of the immoveable cartilageOX Cartilages are attached to each Diarthrosis Limited lateral other by distinct elastic ligament movement is possible 8. STERNAL SYNCHONDROSISDOG Monubrium of the sternum of Synchondrosis Increasingly rigid and the body of the sternum xiphoid immoveable process
  15. 15. HORSE Seven bond segments are Synchondrosis Increasingly rigid and united by persisting cartilage in immoveable new-born foalOX First segment of sternum Diarthrodial inter sterna joint Increasingly rigid and immoveable 9. INTERVETEBRAL SYMPHYSIS (JOINTS BETWEEN ADJACENT VERTEBRAE)DOG Bodies of adjacent vertebrae Intervertebral disc without a space Slight mobility starting with the axis and
  16. 16. including it caudal vertebraeHORSE Bodies of adjacent vertebrae Intervertebral disc with a space Slight mobility starting with the axis and including the caudal vertebraeOX Intervertebral ligaments are Ingtervertebral disc with a space Slight mobility thicker than Horse
  18. 18. Huzaifa Shahid (11-arid-936) Hafiz Hussnain Ahmed (11=arid-935) Joints of forelimbThoraxic limb:- It includes the following jointsShoulder Joint:- Scapula-humeral joint. It is formed by the junction of distal end of scapula with proximal end of humerous. The articular surfaces are on the scapula, the glenoid cavity. On the jumerous the head. Ligaments are absent from this joint.Elbow Joint:- Cubital articulation. Trochelear surface formed by condyles of humerous. Glenoid cavivities and ridge.Radioulnar Proximal radio-ulnar articulationArticulation:- Carpal Joints Movement:- This is unappreciable, the forearm being fixed in position of pronation Radio Inter Carpometa Movement:- The chief movements are flextion andcarpal CarpalCarpal Joint extension. The dorsal part of capsule tense during flextion and volar part in extension. The movement practically all occurs at the radio-carpal and inter-carpal joints. The apposed surfaces of shaf ofbones are closely united by an interosseous metacarpal ligament.
  19. 19. The fetlock joint:- Metacarpo-phalangeal articulation. Movement:- Nature of flexion and extension. The articular angle is 140o. During volar flextion a small amount of abduction, adduction and rotation are possible.Pastern joint Proximal interphalanged articulation. It is present at distal end of 1st phalanx and proxical end of 2nd phalanx. Movement:- These are very limited. Flexion and extension occurs
  20. 20. The coffin joint Distal interphalageal articulation Movement:- Flextion and extension occurs. Dorsal flextion is very limited.
  21. 21. COMPARISION OF JOINTS OF FORE LIMB OF HORSE – OX & DOGFeatures Horse Ox DogShould joint (Joint Free movement but not 100o Free movementsCapsule) Articular angle exceed 33oLigaments Absent Present PresentAngle b/w scapula & 120o-130o - -humerousLigament nuchae Not better development Better developed Consists of small fibrous bandsJoint capsule (movement) Bones can be drawn - Communists freely about an inch (2-3 cm)In elbow joint 150o - ZooArticular angleLigaments of elbow joint Oblique + collateral - ObliqueRange of movement 55o to 60o Slightly oblique Limited rotation(in elbow joint) (fore arm more outward) FlexationCarpal joints Present Absent AbsentArthrodial jointMovements (in carpal Flaxation and extersionS - Free movementjoint)Carpometalcarpal 4 in number - 6 in dogligaments REFERENCE:-ANATOMY OF THE DOMESTIC ANIMALS BY:- SEPTIMUS SISSON
  22. 22. FATIMA ZAHRA NAQVI (11-ARID-934) JOINTS OF PELVIC LIMB Horse Ox Dog 1. Sacroilic jointLigament of sacroiliac joint This is joint and the pelvic ligamentDorsal and ventral parts,incorporated present no very striking differences.Into fibrous component of joint In other animal 2. SacrosciaticForms broad sheet leaving Greater and lesser ischiatic Narrow in the dog foramina. But strong band Over respective ischiatic notches. 3. Hip jointThis joint is an ebarthrosis formed The shallowness of the acetabulum No important differenceBy the proximal end of femur and is compensated by the greater sizeAcetabulum.Head of femur presents of the marginal cartilage which isalmost hemispherical articulure specially An radius of curvature thnSurface which is continued a short horseDistance on upper surface of the Neck
  23. 23. Horse Ox Dog 4. Ligaments of the hip jointa. Fibro cartilaginousExtends round rim of acetabulum To deepen and stabilize jointb. Accessory ligamentA detachment of pre-pubic tendon enters Absent in ox On head of femur,markedlyHip joint via acetabular notch and inserts restricting Abduction of hind limbc. Round LigamentShort and stout similar to other species Absent in ox Short and stout similar to other speciesd. Transverse acetabular ligamentAcetabulum across acetabular notch Absent AbsentAnd holds accessory ligament in place.Join capsule can be accessed deepBetween cranial and caudal parts ofGreater femoraltrochanter.
  24. 24. Horse Ox Dog 5. Stifle JointThis joint resemble that of pig. There is a considerable between The posterior part ofJoint of man is the largest and most the femoro-pateller and the capsule contain.elaborate of all the articulations.Taken communication femoro-tibial joint Two sesamoid bones whichas a whole ,it may be classified as cavities;this is situated between are imbedded in orgin of theginglymus,although it is not the the medial as in the horse,but GastrocnemiusTypical example of the group wider.A small contact . Lateral femoro-tibial capsule occurs 6. The femoro-pateller ligamentsa. Medial ligamentThinner and is not distinct It is not sunken as there is no Tibia where it is attachedFrom the capsule groove on the tuberosity of the femurea. Lateral LigamentLateral ligament is fairly Lateral ligament is fairly Lateral ligament is arises from the lateral arises from the lateral arises from the
  25. 25. Horse Ox DogEpicondyle of the femur just above the Epicondyle of the femur just above lateralLateral femoro-tibial ligament,and ends the Lateral femoro-tibial Epicondyle of the femur juston Lateral border of patella ligament,and ends on Lateral above the Lateral femoro-tibial border of patella ligament,and ends on Lateral border of patella 7. Hock jointThere is very considerable mobility from At the proximal intertarsal joint, the The long collateral ligamentsthe neck of the tibial tarsal to the fourth .Capsule of which is orrespondingly are very small, and short onestarsal and third metatarsal bones Roomy. The short lateral ligament double .The plantar ligament is attached distally on the tibia is weak, and ends on the tarsal only A strong transverse fourth metatarsl bone. No ligament attaches the lateral distinct dorsal ligamenii is malleulus to the backunless we present, regard as such a of the tibial tarsal bone. The dorsal ligament ligament is narrow and thin 7. Tibio-fibular JointsThis joint formed by the head of the The proximal end of the fibula The arrangement isfibula artic With a cresenting facet just fuses with the lateral condyles of essentially the same as [in rhe
  26. 26. Horse Ox Dogbelow ulating. The outer margin of the the tibia the distal end remains Pig, but there is nolateral condyle of the tibia .The joint separate,and form an arthrosis interosseus ligament in thecapsule is strong and close.The shaft of with the distal end erosseus the distal joint. Not uncommonlythe fibula by the interosseous tibia;the movement here is the distal part of the shaft ofmembrane of the Leg.This is perforated ligament in imperceptible,as the the fibula and tibia areabout about an inch from its proximal two bones are attached to the ankylosed.end by an opening which transmits lateral border of the tibia united byThe anterior tibial vessels to the front of strong peripheral fibersthe tibia. REFERENCE:-ANATOMY OF THE DOMESTIC ANIMALS BY:- SEPTIMUS SISSON