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Innovation processes and transitions towards sustainability Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University Lars Coenen ...
Objectives of lecture <ul><li>Theory: create understanding of key concepts for transition analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>Anal...
Overview of lecture <ul><li>What is a sustainability transition? Key characteristics? </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical origin...
Theoretical origins <ul><li>(Economic) Evolutionary theory (Nelson, Winter, Dosi): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change as a proce...
Socio-Technical System (Geels, 2004)
A definition of ’transition’ <ul><li>Co-evolution  towards  system innovations  through new technology, changes in markets...
TIS: framework for analyzing the emergence and formation of new technology (Bergek et al., 2008)
TIS: example
TIS: critisisms <ul><li>Strict technology focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is technology always the solution? </li></ul></ul><u...
Socio-technical regimes (Kemp et al. 1998) <ul><li>A socio-technical  regime  is defined as  </li></ul><ul><li>`the cohere...
Example regime <ul><li>Technological convergence around combustion engine, personal vehicles and fossil fuels </li></ul><u...
Niche <ul><li>Niches  are “protected spaces in which actors learn about novel technologies and their uses” (Geels, 2002, p...
Governance implications: Strategic Niche Management (Raven, 2005) <ul><ul><li>technical development: design specifications...
Socio-technical transitions: multi level perspective (Geels, 2004)
Multi-level perspective: path dependence versus path creation (Geels & Schot, 2006) <ul><li>Reproduction of regime: busine...
Three analytic dimensions to regimes and niches <ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Actors </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul>...
Scheme for analysis of rules Formal/regulative Normative Cognitive Technological and product regimes (research, developmen...
Transitions as a new policy approach to sustainability <ul><li>Existing approaches… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical expert...
Critisism <ul><li>Neglect of power dimension (Kern and Smith, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are regime / niche actors? <...
Exercise <ul><li>What is a sustainability transition? </li></ul><ul><li>What are it’s key characteristics? Or: how do we r...
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Resilience centre lecture, Lars Coenen

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  • Formative, Growth, Mature Phase
  • Use the example of windpower in Denmark to illustrate
  • Transcript of "Resilience centre lecture, Lars Coenen"

    1. 1. Innovation processes and transitions towards sustainability Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University Lars Coenen CIRCLE [email_address]
    2. 2. Objectives of lecture <ul><li>Theory: create understanding of key concepts for transition analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: develop ability to translate concepts into pragmatic framework for empirical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking: reflect on limitations and shortcomings of transition studies </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview of lecture <ul><li>What is a sustainability transition? Key characteristics? </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical origins: evolutionary and institutional approaches to socio-technical change </li></ul><ul><li>Two key analytical framework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Innovation Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Level Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications for governance / policy </li></ul><ul><li>What is a sustainability transition? Key characteristics? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Theoretical origins <ul><li>(Economic) Evolutionary theory (Nelson, Winter, Dosi): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change as a process of variation, selection and retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant design (Abarnathy & Utterback) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental, radical and paradigmatic innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional theory (North, Scott, Hodgson) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation as inter-organizational process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations are guided by institutions which results in mimicry and conformity </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Socio-Technical System (Geels, 2004)
    6. 6. A definition of ’transition’ <ul><li>Co-evolution towards system innovations through new technology, changes in markets, user pratices, policy and cultural discourses, and governing institutions (Geels, Hekkert and Jacobsson, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) co-evolution and multiple changes in socio-technical systems or configurations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) multi-actor interactions between social groups such as firms, user groups, scientific communities, policy makers, social movements and special interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) ‘radical’ change in terms of scope of change (not speed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) long-term processes covering 40-50 years. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. TIS: framework for analyzing the emergence and formation of new technology (Bergek et al., 2008)
    8. 8. TIS: example
    9. 9. TIS: critisisms <ul><li>Strict technology focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is technology always the solution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet-technology versus technology mix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too much focus on mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black-boxing the causes for inducement / blocking mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naive policy lessons (push the button) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Socio-technical regimes (Kemp et al. 1998) <ul><li>A socio-technical regime is defined as </li></ul><ul><li>`the coherent complex of scientific knowledge, engineering practices, production process technologies, product characteristics, skills and procedures, established user needs, regulatory requirements, institutions and infrastructures that make up the totality of a technology‘’ </li></ul><ul><li>A regime pre-defines the variation and selection environment for an innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Helps explain why most change is non-radical and geared to regime optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutes a major barrier for new technology </li></ul>
    11. 11. Example regime <ul><li>Technological convergence around combustion engine, personal vehicles and fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Government policy and regulatory framework: e.g. safety requirements, taxes, city planning </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and psychological factors: car as symbol of indivual freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Demand factors: price competitiveness & institutionalized user behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Production factors: economies of scale through mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and maintenance: threshold to existing distribution system & repairs </li></ul>
    12. 12. Niche <ul><li>Niches are “protected spaces in which actors learn about novel technologies and their uses” (Geels, 2002, p. 365) and that nurture novelty and protect radical innovations against mainstream market selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early markets </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Governance implications: Strategic Niche Management (Raven, 2005) <ul><ul><li>technical development: design specifications and required complementary technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user context: user characteristics, requirements, meanings and barriers to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>societal and environmental impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industrial development: production and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government policy and regulatory framework. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Socio-technical transitions: multi level perspective (Geels, 2004)
    15. 15. Multi-level perspective: path dependence versus path creation (Geels & Schot, 2006) <ul><li>Reproduction of regime: business as usual </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation path: the regime adapts to landscape pressures without being threathened by niches </li></ul><ul><li>Technological substitution: the existing regime is replaced by a sufficiently strong niche </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfiguration: partial replacement of elements if the regime by niche </li></ul><ul><li>De-alignment & re-alignment: in case of multiple niches </li></ul>
    16. 16. Three analytic dimensions to regimes and niches <ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Actors </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>Defining difference: degree of stability </li></ul>
    17. 17. Scheme for analysis of rules Formal/regulative Normative Cognitive Technological and product regimes (research, development, production) Science regimes Policy regimes Socio-cultural regimes (societal groups, media) Users, markets and distribution networks
    18. 18. Transitions as a new policy approach to sustainability <ul><li>Existing approaches… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical expertise and administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… only focus on singular dimensions of sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions acknowledges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-dimensional interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term goals and committment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning, radical innovation, experimentation, searching for new paths, participatory approaches, multi-actor interactions, selection processes and network evolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But… </li></ul>
    19. 19. Critisism <ul><li>Neglect of power dimension (Kern and Smith, 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are regime / niche actors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk of devolving into ’soft’ policy </li></ul>
    20. 20. Exercise <ul><li>What is a sustainability transition? </li></ul><ul><li>What are it’s key characteristics? Or: how do we recognize a sustainability transitions when we see one? </li></ul>
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