Networks (very large-scale) Polycentric Order International Institutions
The Anthopocene Planetary Boundaries“The Great Acceleration Three forces that Political shifts towards networked reshaping the are forms of governance PlanetCommunication Mass-Self Information Revolution
What are the long term institutional and organizational implications of information technology in the Anthropocene?Decreasing costs for Mass Self-Communication information
Bubonic Plage, Surat (India)1994In 1994 the spread of bubonic plague in the city of Surat deaths of 57 people, significant economic losses, and social and political effects. Over 300,000 people deserted the city (in two days!)
Late warnings, information overload and collapse
Development of web crawlerGPHIN at Health Canada (1995)ProMED - moderated e-mail listhosted by the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1994).
PNEUMONIA - CHINA (GUANGDONG): RFI**********************************Date: 10 Feb 2003From: Stephen O. Cunnion, MD, PhD, MPH<firstname.lastname@example.org>This morning I received this e-mail and then searched yourarchivesand found nothing that pertained to it. Does anyone knowanythingabout this problem?"Have you heard of an epidemic in Guangzhou? Anacquaintance of minefrom a teachers chat room lives there and reports that thehospitals there have been closed and people are dying."--Stephen O. Cunnion, MD, PhD, MPHInternational Consultants in Health, IncMember ASTM&H, ISTM<email@example.com>
“All of the sudden, we had a very powerful system that broughtin much more information from more countries, and we where able to go to countries conﬁdentially and validate what was going on, and if they needed help, we provided help. And we provided help by bringing together many different institutions from around the world that started to work with us.” David Heymann, WHO
Two new phenomena Collective Intelligence Supernetworks
Supernetworks “Networks of Networks” - interconnected atmultiple levels; information technology plays a key role; complex systemGlobal supply chain networks, ﬁnancial networks, knowledge networks and power grids (Nagurney et al 2006).
There is a bigger "networks of networks" […]. In GOARNyou have CDC, MSF and Red Cross. Which you also have inthe different coordination groups for meningitis vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. Or in global polio eradication. These are enormous, but some are very small and, you would bring in the global inﬂuenza with laboratories and national inﬂuenza centers. But that is the “network of networks” which has no substance, no deﬁned substance. Its there, the function, but in a highly chaotic, very undeﬁned way. Patrick Drury, GOARN/WHO.
European Centre for Disease Control, EpiNorth US-CDCGlobal Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) over 120 actors and others! Rotavirus Asian Surveillance Network Southern Cone EID Surveillance Network
David wanted to take the GPHIN business and what WHOwas doing, and develop a "network of networks". These would be highly unformalized, highly unstructured, as chaotic aspossible, because if we allowed it to coagulate or set down atany part of the WHO, the apparatus of the organization, […]would start to drag it down […]. All of these rules would just slow down what was trying to be done. Patrick Drury, GOARN/WHO
We have the international level, the WHO and the FAO. And at the national level we try to bring together agriculture and human health ministries. […] group involves academics, and a few key people in the agencies, such as Stephan from the FAO, Pierre […] from the WHO, OIE […]. You have focal points inthe agencies, and you have focal points in NASA, and from 4 or 5 different universities. That network is a little bit loosely deﬁned, but ﬂexible andeffective, you know. When there is the need, everybody jumps in to action. I think the way it works is highly commendable perhaps, because it’s not fringed or wrapped up in an organizational structure. People just make it work because they know each other. And it’s not a larger group to get lost in, the ﬂexibility is there. I believe this is key to the success. Jan Slingerbergh EMPRES/FAO
Wouldn’t it be great if we actually could map these networks?Hyperlink analysis of major players in EID early warning and response NOTE: Illustration!
ECDC UN Agencies Cluster WHO FAORed Cross US Gov Cluster
Q: What if you are facing some uncertainty of the disease? Howdo you coordinate your networks?A: Each time we have a suspecting case of fever, or somethingvery wrong, the ﬁrst thing we do, is that we contact WHO.Immediately. […]. So there is immediate collaboration, so wecall them and "send you the sample with the ﬁrst plane”, orthe ﬁrst car or whatever. So, “please go on with yourlaboratory and tell us whats going on". That is systematic.Q: So that is not formalized?No, no, but its not personal. WHO knows that we will alwayscall them if we are suspecting things or something is verybizarre. Dan Sermand, MSF
Formal: a) within organization rules, budget, responsibilityb) between organizations - partnerships, memorandum of understanding, etcInformal: social networks, linked through institutional role + personal history
Collective Intelligence - large,distributed problem solving through information and communication technology. Distributed activity isemergent and collective, rather than orchestrated.
Adhoc Virtual Network for “The good thing is that it SARS Etiologyisn’t ﬂu. Then well, what is 13 laboratories in 9 countries it?” Daily telephone conferences
ProMED 1994-2006 #25 054 postings (total)#373 postings included ”Request for information”
How Decreasing Costs of Information Processing and Mass Self- Communication Builds Resilience Supernetworks! Collective intelligence! They build on the combination btw ICT and social networks and polycentric order.
Are these general phenomena?Information processing Multi-network dynamics Legitimacy Harnessing diversity Galaz et al. 2012 (in review)
ocean acidiﬁcation Existing international partnership Strategic selection of 20 interviews with key policy actors at the international level Theoretical approach: ‘polycentric governance’, network climate change theorymarine biodiversity Galaz et al. 2011, Ecological Economics
Robust international institutions will have a very difﬁcult time to evolve problem not well understood likely to interplay with existing institutions difﬁcult to “ﬁt” extreme actor heterogeneity (Young 2008, “institutional diagnostics” )
Robust international institutions will have a very difﬁcult time to evolve Networks?
INCOP UNEP World Bank IUCN UNESCO WorldFish Centre Global Forum on Oceans Coasts and Islands ICES FAO UN OceanICRI GPA-Marine PacFa Galaz et al. 2011, Ecological Economics
World Bank OECD UNDP FAO Evolving network, with patterns of information sharing,coordination, and conﬂict resolution. Affected by changes in complex institutional setting (climate, biodiversity, marine regimes)
Main conclusionsEvolving coordination patterns, emphasis on information sharing + lobbying -> tension Increasing degree of formalization Highly centralized to 3 core international organizations Negative institutional interactions Galaz et al. 2011, Ecological Economics
EnforcementGlobal networks International Adaptability institutions Incentives Interactions Earth system “tipping points” Galaz et al. 2012 (in review)
Common features?Information processing Multi-network dynamics Legitimacy Harnessing diversity Galaz et al. 2012 (in review)
Twitter Updates “Good Morning!” by Jer Thorp (via Vimeo)
Information dynamics and adaptive governance Monitoring Coordination Learning Innovation dynamics Scale of networks
“iPod Liberalism” by Evgeny Morozov- the assumption that informationtech innovation always promotes freedom and democracy“iPod Environmentalism” by Victor Galaz - the assumption that tech innovation always promotes sustainability
Hackers and CO2 emission trading (2010) 250,000 carbon credits - 4 million USD
Special Interest 3.0 “The `climate consensus’ may hold the establishment — the universities, themedia, big business, government — but it islosing the jungles of the web. After all, getting research grants, doing pieces to camera and advising boards takes time.” Christopher Pearson, The Australian