from Frances Westley, SiG, University of Waterloo
How does innovation emerge?
How does it “travel” -
upscaling and “sidescaling”
Many stories, one thing
Innovation processes are very
complex, and play out at multiple
levels. Interplay between agency
(individual actors doing something), and
structures (rules, norms, networks).
Creation of “transition arenas”: networks of
diverse actors that develop a new and shared
understanding of complex systems and how they
collectively can inﬂuence these;
Support of experiments oriented to systemic
innovation: for example in developing new
infrastructures, new ﬁnancial instruments, new
organizational and institutional forms
Support learning strategies: aim to diffuse new
“It just happens”
Innovation in informal
The Cluster Effect
“Geospatial clusters create
ecosystem with no waste”
Attracting resources, sharing
of information and skills
Does it matter really?
Can it shape a whole urban system?
Figure 4: A dynamic multi-level perspective on technological transitions
Polycentric - weak to strong
Incremental, and small, but can spread
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