Why does this matter? Because governance is becomingincreasingly complex, and provides more space for self-organization! Compare with Folke et al (2005)
Global changes in the politicallandscape Decentralization Public Private Partnerships Non-governmental organizations International agreements
Centralized decision-makingCentral policy-maker (e.g. environmental Decision-makingministry) Implementation and monitoringRegional or local state authorities Local natural resource users Behavioral response
Decision-making in complexgovernance systems International norms, agreements Central policy-maker (e.g. environmental ministry) Decision-making, implementation, negotiations, Non-state actors partnerships Regional or local state authorities Implementation, monitoring, negotiations, partnerships Decentralization Local natural resource users
Adaptive Management Adaptive Co-management Holling (1978): AM, iterated process in the face ofuncertainty, experimentation, continuous evaluations Fikret Berkes and colleagues Co-management! Adaptive, learning, sharing of decision-making btw stakeholders
Adaptive Governance Extension of adaptive co-management:* not place bound* can include and explore, several place boundattempts of ACM at the same time* polycentric* higher levels of social organization, up to global* explorative framework!
Making Sense of Complexity in Governance All systems don’t look the same! Two main approaches i) Box typologies ii) Network typologies
Box typology, example - Urban Governance Jon Pierre Participants Objectives Instruments Outcomes .....
Box typology, example 1999388 URBAN AFFAIRS REVIEW / January - Urban GovernanceTABLE 1: Models of Urban Governance: Defining Characteristics Models of Urban GovernanceDefining Characteristics Managerial Corporatist Progrowth WelfarePolicy objectives Efficiency Distribution Growth RedistributionPolicy style Pragmatic Ideological Pragmatic IdeologicalNature of political exchange Consensus Conflict Consensus ConflictNature of public-private exchange Competitive Concerted Interactive RestrictiveLocal state-citizen relationship Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive InclusivePrimary contingency Professionals Civic leaders Business The stateKey instruments Contracts Deliberations Partnerships NetworksPattern of subordination Positive Negative Positive NegativeKey evaluative criterion Efficiency Participation Growth Equity From Pierre (1999), Urban Affairs Review
ii) Network typologies - polycentric systems Vincent OstromPolycentric systems - manycenters of decision making that areformally independent of each other.“Many elements are capable ofmaking mutual adjustments forordering their relationships withone another within a generalsystem of rules where eachelement acts with independence ofother elements.”