Install and configure linux
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Install and configure linux

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A little manual to install and confiure Linux and some of the most used servers: Web server, FTP server and others.

A little manual to install and confiure Linux and some of the most used servers: Web server, FTP server and others.

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Install and configure linux Install and configure linux Presentation Transcript

  • Install and configure applications with Linux IES “Jaume II el just” Tavernes de la Valldigna Vicent Selfa Curs 2010/20 1 1
  • Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Ubuntu
    • Apache
    • PHP
    • MySQL
    • Postgres
    • Others
      • Ubuntu: Basic installation
      • System configuration
      • Installing packages
      • Configuring applications
        • Apache
        • PHP
        • MySQL
      • The relationship between Apache - PHP - MySQL
    Install and configure: Ubuntu 10.04 Install and configure applications with Linux View slide
      • Basic installation (1) ‏
      • Network configuration. An exemple:
    • * IP’s machine: 192.168.43.1
    • * Network mask: 255.255.255.0
    • * Gateway: 192.168.43.100
    • Graphically:
    INTERNET : depinfo.ieseljust.net/moodle www.ieseljust.net www.ieseljust.org HUB IP: 192.168.43.3 IP: 192.168.43.1 IP: 192.168.43.2 Eth0: Departament 192.168.0.43 Gateway: 192.168.0.254 Classroom 43 192.168.0.254 213.162.200.237 195.235.113.3 192.168.1.254 Lliurex server / Proxy / Firewall 192.168.16.N Acces point: Conceptronic Outdoor aerial: Airpoint DNS Eth1: Classroom 192.168.43.100 Gateway : 192.168.0.43 Firewall.sh Gateway: 192.168.43.100 Install and configure applications with Linux ROUTER 192.168.1.1 Depinfo.ieseljust.net 88.2.154.110 192.168.0.21 192.168.1.21 Web server View slide
      • Basic installation (2)
      • Edit partitions manually.- Exemple:
    • * hdd1.- Type: ext4.
    • /: The root directory. The starting point of your directory
    • structure. This is where the Linux system begins. It is essential
    • * hdd5.- Type: ext4.
    • /home: W here users keep their personal files
    • * hdd6.- Type: ext4.
    • /var: C ontains data that is changed when the system is running normally
    • * hdd7.- Type: swap
    • An independent section of the hard disk used solely for swapping
      • User name and password
      • * Username: alumne43d | alumne43n
      • * Password: 12345d | 12345n
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • System configuration
    • Multi-booting .- Grub 2:
    • GRand Unified Bootloader: A multi-booting loader that provides the possibility of
    • booting one of multiple operating systems.
    • Folders:
    • /etc/grub.d/
    • /boot/grub/grub.cfg
    • Files:
    • /boot/grub/grub.cfg.- Similar to /boot/grub/menu.lst file but it can NOT be edited
    • /etc/grub.d/
    • 00_header.- Sets initial appearance
    • 05_debian_theme.- Sets splash image, text colors, ...
    • 10_hurd.- No currently used
    • 20_memtest86+.- Includes a test memory option in the boot menu
    • 30_os-prober.-
    • 40_custom.- A template for customacing the grub.cfg file upon
    • the execution of the update-grub2 command.
    • More information: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • System configuration
    • Multi-booting .- Grub 2 configuration: Steps
    • Execute sudo update-grub2 to generate the file grub.cfg
    • Copy its content to /etc/grub.d/40_custom file
    • Edit and modify its content
    • Modify attributes of the different files in /etc/grub.d in order to permit/deny their execution
    • sudo chmod [+x | -x] /etc/grub.d/filename
    • At the end execute sudo update-grub2 to make the new grub.cfg file
    • Exercise:
    • Configure your boot system with the next options:
        • Only two entries (windows / linux)
        • Starting from the second option by default
        • Waiting for 15 second before automatic start
        • Stablish a background image
    • More information: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Grub2
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • System configuration
    • Multi-booting .- Reinstall grub2 AFTER installing Windows
    • Start the computer using a LiveCD version:
      • Use the option: Test Ubuntu
    • From a terminal execute the next commands
      • Partition list: X -> System Linux
        • sudo fdisk – l ;
      • Mount the sdaX partition
        • sudo mount /dev/sdaX /mnt ;
      • Mount the other devices (Already visible directories mounted elsewhere)
        • sudo –bind /dev /mnt/dev
        • sudo –bind /proc /mnt/proc
      • We acces as root to our file system
        • sudo chroot /mnt
      • Load the grub into the MBR
        • grub-install -- recheck /dev/sda ; sda WITHOUT number!
      • Actualize grub 2
        • sudo update-grub2
      • And restart the system as usual
    Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Package repository .- File /etc/apt/sources.list
    • Internal department repository.- Add:
    • deb http://192.168.0.21/mirror jaunty main restricted
    • Environment variables. - File: /etc/profile
    • Installing applications.
      • Using a package management system: Synaptic, apt-get, Adept, …
      • Activate all the repositories (Ubuntu and others). Reload
      • Look for and mark for installation the applications we need.
      • Apply changes.
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
      • Packages to install
      • apache2 // The web server
      • libapache2-mod-php5 // The module to work with PHP5
      • Test from the web browser: http://localhost => It works!
      • Apache version: /usr/sbin/apache2ctl -v
      • Start / stop the web server:
    • sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 [start | stop | restart | ...]
    • sudo /usr/sbin/apache2ctl –k [start | stop | restart]
      • Configuration files
      • /etc/apache2/apache2.conf => Main Apache server configuration file
            • /etc/apache2/httpd.conf => Administrator configuration
          • /etc/apache2/sites-availabe/000-default => Virtual host configuration
          • Log files: /var/log/apache2
      • Other folders
          • Mods-available / mods-enable : Available / installed modules
          • Sites-available / enable : C onfiguration details of the sites you aim to host
      • More information: http://httpd.apache.org/
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
      • /etc/apache2/apache2.conf:
            • ServerRoot: Base directory for the server installation
            • ServerName: Hostname and port that the server uses to identify itself
            • Timeout: Number of seconds before timing out
            • KeepAlive [On | Off]: Whether or not to allow persistent connections
            • AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory for additional configuration directives
      • /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/default:
            • DocumentRoot: Base d irectory that forms the main document tree visible from the web
            • DocumentRoot /var/www
    localhost /var/www Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
      • /etc/apache2/httpd.conf:
            • UserDir: To permit that different users have different web sites in their own home directory. Steps:
        • 1.- From mods-enable make a symbolic link to user-dir modules
        • sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/userdir.conf
        • sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/userdir.load
        • 2.- In the file /etc/apache2/httpd.conf
        • UserDIr www
        • <Directory /home/*/www> ...
        • Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        • # Other directives
        • </Directory>
        • 3.- Restart the web server:
        • sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 [start | stop | restart ]
        • 4.- How to access to the web page?
        • localhost/~usuari
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
    localhost DocumentRoot /var/www Localhost/~user /home UserDir /home/*/www Install and configure applications with Linux /var/www /vicent /profe /www /www
      • Installing applications: Apache2
    • /etc/apache2/ sites-available/default
    • NameVirtualHost: To allow to host different webs in the same server.
    • Exemple: Modify the file /etc/apache2/sites-available/default
    • NameVirtualHost *:80 # also NameVirtualHost numIP:80
    • # One directive per web
    • <VirtualHost *:80 >
    • ServerName vselfa.dnsalias.net
    • DocumentRoot /var/www/vselfa
    • <Directory /var/www/vselfa>
    • Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
    • AllowOverride All
    • Order allow,deny
    • allow from all
    • </Directory>
    • </VirtualHost>
    • <VirtualHost *:80 >
    • ServerName ieseljust.dnsalias.net
    • DocumentRoot /var/www/joomla
    • <Directory /var/www/balmes>
    • # Other directives
    • </Directory>
    • </VirtualHost>
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
    ServerName /var/www NameVirtualHost ServerName DocumentRoot INTERNET : DynDNS NoIP Install and configure applications with Linux Warning : NameVirtualHost *:80 has no VirtualHost.- Sentence <VirtualHost *:80> repetead in more than one configuration file. For exemple: In sites-available ( default file) and sites-enabled ( 000-default file) /vselfa /balmes ServerName IP
      • Installing applications: Apache2
    • Other directives.- [Module rewrite ]
            • RewriteEngine
            • RewriteRule
            • To allow redirect web traffic
            • Exemple:
            • File .htaccess: To redirect all traffic to test.php web page
            • 1.- From mods-enable make a symbolic link to rewrite module
        • sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/rewrite.load
            • 2.- Modify the default configuration file:
            • <VirtualHost *:80 >
    • <Directory /var/www/vselfa>
    • # Other opcions
    • AllowOverride All
    • </Directory>
    • </VirtualHost>
    • 3.- Create a .htaccess file and copy to /var/www/vselfa
            • RewriteEngine on
            • RewriteRule ^(.*)$ test.php ?command=$1 [L,QSA]
            • 4.- To cancel the redirection
            • RewriteEngine off
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
    • To let acces to some users and specific groups: [Module auth_digest]
    • 1.- From mods-enable symbolic link to required modules
    • ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/auth_digest.load
    • 2.- File .htaccess inside the folder we want to restrict
    • AuthName &quot; ZonaPrivada &quot;
    • AuthType Digest # Encripted method (Digest; NO basic)‏
    • AuthDigestFile /var/.htpasswd
    • Require valid-user
    • 3.- We make a file with the passwords
    • htdigest -c /var/.htpasswd ZonaPrivada vicent
    • # It ask us the password for the administrator user
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2 SSL protocol
    • 1.- From mods-enable to make a symbolic link to required modules
        • ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/ssl.load
        • ln -s /etc/apache2/mods-available/ssl.conf
    • 2.- Change to the ssl directory to make the keys
    • $ cd /etc/ssl
    • 3.- We genere the key with the RSA algorithm: server.key
    • sudo openssl genrsa -out server.key 1024
    • 4.- We generate the certificate: server.pem
    • sudo openssl rsa -in server.key -out server.pem
    • 5.- Now we generate the CSR file : server.csr
    • sudo openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr ; Use default values
    • (We would need to send this certificate to a Certification Authority to be validated and to get the file server.crt)‏
    • 6.- At this moment we generate our certificate server.crt
    • sudo openssl x509 -req -days 730 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
    • 7.- We need to change file server.* permissions to 400
    • sudo chmod 400 /etc/ssl/server.*
    • 8.- At the end we make the folders to the web site
    • sudo mkdir /var/www/ssl
    • sudo mkdir /var/www/ssl/logs
    • sudo mkdir /var/www/ssl/cgi-bin
    (*) More information: http://www.linuxparatodos.net/portal/staticpages/index.php?page=como-apache-ssl Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
    • Installing a SSL protocol .- Apache configuration
    • We need to edit the file default.conf adding the next lines
    • NameVirtualHost *:443
    • <VirtualHost *:443>
    • ServerName balmes.dnsalias.net
    • ServerAdmin vicentselfa@gmial.com
    • DocumentRoot /var/www/ssl/
    • <Directory />
    • Options FollowSymLinks
    • AllowOverride All
    • Allow from all
    • </Directory>
    • <Directory /var/www/ssl/>
    • Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
    • AllowOverride None
    • Order allow,deny
    • allow from all
    • </Directory>
    • ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/ssl/cgi-bin/
    • <Directory &quot;/cgi-bin/ /var/www/ssl/cgi-bin&quot;>
    • AllowOverride None
    • Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
    • Order allow,deny
    • Allow from all
    • </Directory>
    • # Directives SSL
    • SSLEngine on
    • SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/server.crt
    • SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/server.pem
    • SetEnvIf User-Agent &quot;.*MSIE.*&quot; nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown
    • CustomLog /var/www/ssl/logs/ssl_request_log &quot;%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x &quot;%r&quot; %b&quot;
    • CustomLog /var/www/ssl/logs/ssl_access_log combined
    • Errorlog /var/www/ssl/logs/ssl_error_log
    • </VirtualHost>
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Apache2
    • Installing a SSL protocol.- Browsing the site
    • We need to open the port number 443 for the PC
    • We restart the Apache server: /etc/apache2/apache2ctl restart
    • And our secure web site is OK
    • Our address: https://balmes.dnsalias.net
    Install and configure applications with Linux Tcpdump packet analyze : sudo tcpdump –nnXvs 1514 –i wlan0 port [80 | 443] Check differences between information analysed using port 80 and port 443.
      • Installing applications: PHP5
    • First of all to install the php5 language
      • Libraries
    • php5 // The language
    • php5-gd // The graphic librarie
    • php5-curl // To connect and communicate to different servers and protocols
      • Configuration file:
    • /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
    • session.use_trans_sid = 1
    • session.save_path = ‘/tmp/php’
    • display_errors = On
    • memory_limit = 128M
      • Test file: /var/www/test.php
    • <?php phpinfo() ?>
    • Show the content of the file: localhost/test.php
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: PHP5
    • One text editor for php5 : Geany
    • One integrated development environment (IDE) : netbeans
    • sudo apt-get install sun-java6-bin sun-java6-jdk sun-java6-jre
    • sudo apt-get install netbeans
    • To execute: Aplications->Programming->netbeans IDE n.m
    • One light integrated development environment (IDE) : BlueJ
    • After installing jdk:
    • Download bluej-304.deb application from http://www.bluej.org/download/download.html
    • Run application from : Applications -> Programming -> BlueJ
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: mySQL
    • - Install a RDBMS: mySQL
      • Libraies
    • mysql-server-5 // The RDBMS
    • phpmyadmin // The client myAdmin
    • php5 - mysql // The mySQL module for PHP5
      • Configuration files:
    • /etc/mysql/my.cnf
    • /etc/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php
      • Start the server mySQL
    • sudo /etc/init.d/mysql [start | stop | ...]
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: mySQL
    • phpmyadmin configuration
      • Symbolic link between phpmyadmin and the document root
    • ln -s /usr/share/phpmyadmin /var/www/
          • To start phpmyadmin from the web browser
    • /localhost/phpmyadmin/
    • Some parameters from the configuration file
      • $cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type'] = 'config';
      • $cfg['Servers'][$i]['user'] = 'root';
      • $cfg['Servers'][$i]['password'] = 'root';
      • $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowNoPasswordRoot'] = true;
      • InnoDB engine: A transaction-safe (ACID compliant) storage engine for MySQL that has commit, rollback, and crash-recovery capabilities to protect user data
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: mySQL
    • Root password recovery
    • Access to the system as root user : user@localhost:~$ su -
    • Stop the server: /etc/init.d/mysql stop
    • Restart the server mySQL in a safe mode
    • From [email_address]
    • # mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables –skip- networking --user=mysql &
    • Entry to the mysql BD as a root user
    • [email_address] :/home/vicent# mysql -u root mysql
    • Update the password
    • mysql> UPDATE user SET Password =
    • PASSWORD('newpassword') WHERE User='root';
    • Then also update the privileges
    • mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    • Exit mysql
    • mysql> exit
    • Restart the server mySQL
    • /etc/init.d/mysql restart
    Install and configure applications with Linux
  • The relation Apache – PHP - mySQL Webserver Apache <?php phpinfo(); ?> Binaris: /etc/init.d/mysql /usr/sbin/mysql Databases: /var/lib/mysql Configuration: /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini DocumentRoot: /var/www Configuration: /etc/apache2/apache2.conf test.php User: mysql Permissions: 744 User: root Permissions: 744 User: alumne Permissions: 777 User: root Permissions: 744 User: root Permissions: 744 Install and configure applications with Linux RDBMS server mySQL PHP Client WEB
  • Download the 1.7.1 version (PHP 5.2.9) from: http://sourceforge.net/projects/xampp/files/XAMPP%20Linux/ Install and configure applications with Linux Copy to folder /opt and then unzip with the instruction: sudo tar -zxvf xampp-linux-1.6.tar.gz Start the server from /opt/lampp: sudo ./lampp start
    • Configuration files:
      • /opt/lampp/etc/
        • php.ini
        • my.cnf
    • File permission:
    • 757 /opt/lampp/var/nysql
  • Install and configure applications with Linux Zend Guard: Compiles and converts the plain-text PHP scripts into a platform-independent binary format known as a 'Zend Intermediate Code' file. These encoded binary files then distributed instead of the plain text PHP protecting your hard programming efforts. Zend Optimizer: A free download, is the run-time environment that enables end-users to transparently execute these files as if they were regular PHP scripts.
  • Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Zend Optimizer: How to install it?
    • Download the package from:
        • http://www.zend.com/products/guard/downloads
    • Untar the package with the command:
        • gunzip -c <package name> | tar xf –
    • Take the .so file corresponding to your php version (5_2_x) from
        • package name/data/5_2_x_comp
    • Copy it to the file ZendOptimizer.so to the folder:
        • / opt/lampp/zend
    • Open the / opt/lampp/etc/php.ini file and write the sentence:
        • Zend_extension=/opt/lampp/zend/ZendOptimizer.so
    • Restart your Apache server
        • sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  • Install and configure applications with Linux <?php phpinfo(); ?> The plane text file test.php The encoded text file test.php
  • Install and configure applications with Linux After Zend Optimizer installation in Apache
      • PostgreSQL
    • - Installing the RDBMS PostgreSQL 9.0
      • Download the package postgresql-9.0.0-1-linux.bin
      • Graphical installation
      • Enable execution permission
        • sudo chmod +x postgresql-9.0.0-1-linux.bin
      • Install
        • sudo ./postgresql-9.0.0-1-linux.bin
      • Use the default folders
      • /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0
      • /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0/data
      • Reload the server:
        • From Applications->PostgreSQL
    • Installing PostgreSQL module for php5
      • From Synaptic install the module php5-pgsql
    • - Edit configuration files:
    • /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0/data/ postgresql.conf
      • ls -l
    • /usr/lib/PostgreSQL/9.0/data/ pg_hba.conf
    • host all all 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 md5
    Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Installing applications: phppgadmin
    • Install the phppgadmin client
      • From the repositoris, install the package phppgadmin
        • File configuration:
        • /etc/phppgadmin/config.inc.php
        • Some parameters:
    • $conf['extra_login_security'] = true;
    • $conf['owned_only'] = false;
    • $conf['show_system'] = false;
    • - Start phppgadmin
          • Start phppgadmin from the web browser
    • /localhost/phppgadmin/
    • /domini/phppgadmin
          • Configuration file in Apache:
    • /etc/apache2/conf.d/phppgadmin.conf
    • Allow from all ; To allow Internet connexions
    Install and configure applications with Linux
  • The relation Apache – PHP – PostgreSQL <?php phpinfo(); ?> Bin files: /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0cd/data/bin Databases: /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0cd/data/base Configuration: /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini DocumentRoot: /var/www Configuration: /etc/apache2/apache2.conf test.php User: postgres Permission: 700 User: postgres Permissions: 700 User: root Permissions: 700 User: root Permissions: 700 User: alumne Permissions: 777 Configuration: /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0cd/data/ postgresql.conf /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0cd/data/ pg_hba.conf User: postgres Permissions: 700 Install and configure applications with Linux Servidor WEB Apache Servidor BDs PostgreSQL PHP Client WEB
    • Installing applications : FTP
      • Very Secure FTP Daemon server:
        • From Synaptic: vsftpd
        • Configuration: /etc/vsftpd.conf.
        • To consider:
    • Allow anonymous? anonymous_enable=NO
    • Allow local connexions? local_enable=YES
    • Restrict local users to its own directory? chroot_local_user=YES
    • Enable writing: write_enable =YES
        • Start server:
          • /etc/init.d/vsftpd [start | stop | restart | reload]
          • Service vsftpd [start | stop | restart | reload]
      • sudo start vsftpd
      • FTP clients:
        • gFTP
        • Run: From Applications->Internet->gFTP
        • FileZilla
    • Run: From Applications->Internet->FileZilla
    Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Installing applications : FTP client FileZilla
      • Download the package Filezilla_version.tar.bz2 from:
      • http://filezilla-project.org
    • Extract files and folders:
    • tar –xvf filezilla_version.tar.bz2
    • Execute the file filezilla
    • ./filezilla
    • Start filezilla client form
    • Applications->Internet->Filezilla
    Install and configure applications with Linux
  • Local site Remote site Information about connexion Files uploaded / downloaded Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Installing applications : FTP client Filezilla
    Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Installing applications : FTP client Filezilla
    Saving configurations: File->Export
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot; standalone=&quot;yes&quot; ?>
    • - <FileZilla3>
    • - <Servers>
      • - <Server>
      •   <Host> ftp.7towns4europe.eu </Host>
      •   <Port> 21 </Port>
      •   <Protocol> 0 </Protocol>
      • <Other tags>
      •   <Type> 0 </Type>
      • </Server>
      • - <Server>
      •   <Host> ceipgloriafuertes.net </Host>
      •   <Port> 21 </Port>
      •   <Protocol> 0 </Protocol>
      •   <Type> 0 </Type>
      • <Other tags>
      • </Server>
      • - </Servers>
      • - <Settings>
      •   <Setting name=&quot; Use Pasv mode &quot;> 1 </Setting>
      •   <Setting name=&quot; Limit local ports &quot;> 0 </Setting>
      •   <Other settings>
      •   </Settings>
      •   </FileZilla3>
    Filezilla.xml file Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: SSH server
        • SSH server:
          • Install from Synaptic: openssh-server
          • Start: sudo /usr/sbin/sshd
          • Start / Stop / restart server
          • /etc/init.d/ssh [start | restart | stop ]
          • ps -ef | grep ssh -> pid process /usr/sbin/sshd
          • kill -9 pid
          • Configuration file: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
          • X11Forwarding yes ; graphic mode
          • AllowUsers user1 user2 user3
          • Port N ; If we decide to change the port number (*)‏
        • SSH client: Installed by default
          • Run:
          • ssh [email_address] [-p Port] ; text mode
          • ssh -X usuari@domini [-p Port] ; graphic mode
    • (*) For example, if we want to have 2 SSH servers in the same intranet.
    • We need to modify the file /etc/services to access a specific port by default.
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications.- SSH graphic. NX
        • Download package from : http://www.nomachine.com/download.php
        • Install from package installer
        • Execute: From Applications -> Internet -> NX Client
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Installing applications: Postfix email server
        • Install from Synaptic: Package postfix
        • Start: /etc/init.d/postfix start
        • Ports verification: netstat –tulpn | grep :25 ; smtp = port 25
    • Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State PID/Program name
    • tcp 0 0 *:smtp *:* LISTEN 324/ master
        • File configuration:
        • /etc/postfix/main.cf : Main configuration file
        • /etc/postfix/master.cf : Another important file configuration
        • /etc/postfix/aliases: File to create alias to redirect email.
        • /etc/postfix/sasl/smtp.conf: File to configure use autentication
        • /var/spool/postix/: Postfix working files
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Servers -> Intranet -> Internet communication
    Port forwarding option : Openning the different ports to enroute the different packages coming FROM Internet TO the adequated IP Install and configure applications with Linux 192.168.1.1 Internet
      • Servers -> Intranet -> Internet communication
    DDNS option : Dynamic DNS is a method / protocol / network service that provides the capability for a networked device, to notify a Domain Name System (DNS) to change, in real time, the active DNS configuration of its configured hostnames, addresses or other information. Install and configure applications with Linux c Internet
      • Servers -> Intranet -> Internet communication
    Internet Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Configure and manage networks.- wicd
        • Install from Synaptic: Package wicd
        • Execute from: Applications -> Internet -> wicd
        • Configure values: IP, DNS, ...
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Configuring the network.- Advanced aspects:
      • Firewall+dansguardian+squid
      • File /etc/init.d/firewall.sh
      • #!/bin/sh
      • ## SCRIPT de IPTABLES − www.pello.info − [email_address]
      • echo -n Aplicando Reglas de Firewall...
      • ## FLUSH de reglas
      • iptables –F
      • iptables –X
      • iptables –Z
      • iptables -t nat –F
      • ## Establecemos politica por defecto
      • iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
      • iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
      • iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
      • iptables -t nat -P PREROUTING ACCEPT
      • iptables -t nat -P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
      • ## Empezamos a filtrar
      • ## Nota: eth0 es el interfaz conectado al router y eth1 a la LAN
      • # El localhost se deja (por ejemplo conexiones locales a mysql)
      • /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
      • # Al firewall tenemos acceso desde la red local
      • iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.43.0/24 -i eth1 -j ACCEPT
      • # Ahora hacemos enmascaramiento de la red local
      • # y activamos el BIT DE FORWARDING (imprescindible!!!!!)
      • iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.43.0/255.255.255.0 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
      • # Con esto permitimos hacer forward de paquetes en el firewall, o sea
      • # que otras máquinas puedan salir a traves del firewall.
      • echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Other interesting packages:
    • Unified Modelling Language diagram editors
    • Umbrello:
    • From Synaptic: package umbrello
    • Start: : Aplicacions->Programs->Umbrello
    • Poseidon
        • Download the file: PoseidonCE_6_0_2_Installer.bin
        • Give execution rights to the file and install:
    • ./PoseidonCE_6_0_2_Installer.bin
    • Edit the aplication menu and make an shortcut to:
        • /home/vicent/bin/Poseidon_For_UML
        • inside the submenu Programs
    • Run the program from the shorcutDia
    • Dia
    • sudo apt-get install dia
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Poseidon.- Graphically:
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Dia
    Install and configure applications with Linux http://projects.gnome.org/dia/
      • Process management: Start / stop.-
        • System -> Administration -> System monitor
    Install and configure applications with Linux
    • Managing services geting started up at boot-time rcconf . -
        • Install using Synaptic
        • Executing from a terminal: sudo rcconf
    Actives services at boot-time [*] Inactive services at boot-time [ ] Another way: $ chkconfig -l | grep <proces> Managing start / stop of services using scripts from the folder: /etc/rc[0-6].d Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Compartir carpetes: Paquet Samba. -
        • Arranc: /etc/init.d/./samba [start | stop | ...]
        • Arxiu de configuració: /etc/samba/smb.conf
        • Paràmetres:
    • workgroup = CASA
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Rar / unrar:
    • sudo apt-get install rar unrar
      • Meld:
    • Meld is a tool which allows the user to see the changes in, and merge between, either two files, two directories, or two files with a common ancestor.
    • sudo apt-get install meld
      • Adobe Acrobar Reader:
      • Adobe Reader 9 is available from the Canonical Partner repository
      • Wake On Line. -
      • Conversió de videos: FLV <=> MPEG, AVI
    • sudo apt-get install ffmpeg
    • ffmpeg -i tu_archivo.flv tu_nuevo_archivo.mpeg
    • ffmpeg -i tu_archivo.flv tu_nuevo_archivo.avi ; No acaba de funcionar
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Resize / Rotate images
        • sudo apt-get install nautilus-image-converter
      • VPN . – Xarxa privada virtual
    Install and configure applications with Linux
      • Les pr à ctiques
    1.- Localhost: Instal.lacio de les aplicacions en un ordinador personal que fa de client i de servidor mySQL Apache 2 En el servidor En el c lient php5 phpMyAdmin Navegador Editor de text Aplicacions Install and configure applications with Linux 192.168. 43 .1 192.168. 43 . 2 192.168. 43 . 3
      • Les pr à ctiques
    2.- Acces als servidors des de Internet mitjan ç ant una IP Internet mySQL Apache 2 php5 Aplicacions IP: 192.168.43.3 IP: 192.168.43.1 IP: 192.168.43.2 En el servidor En el client IP + modul userdir phpMyAdmin Navegador Editor de text Altres Install and configure applications with Linux 192.168. 43 . N
      • Les pr à ctiques
    3.- Acces als servidors des de Internet mitjanant un domini Internet mySQL Apache 2 php5 Aplicacions nomDomini nomDomini nomDomini En el servidor En el client Domini + userdir + ssl + VirtualHost NO_IP DNSALias Altres phpMyAdmin Navegador Editor de text Altres Opció router: DDNS Install and configure applications with Linux 192.168. 43 . N
      • Les pr à ctiques
    4.- Registrar un domini en Internet i contra c tar un servidor. Internet mySQL Apache 2 php5 Aplicacions phpMyAdmin Navegador Editor de text En el servidor En el client + Joomla + FTP + SMTP nomDomini Altres Install and configure applications with Linux Servidors gratuïts: http :// www.byethost.com / 192.168. 43 . N nomDomini