Emerging reading models


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Emerging reading models

  1. 1. EMERGING READING MODELS<br /> Other reading specialists developed their own reading models. They argue that the conventional models presented above may not completely address all the areas of reading comprehension. As their response, they propose research-based explanations of the other facets of the other facets of the reading process.<br /> The following outlines the key points of each emerging reading models.<br /><ul><li>RUMELHART MODEL(1977)States that successful reading is both a perceptual and a cognitive process.Stresses the influence of various sources namely feature extraction, orthographic knowledge, lexical knowledge, syntactic knowledge and semantic knowledge on the text processing and the other reader’s interpretation.Incorporates a mechanism labeled as the ‘message center’, which holds the information and then redirects them as needed. This mechanism allows the sources of knowledge to interact with each other and thereby enable higher-level processing to influence lower-level processing. STANOVICH MODEL(1980)Stanovich introduced the interactive-compensatory reading model Believes that neither Bottom-Up nor Top-Down address all areas of reading comprehension. But the interactive-compensatory taps into the strengths of both Bottom-Up and Top-Down.Says that readers rely on both Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes simultaneously and alternatively depending on the reading purpose, motivation, schema and knowledge of the subject.Incorporates the ‘compensatory mode’ to his model with the interaction between the top-down and bottom-up processing. The compensatory mode enables the reader to, “at any level compensate for his or her deficiencies at any other level (Samuels and Kamil, 1988:22)Enables researchers to theorize how good or poor readers approach a text.Believes that if there is a deficiency at an early print-analysis stage (Bottom-Up), higher order knowledge structures (Top-Down) will attempt to compensateNotes that for the poor reader, who may be both inaccurate and slow at word recognition but who has knowledge of the text-topic, Top-Down processing may allow for this compensation. ANDERSON and PEARSON SCHEMATHEORETIC VIEWS(1984)Focuses on the role of schemata, knowledge stored in memory, in text comprehension Believes that comprehension is the interaction between old and new informationSchema Theory: Already known general ideas subsume and anchor new information. -Includes: (a) information about the relationships among the components; (b) role of inference; and (c) reliance on knowledge of the content, plus abstract and general schemata - Schemata: Knowledge already stored in memory, function in the process of interpreting new information and allowing it to enter and become part of the knowledge store -Schema: An abstract knowledge structure that represents the relationship among its component parts PEARSON and TIERNEY R/W MODELPromotes the negotiation of meaning between writer and reader who both create meaning through the text as the mediumView readers as composers: “the thoughtful reader…is the reader who reads as if she were a writer composing a text yet for another reader who lives within her”States that reader reads with the expectation that the writer has provided sufficient clues about the meaningArgues that writer writes with the intention the reader will create meaningConsiders pragmatic theories of language which state that every speech acts, utterance, or attempt at comprehending an utterance is an actionReading is an rather than recitation or regurgitation Context is importantKnowing why something was said is as crucial to interpreting the message as knowing what was saidFailing to recognize author’s goal can interfere with comprehension of the main idea or point of viewFocuses on the thoughtful reader with 4 interactive role: Planner-creates goal, use existing knowledge, decides how to align with the textComposer-searches for coherence in gaps with inference about the relationship within the textEditor-examines his interpretationsMonitor-directs the other 3 rolesMATHEWSON’S MODEL OF ATTITUDE INFLUENCEAddress the role that attitude and motivation play in readingStates that attitude has tri-componential construct: cognitive component (evaluation); affective component (feeling); and conative component (action readiness). All these influence the intention to read, and the intention to read affects reading behaviour.Provides feedback on how motivation may change and how important it is to address affective issues in teaching reading Opines that attitude toward reading may modified by a change in reader’s goalMaintains that feedback during reading may affect attitude and motivation: Satisfaction with affect developed through readingSatisfaction with ideas developed through readingFeeling generated by ideas from the reading processIdeas constructed from the information read How the reading affects values, goals and self-concept