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Adaptive governance SRC intro lecture 2014
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Adaptive governance SRC intro lecture 2014


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  • 1. Adaptive Governance 2014 Victor Galaz, Stockholm Resilience Centre Stockholm University
  • 2. * Team up, 3 and 3. * Formulate 1 critical/important question you have about “adaptive governance”
  • 3. + complex social-ecological systems, tipping points, surprise, hysteresis...
  • 4. The Anthopocene Planetary Boundaries “The Great Acceleration Three forces that Political shifts towards networked reshaping the forms of governance are Information Planet Revolution Nano-technologies Bio-technologies
  • 5. How govern complex SES in an era of rapid global change?
  • 6. What is governance? “Steering” From “command and control” to collaboration, negotiation, “governance without government” Patterns of collaboration, instruments to guide repeated interactions and steering attempts
  • 7. Different from management n. - The act, manner, or practice of managing; handling, supervision, or control: management of a crisis; management of factory workers. - The person or persons who control or direct a business or other enterprise. - Skill in managing; executive ability.
  • 8. Adaptive Governance innovation systems innovation institutions social networks collective action international regimes trust transitions and transformations adaptation polycentric systems coping with crises learning
  • 9. by D. Galafassi from Galaz et al. 2012 (in prep). Adaptive Governance in the Anthropocene
  • 10. Network map of Science 7.2 million papers, 13 disciplines, 554 subdisciplines (Börner et al. 2012, PLoS One)
  • 11. by D. Galafassi from Galaz et al. 2012 (in prep). Adaptive Governance in the Anthropocene
  • 12. Adaptive Governance Analytical purpose Multi-disciplinary approach Normative assumptions No quick-fix solutions
  • 13. Learning goals * define and describe key concepts related to adaptive governance, such as adaptive co-management, social learning, social networks, bridging organization, and polycentric governance. * define and describe the role of innovation and transformations in adaptive governance. * describe how these concepts are related to each other in the context of governance of dynamic social-ecological systems. * apply concepts related to adaptive governance at multiple levels, on a real-world case.
  • 14. How? Lectures + read before! Short writing assignments Discussion seminar Case study analysis Blog Examination
  • 15. password: resilience
  • 16. Blog contribution Write blogpost: brief summary of lecture, definition of key concept/s, and short reflection within 48 hrs after lecture, via e-mail to Writing of short comment to blogpost, directly on the blog (individual).
  • 17. Schedule
  • 18. Questions?
  • 19. From Institutions to Governance
  • 20. Why does this matter? Because governance is becoming increasingly complex, and provides more space for self-organization! Compare with Folke et al (2005)
  • 21. Global changes in the political landscape Decentralization Public Private Partnerships Non-governmental organizations International agreements
  • 22. Centralized decision-making Central policy-maker (e.g. environmental ministry) Regional or local state authorities Local natural resource users Decision-making Implementation and monitoring Behavioral response
  • 23. Decision-making in complex governance systems International norms, agreements Central policy-maker (e.g. environmental ministry) Non-state actors Regional or local state authorities Decentralization Local natural resource users Decision-making, implementation, negotiations, partnerships Implementation, monitoring, negotiations, partnerships
  • 24. Adaptive Management Adaptive Co-management Holling (1978): AM, iterated process in the face of uncertainty, experimentation, continuous evaluations Fikret Berkes and colleagues Co-management! Adaptive, learning, sharing of decision-making btw stakeholders
  • 25. Adaptive Governance Extension of adaptive co-management: * not place bound * can include and explore, several place bound attempts of ACM at the same time * polycentric * higher levels of social organization, up to global * explorative framework!
  • 26. Illustrations of adaptive governance no consensus!
  • 27. Making Sense of Complexity in Governance All systems don’t look the same! Two main approaches i) Box typologies ii) Network typologies
  • 28. Box typology, example - Urban Governance Jon Pierre Participants Objectives Instruments Outcomes .....
  • 29. URBAN AFFAIRS REVIEW / January - Urban Governance Box typology, example 1999 388 TABLE 1: Models of Urban Governance: Defining Characteristics Models of Urban Governance Defining Characteristics Managerial Corporatist Progrowth Welfare Policy objectives Policy style Nature of political exchange Nature of public-private exchange Local state-citizen relationship Primary contingency Key instruments Pattern of subordination Key evaluative criterion Efficiency Pragmatic Consensus Competitive Exclusive Professionals Contracts Positive Efficiency Distribution Ideological Conflict Concerted Inclusive Civic leaders Deliberations Negative Participation Growth Pragmatic Consensus Interactive Exclusive Business Partnerships Positive Growth Redistribution Ideological Conflict Restrictive Inclusive The state Networks Negative Equity From Pierre (1999), Urban Affairs Review
  • 30. ii) Network typologies - polycentric systems Vincent Ostrom Polycentric systems - many centers of decision making that are formally independent of each other. “Many elements are capable of making mutual adjustments for ordering their relationships with one another within a general system of rules where each element acts with independence of other elements.”
  • 31. ocean acidification marine biodiversity climate change
  • 32. World Bank UNEP IUCN UNESCO WorldFish Centre Global Forum on Oceans Coasts and Islands ICES FAO UN Ocean ICRI GPA-Marine PacFa
  • 33. WB FAO World Fish UNEP
  • 34. What do we want “adaptive governance” to achieve? “The Problem of Fit”
  • 35. ”Good Governance” according to the World Bank: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption. High Medium Low Very Low No data/n.a.
  • 36. Does ”good governance” matter for protecting vital ecosystems? High Medium Low Very Low No data/n.a.
  • 37. Forest Cover Change
  • 38. Biodiversity (bird population) High levels of corruption Low levels of corruption
  • 39. Spatial misfit Local institutions vs. global driver/s Fisheries? ”Land grab”? Municipal institutions vs. Water catchment
  • 40. Temporal misfits
  • 41. The Sahel region 1950s-60s
  • 42. ”Roving Bandits” F. Berkes et. al. 2006
  • 43. Thresholds misfit Cod stock collapse, Newfoundland, (Canada)
  • 44. Cascading dynamics and misfits
  • 45. Fish and Ebola virus
  • 46. Climate change Agroecosystems Coral reef Increased bushmeat Fish stock decrease hunting
  • 47. Fast Speed of change Very large Spatial distr Slow Limited Low Uncertainty High
  • 48. Is it at all possible? Institutions, polycentric order, social networks, global governance, bridging organizations, innovation and learning in social networks, transformation.
  • 49. Difference institutions and governance? Institutions are ”the rules of the game” Governance implies collaboration patterns, steering, and coordination at multiple levels. Institutional in governance tend to be ”clusters” or ”complexes”, rather than simple set of rules Think about how they relate to the dynamics behavior of SES a.ka. ”problem of fit”