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Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
Case study seminar 2
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Case study seminar 2

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  • Marika
  • Stefan
  • Stefan
  • Stefan
  • Marika
  • Johanna
  • Johanna
  • Johanna
  • Marika
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Amazon - cutting down the world’s lungs Stefan, Johanna, Marika
    • 2. Deforestation & Forest Fires <ul><li>The Amazon is decreasing with an area the size of England each year. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But decreasing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire in 2005 caused the destruction of 360 000 hectares (= 0.8% of Sweden). </li></ul>
    • 3. Drivers <ul><li>Increasing need for resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food - Soya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing landless population </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul>
    • 4. Actors <ul><li>Governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National, regional, local </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governmental organisations </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector, Market </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers / cattle ranchers / ”loggers” </li></ul>
    • 5. Institutions <ul><li>State-community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State-market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging concessions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NGOs-market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soya Moratorium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market-community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green market </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. PIX <ul><li>Xingu indigenous park </li></ul><ul><li>14 ethnic groups = ATIX </li></ul><ul><li>Sting! </li></ul><ul><li>Xingu-river watershed </li></ul><ul><li>Protected indigenous land </li></ul>+ = TRUE Brondizio et al., 2009
    • 7. MAP <ul><li>Madre de Dios – Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Acre – Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Pando – Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>NASA-research cooperation with national science institute </li></ul><ul><li>Information on the internet available for the public </li></ul>Brown, 2006
    • 8. Misfit! <ul><li>Spatial Misfit in PIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected area affected by outside disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution is too small! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threshold Misfit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoided in future thanks to knowledge of non-linearity? </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Bridging Organizations <ul><li>Needed on governmental level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples exist of vertical bridges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REDD+ </li></ul></ul>Conser-vation Develop-ment Bridge?
    • 10. Governing the extent and severity of sleeping sickness outbreaks in southeast Uganda   Case analysis in adaptive governance 2010-12-13 Nikolina Oreskovic, Marte Sendstad and Gabriella Silfwerbrand
    • 11.  
    • 12.  
    • 13. Context and sleeping sickness First 2 min http://www.stampoutsleepingsickness.com/media/video-gallery/the-emergency-intervention-in-2006.aspx
    • 14.  
    • 15. Stresses and strategies Ecological tsetse habitat multiple reservoirs Socio-political cattle migration weak public structures medical treatment
    • 16. Stresses and strategies 2 min http://www.stampoutsleepingsickness.com/media/video-gallery/3v-vet.aspx
    • 17. Capacity for actors to control outbreak Problem of fit temporal spatial cascading effect threshold effect Bridging organisations LIRI Hospital COCTU PAAT (WHO)
    • 18. Generalisations Laws of epidemics The law of the few The stickiness factor Power of context Political instability in African context Slow feedbacks and prioritisation
    • 19. Conclusions different actors address and respond to different aspects of the problems, but none has the capacity to integrate information from socio-political, medical and ecological stresses Sustainable methods for control and surveillance should integrate local health units and existing community workers for early disease detection and prevention.
    • 20. Discuss Importance of ethnicity and local governance? Lack of knowledge on habitat factors for outbreaks Where to prioritise resources?
    • 21. <ul><li>Adaptive Governance 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of case study analysis </li></ul><ul><li>2010/12/14 </li></ul><ul><li>Case study analysis - agricultural landscape of Bali </li></ul><ul><li>Ylva Ran, Caroline Schill </li></ul>
    • 22. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant actors at multiple levels </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions at multiple levels </li></ul><ul><li>Social-ecological stresses </li></ul><ul><li>Application of the concepts social networks and bridging organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    • 23. Focus of the case study analysis is the agricultural practice of rice terrace farming in southern Bali, which has a tradition of over a thousand years. Source: picture: http://www.welt.de/reise/Fern/article10376154/Tropisches-Klima-Tempel-und-Terrassen.html, Lansing (1991) Water temple network Subaks <ul><li>Subject of the case analysis: agro society  humans strongly interact with and depend not only on ecological features, but also on other actors within the society  Importance of identifying the structure of the social-ecological system, its actors, stresses it has to deal with, different institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Aim of the case study analysis: to discuss the capacity of actors and institutions of the social-ecological environment to adapt and deal with change </li></ul>
    • 24. Relevant actors at multiple levels and their roles and responsibilities were identified. Source: Lorenzen and Lorenzen (2008), Lansing (1991) Other international actors: scientists, international NGOs, cultural-heritage associations etc.
    • 25. In order to manage a natural resource, it is important to identify the different institutions that impact the system. Institutions The set of working rules that are used to determine who is eligible to make decisions in some arena, what actions are allowed or constrained, what aggregation rules will be used, what procedures will be followed, what information must or must not be provided, and what payoffs will be assigned to individuals dependent on their actions. (Ostrom 1990) North (1990): “Institutions are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interactions.”
    • 26. Numerous institutions at the local scale were identified. Water temple network Source: Lorenzen and Lorenzen (2008), Schoenfelder (2000), Sutawan (2006) <ul><li>Water temple networks consisting of: </li></ul><ul><li>Subaks and Subak heads </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Subaks and sub-Subak heads </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Subak members (local farmers) </li></ul><ul><li>Water temples serve as a communicative arena where Subak heads meet, discuss and come to agreements of water distribution in the region </li></ul>
    • 27. Subaks, as the main institution, are a formal arena for informal agreements between local actors. Water temple network Example: Formal authority sub-Subak head: Representation of sub-Subak members at the Subak level Informal authority: to negotiate water management issues concerning them at the Subak level Formal agreements regarding membership, territory and members rights and duties Formal arena for the informal management activities of water distribution Source: Lorenzen and Lorenzen (2008), Schoenfelder (2000), Sutawan (2006)
    • 28. Multiple institutions at regional, national and international levels were identified. <ul><li>Regional and national governments </li></ul><ul><li>National and regional legislature e.g. the national water law stating financial arrangements concerning irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple international institutions such as NGO:s, other countries, tourists, scientists and conservationsts </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    • 29. The system experiences several stresses of both social and ecological nature that contribute to the problem of unsatisfactory livelihood for the farmers and further erodes the systems resilience. <ul><li>Ecological stresses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pest outbreaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of soil fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that threaten rice yields. </li></ul></ul>Source: Lorenzen and Lorenzen (2008), Schoenfelder (2000), Lansing (1991), Lansing (2010), FAO (1996), picture: http://news.chinaa2z.com/news/html/2010/20100824/20100824101253461975/20100824103945285819.html
    • 30. The system experiences several stresses of both social and ecological nature that contribute to the problem of unsatisfactory livelihood for the farmers and further erodes the systems resilience. <ul><li>Social stresses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence-oriented  market-oriented farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers’ dependency on the rice yield not only to provide livelihood for their family but also to repay their loans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Erosion of commitment to cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming not only source of income or not even main source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend that new generations lose interest and incentives to conduct agricultural practice in the traditional way  loss in local knowledge of agricultural practice and cultural values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>general trend of increased off-farm activities for farmers situated close to urban areas due to largely increased tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Change in perception about agriculture as the most important income source </li></ul></ul>Source: Lorenzen and Lorenzen (2008), Lansing (1991), Lansing (2010)
    • 31. In order to analyze the capacity of the system and its associates to deal with change and disturbances, the application of the concept of social networks is suitable. Source: Bodin and Crona (2009), Crona (2010)
    • 32. Bridging organizations can provide benefits for the system in order to prevent a decrease of adaptive capacity. <ul><li>Connectivity and international influence of the system is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Increased diversity of stakeholders and the demand to connect them and create openness and understaning </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement of bridging gaps between different stakeholders and ensure understanding and development of common goals </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging Organizations of both national and international character e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental NGO:s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local scientific communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Source: Brown (1991), Berkes (2009)
    • 33. Conclusion: The system may experience a decrease in resilience because the commitment to the institution Subak is decreasing. <ul><li>The capacity to cope with various stresses and change is relatively high </li></ul><ul><li>How to deal with such change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of existing institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of new institutions e.g. bridging organizations </li></ul></ul>Source: Lansing, 1991; Lansing and Miller, 2005; Lorenzen and Lorenzen 2008, 2010
    • 34. Thank you for your attention! <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    • 35. References <ul><li>Berkes, F. 2009. Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1692-1702. </li></ul><ul><li>Bodin, Ö. and B.I. Crona. 2009. The role of social networks in natural resource governance: What relational patterns make a difference? Global Environmental Change 19:366-374. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, L.D. 1991. Bridging organizations and sustainable development. Human relations 44(8):807-831. </li></ul><ul><li>FAO Natural resources management and environment department. 1996. Control of water pollution from agriculture. FAO corporate document repository. Online at http://www.fao.org/docrep/w2598e/w2598e07.htm#historical%20development%20of%20pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Galaz, V. 2010. From institutions to governance – what is the difference? Lecture, Stockholm Resilience Center, 2010-12-07. </li></ul><ul><li>Lansing, J.S. 1991. Priests and programmers: Technologies of power in the engineered landscape of Bali. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. </li></ul>
    • 36. References <ul><li>Lansing, J.S. 2010. Measuring resilience in Bali. Lecture, Stockholm Resilience Center, 2010-09-21. </li></ul><ul><li>Lansing, J.S. and J.H. Miller. 2005. Cooperation, games, and ecological feedback: Some insights from Bali. Current Anthropology 46(2):328-334. </li></ul><ul><li>Lorenzen, S. and R.P. Lorenzen. 2008: Institutionalizing the informal: Irrigation and government intervention in Bali. Development 51(1):77-82. </li></ul><ul><li>Lorenzen, R.P. and S. Lorenzen. 2010. Changing realities – perspectives on Balinese rice cultivation. Human Ecology, published online, DOI: 10.1007/s10745-010-9345-z. </li></ul><ul><li>North, D.C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge University Press, UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Scarborough, V.L., Schoenfelder, J.W. and J.S. Lansing. 2000: Early statecraft on Bali: The water temple complex and the decentralization of the political economy. Research in Economic Anthropology 20:299-330. </li></ul><ul><li>Schoenfelder, J.W. 2000: The co-evolution of agricultural and socio-political systems in Bali. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 20:35-47. </li></ul><ul><li>Sutawan, N. 2006. Institutional adjustment for water resources management in Bali. Paper presented at IASCP, Udayana University, Bali. </li></ul>

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