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Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010
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Kopia av the organisation of global environmental politics 6 dec 2010

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  • 1. The Organization of Global Environmental Politics <br />Gunilla Reischl, 6 December 2010<br />Email: Gunilla.reischl@ui.se<br />
  • 2. Outline of the lecture<br />Foundations of global environmental cooperation<br />The study of global environmental politics <br />The practice of global environmental politics, i.e. how it functions<br />
  • 3. 1. Foundations of GEP<br />
  • 4. The emergence of the environment as an issue area<br />1960s: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, 1962, Jacques-Yves Cousteau’s The Living Sea, 1963, Paul Ehrlich’s Population Bomb, 1968<br />Single events such as the Torrey Canyon oil spill, photographs of the Earth taken by astronauts from the space<br /><ul><li>Broadened scope and public awareness of environmental issues to include both protection of the natural environment and curbing destructive effects of industrialization </li></li></ul><li>The emergence of the environment as an issue area<br />1970s: Environmental issues on the UN agenda<br /> 1972, UN Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE) in Stockholm<br />1980s: World Commission on Environment and Development – The Brundtland report on sustainable development (1987)<br />1990s: ”Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro 1992 and Agenda 21, The Kyoto Protocol is adapted 1997<br />2000s: World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002 i Johannesburg: The Kyoto Protocol is ratified 2005, post-Kyoto agreement<br />
  • 5. The emergence of the environment as an issue area<br />International environmental issues have become part of the public agenda in the past four decades<br />Gradual expansion of scientific knowledge enabled to verify environmental degradation <br />The rise of environment-oriented civil society associations <br />
  • 6. The UN Framework<br />The UN has played an important role in the international response of environmental problems <br />Put environmental issues on the international agenda and provided frameworks for negotiations and subsequent institutionalization<br />Problems with participation and implementation, the lowest common denominator <br />
  • 7. Global summits<br />
  • 8. Global Environmental Politics<br />Main determinants of policy:<br />Veto Power and Coalitions<br />Trade<br />Economic power<br />Cooperation<br />
  • 9. 2. The study of GEP<br />
  • 10. International environmental politics: definition <br />International environmental politics is the study of the human impacts on the environment that garner international attention and the efforts that states take to address them. (Mitchell 2010)<br />
  • 11. Collective goods<br />Garrett Hardin (1968) Tragedy of the commons :<br />As each person rationally attempts to maximize his own gain, the collectively suffers, and eventually all individuals suffer. <br />The collective good available to all members of the group, regardless individual contribution <br />
  • 12. Collective goods<br />Collective goods may be tangible or intangible <br />In the global context they include the natural commons, such as the high seas, atmosphere and the polar regions. <br />They also include the human-made global commons, such as the Internet, global conditions such as peace, health, free trade, financial stability<br />
  • 13. Regimes, organizations: international institutions <br />International regime: describes principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures within an issue area. <br />International organization: international bureaucratic structures connected to norm and rule systems: characterized by: permanent headquarter, secretariat, members, budget.<br /> Within international politics the term international institution is used as an umbrella term for all forms of institutionalized cooperation at international level <br />
  • 14. International Regimes<br />Response to the demand of governance in a specific issue area<br />Institutional frameworks with formal rules and informal practices<br />Shape and constrain actors behaviour <br />
  • 15. International Regimes: definition<br />International regimes can be defined as sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given area of international relations. (Krasner, 1983, p2)<br />
  • 16. Non-regimes<br />“A public policy arena characterized by the absence of an interstate policy agreement where states have either tried or failed to create one, or when governments have not even initiated negotiations”(Dimitrov, 2006: 9). <br />
  • 17. Functions of international organizations<br />Informational: gathering, analyzing and disseminating data<br />Forum: providing a place for exchange of views and decision-making<br />Normative: defining standards of behaviour<br />Rule creation: drafting legally binding treaties<br />Rule supervision: monitoring compliance with rules, taking enforcement measures, adjudicating disputes<br />Operational: allocating resources, providing technical assistance in relief, deploying forces<br />
  • 18. 3. The practice of GEP<br />
  • 19. Global environmental politics<br />Scientific knowledge plays a central role<br />Non-state actors<br />Implementation<br />Actors and coalitions <br />Decision-making: negotiations and treaties<br />Finance<br />
  • 20. Environmental agreements <br />More than 500 multilateral agreements<br />In general agreements articulate the normative content of a specific issue, initiate information gathering activities, call for restrictions on domestic activities that lead to transborder or transnational harm<br />Less attention is given to spelling out means of implementation and compliance<br />
  • 21. Climate convention (UNFCCC)<br />Initiative: World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme conference in 1985, growing consensus of climate change as a reality<br />Framework convention and protocol<br />Came into force: needed ratification of at least 55 countries which together where responsible for 55% of developed countries emission of carbon dioxide 1990 (base year).<br />Conference of the Parties (CoP), last year in Copenhagen, this year CoP 16 in December in Cancun<br />Secretariat in Bonn<br />Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change<br />
  • 22. Pros and cons with conventions<br />
  • 23. Actors<br />STATES<br />JUSCANZ:<br />Umbrella Group<br />EU<br />G77<br />NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORG. (NGOs)<br />INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORG. (IGOs)<br />ENV.<br />INDUSTRY<br />UNEP<br />FAO<br />WTO<br />HUMAN RIGHTS<br />WORLD BANK<br />
  • 24. Non Governmental Organizations <br />Important role<br />Diverse approaches, goals, ideological orientation (status quo, oppose change, radical change)<br />Serve as critics, able to take critical positions<br />High credibility – not driven by state interests<br />Experts, pushing the agenda<br />Work often through IGOs<br />Influence stats directly, lobbyism, information of policy options<br />
  • 25. Epistemic communities <br />Networks of professionals who develop vital data needed to expose problems and consult with governments about the best way to proceed<br />Vital role<br />Scientists in various specialized fields form ECs for different issues<br />E.g. IPCC<br />
  • 26. A negotiation process<br />Intersessional meetings<br />Technical/scientific meetings<br />Swedish preparationWithin the government offices with actors concerned. Formulation of a Swedish position<br />Conference of the Parties (CoP)<br />Generally once a year <br />EU-coordination on spot. EU speaks with one voice, so does G77 and JUSCANZ in certain issues.<br />EU-coordination<br />Meetings in Brussels Formation of a common EU position. <br />

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