INTRODUCTION Chess is an exercise of infinite possibilities for the mind which develops mental abilities such as concentration, critical thinking, abstract reasoning, problem solving, pattern recognition, strategic planning, creativity, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, to name a few. Chess can be used very effectively as a tool to teach problem solving and abstract reasoning. Learning how to solve a problem is more important than learning the solution to any particular problem. Through chess, we learn to analyze a situation by focusing on important factors and by eliminating distractions. We learn to devise creative solutions and put a plan into action. Chess works because it is self- motivating.
IMPORTANCE OF CHESS The game has fascinated humans for almost 2000 years, and the goals of attack and defense, culminating in checkmate, inspire us to dig deep into our mental reserves. In approximately 30 nations across the globe chess is incoporated into the country´s scholastic curriculum. Just as athletics are a part of the required agenda at schools in the United States, Chess has been that way in the European Nations abroad. In this technologically driven world, chess helps aid in the synthesis and growth of certain areas in the brain and mind where many children can benefit as they grow older from the game.
HISTORY OF CHESS The history of chess spans some 1500 years. The earliest predecessors of the game originated in India, before the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe, chess evolved into roughly its current form in the 15th century. In the second half of the 19th century, modern chess tournament play began, and the first world Chess Championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Developments in the 21st century include use of computers for analysis, which originated in the 1970s with the first programmed chess games on the market. Online gaming appeared in the mid- 1990s.
POSITION OF THE PIECES ON THE CHESSBOARD -Place all the pawns on the second line in front of you so that you have a wall of pawns between you and your opponent. -Place each rook on a corner of your side of the board. -Place a knight next to each rook and a bishop next to each knight. -Place the queen in one of the two spaces left, according to her color (i.e. if you have a black queen, it should go on the black square, whereas if its white, then it should go on the white square). -Finally, place the king on the last remaining space. Check that your opponent has the same arrangement of pieces.
MOVEMENT OF THE PIECES THROUGHT THECHESSBOARD The pawn is the most basic piece in the game. On its initial move, it can move forward one or two spaces, but it is only allowed to move forward by one space afterwards. Pawns are only allowed to attack other pieces one space diagonally from it, and cannot move backwards. b. The rook, which looks like a castle tower, can move horizontally and vertically as many spaces as are available. It can attack pieces in its path. c. The knight, represented by a horse, is the most complicated unit. It moves in L shapes that consist of two spaces horizontally then one space vertically, or one space horizontally then two spaces vertically, in any direction. The knight is the only piece that can jump other pieces. He attacks only the pieces that are in the spaces he settles. d. The bishop can only move diagonally, but it can move an unlimited amount of spaces until it attacks. e. The queen is the most powerful piece. She can move either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally by any number of spaces and attack from any of those directions. f. The king can only move one space each turn in any direction and attacks in the same manner. He is the unit you do not want to lose at all costs, as it will make you lose the game.
OBJECTIVE OF THE GAME Chess is a game of intelligence and strategy. The goal is to force the other player to yield. To do this you must trap the other players king (this will be explained). Being a strategic game, chess has many moves and rules that beginners often find confusing. In other words, the objective in chess is to checkmate your opponents King. Checkmate, or just "mate" occurs when a king is attacked and the king cannot escape capture on the next move. Chess is played on a board with 64 squares.
TIPS Always remember to have many advanced pieces in the middle of the board. The more pawns you leave behind, the better to defend your king with. Be sure to watch your opponents moves carefully. A special move that helps your king out is called castling. It requires that one side of your king is free of pieces except for the rook, who is in his original position unmoved. With this kind of set up you may now move your king towards the rook two spaces and then place the rook on the opposite side of the king from the rooks previous location.
STEPS TO WIN Step 1: Identify the weakness The first step is simple enough. You will win many games if you train yourself to be aware of and to identify quickly all of your opponents pawn weaknesses. Step 2: Fix the weakness It is advantageous to place knights in the center of the board where they cannot be attacked by pawns. Step 3: Attack the weakness with your pieces Once you have identified and fixed the weakness, it is time to attack the weakness with your pieces, but not your pawns.
STEPS TO WIN Step 4: Your opponent will be forced to defend the weakness with pieces If you have successfully carried out the first three three steps, your opponent will have to carry out the fourth step. For every attack upon the weak pawn, your opponent will have to find a defender. If your opponent fails to defend the pawn adequately, look to take the target-pawn "with the little thing." What "the little thing" is obviously depends upon the position, but is often a knight. Step 5: Then, AND ONLY THEN, attack the weakness with a pawn By the time youve completed step #4, your opponent will know that theres trouble ahead. All of your pieces will be active, focusing their energy upon a single fixed point. By contrast, all of your opponents pieces will be relative weak, defending rather than attacking a weakness.