Bali Subak SystemCase analysis of the governancestructure Sofia Käll Flor Luna Grazzia Matamoros
MAIN SOCIAL ECOLOGICAL STRESSES Subak Laws & Religious Values - + + National Tourism R1 INTERNATIONAL Policies TOURISM INDUSTRY B1 + Subak + + Change of + + Livelihood + + R2 - TOURISM PRESSURE R3 R6 Pest - - Farmer Outbreak Livelihood + B2 - + + R5 - + Land Use Change Productivity of Rice Terraces - R4 - - - Water Allocation Forest Cover + + Water
EPISTEMIC COMMUNITIES INTERGOVERNMENTAL INTERNATIONAL (SRC) ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) Knowledge generation, World heritage theorization, case study identification and understanding. protection. STATE GOVERNMENT (e.g. ministries, other governmental agencies) TECHNICAL WORKING Strategies (e.g. economical development, policies like land use, GROUP (UNESCO) NATIONAL tourism and urban planning regulations (e.g. Green Zone Technical Bridging The Country regulation) Organization SUBAK FEDERATION NESTED SUBAK TOURISM INDUSTRY TIMBER INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION (e.g. Tourist (e.g. Subak heads, operators, land sub-subak head) REGIONAL developers, Subaks Awig Awig tourists) Religious norms Operators norms LOCAL Farmer/The Farm FARMERS Property rights SCALE ACTORS InstitutionsFigure 2: Main networks across levels and existing links between them.
Social networks create opportunities for different stakeholders tocooperate and effectively deal with natural recourses (Bodin &Corna 2009). Also, in case of changing condition social networkcan generate social capital and legal, political and financialsupport to governance initiative (Hahn 2006). However, thestructure of networks is important for how social networks impactactors’ behavior and governance practice. They need to have bothbounding and bridging connection to be well functioning (Bodin& Crona 2009).
EPISTEMIC COMMUNITIES INTERGOVERNMENTALINTERNATIONAL (SRC) ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) STATE GOVERNMENT NATIONAL The Country NESTED SUBAK TIMBER INDUSTRY TOURISM INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION REGIONAL Subaks LOCAL Farmer/The Farm FARMERS SCALE ACTORS Institutions
Institutional misfits: “capacity of institutions and broadergovernance mechanisms to deal with environmental change aslinked to societal dynamics and to reorganize after unforeseenimpacts” (Galaz et al. 2008).
EPISTEMIC COMMUNITIES INTERGOVERNMENTAL INTERNATIONAL (SRC) ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) STATE GOVERNMENT NATIONAL The Country NESTED SUBAK TIMBER INDUSTRY TOURISM INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION REGIONAL Subaks Social-ecological system LOCAL Farmer/The Farm FARMERS SCALE ACTORS InstitutionsFigure 2: Main networks across levels and existing links between them.
Bridging organizations can be defined as organizations linking diverseactors or groups through some form of strategic bridging process and thatare more or less distinct from the parties they work to link (Westley andVredenburg 1991). They are designed to facilitate collaboration andknowledge coproduction among the groups they link, as a way to promotecontinuous learning (Berkes 2009). For the context of this analysis, theconcept of "bridging organizations" entails all forms of bridging functionsranging from individuals, networks to formalized organizations (Galaz2012).
EPISTEMIC COMMUNITIES INTERGOVERNMENTAL INTERNATIONAL (SRC) ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) STATE GOVERNMENT NATIONAL TWG The Country SUBAK FEDERATION NESTED SUBAK TIMBER INDUSTRY TOURISM INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION REGIONAL Subaks LOCAL Farmer/The Farm FARMERS SCALE ACTORS InstitutionsFigure 2: Main networks across levels and existing links between them.
ConclusionsSubak organizations have been successful in managing common poolresources acknowledging complex ecological dynamics.However, because local management and collective action do notguarantee ecological resilience, it is necessary to understand the entiresystem to reach useful explanations and solutions (Huitric, 2012).Social network theory points to bridging and bonding features asnecessary to account for adaptive response capacity to change anduncertainty.Bridging organizations can play an important role as they function asarenas for providing linkages within actors and across levels, sharingknowledge, monitoring and conflict resolution.